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Kodi Baibulo Limafotokoza Zonse Zokhudza Yesu?

Kodi Baibulo Limafotokoza Zonse Zokhudza Yesu?

Mabuku ena amatsutsa zimene Baibulo limanena zoti anafera ku Gologota ndipo amati iye anapitirizabe kukhala ndi moyo. Kodi zimenezi n’zoona? Kodi n’zoona kuti anakwatira Mariya Mmagadala ndi kum’berekera ana? Kapena kodi ndi zoona kuti ankakonda kukhala moyo wodzimana kwambiri ndipo sankafuna kusangalala ndi moyo? Kodi n’zoona kuti iye ankaphunzitsa zinthu zosiyana ndi zimene timawerenga m’Baibulo?

CHINA chimene chapangitsa kuti mphekesera zimenezi zifale m’zaka zaposachedwapa ndi mafilimu ndi mabuku otchuka a nkhani zopeka amene amafalitsa mfundo zimenezi. Kuwonjezera pa zimenezi, palinso nkhani zambiri ndiponso mabuku ochuluka amene anthu alemba, ofotokoza zimene zili m’mabuku amene anthu ena anawonjezera pa mabuku a m’Baibulo. Mabuku owonjezerawa analembedwa m’zaka za m’ma 100 ndi 200 C.E. Mabuku amenewa amanena zinthu zina zokhudza Yesu zimene anthu ena amati zinachita kuchotsedwamo m’mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino  a m’Baibulo. Kodi zimenezi n’zoona? Kodi tingadziwe bwanji kuti Baibulo limanena zinthu zonse komanso zoona zokhudza Yesu?

Kuti tiyankhe mafunso amenewa, tiyenera kuona mfundo zitatu izi: Choyamba, tiyenera kudziwa zinthu zofunika zokhudza anthu amene analemba mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino ndiponso nthawi imene anawalemba. Chachiwiri, tiyenera kudziwa amene anasankha m’ndandanda wa mabuku oyenera kukhala m’Baibulo komanso mmene anasankhira mabukuwo. Chachitatu, tiyenera kudziwa zina n’zina zokhudza mabuku owonjezera m’Baibulo ndiponso mmene nkhani za m’mabuku achinyengowa zimasiyanirana ndi za m’mabuku ovomerezeka a m’Baibulo. *

Kodi Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu Analembedwa Liti, Nanga Analemba Ndani?

Malinga ndi umboni umene ulipo, buku la Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyo linalembedwa kalekale cha m’ma 41 C.E. Apa n’kuti patangopita zaka 8 zokha Khristu atafa. Koma akatswiri ambiri a Baibulo amaona kuti buku la Mateyo linalembedwa chakachi chitadutsa kale, komabe pafupifupi akatswiri onse amavomereza kuti mabuku onse a Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu analembedwa chaka cha 100 C.E. chisanafike.

Panthawi imeneyi, anthu amene anali ndi moyo m’nthawi ya Yesu, pa imfa yake ndiponso panthawi imene anaukitsidwa, anali akadalipo ndipo ankavomereza nkhani za m’mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino. Anthu ena akanati awonjezeremo mfundo zilizonse zabodza, iwo akanathanso kutsutsa. Komanso pulofesa F. F. Bruce ananena kuti: “Umboni wamphamvu kwambiri wosonyeza kuti uthenga wa atumwi unali woona ndi wakuti iwo sankakayikira kuti anthu amene ankawalalikirawo akudziwa zonse zimene zinachitika chifukwa ankawauza kuti, ‘Tinaona tokha zinthu zimenezi,’ ndipo ‘inunso mukudziwa’ (Machitidwe 2:22).”

Kodi Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu analembedwa ndi ndani? Analembedwa ndi ena mwa atumwi 12 a Yesu. Atumwi amenewa ndiponso anthu ena amene analemba nawo Baibulo monga Yakobe, Yuda ndiponso mwina Maliko, analipo pa Pentekosite wa mu 33 C.E. pamene mpingo wachikhristu unkakhazikitsidwa. Anthu onsewa, kuphatikizapo Paulo, ankagwirizana kwambiri ndi bungwe lolamulira loyambirira la mpingo wachikhristu woyamba, limene linapangidwa ndi atumwi ndiponso akulu ku Yerusalemu.​—Machitidwe 15:2, 6, 12-14, 22; Agalatiya 2:7-10.

Yesu analamula otsatira ake kuti apitirize ntchito yolalikira ndi kuphunzitsa imene iye anayambitsa. (Mateyo 28:19, 20) Iye anafika ponena kuti: “Iye amene amvera inu, amveranso ine.” (Luka 10:16) Komanso, iye analonjeza kuti mzimu woyera wa Mulungu, kapena kuti mphamvu yogwira ntchito, idzawathandiza kuti agwire ntchitoyo. Choncho, Akhristu oyambirira akalandira mabuku ochokera kwa atumwi ndiponso atumiki anzawo, omwe anali anthu oonekeratu kuti analandira mzimu woyera wa Mulungu, ankawakhulupirira kuti ndi olondola.

Olemba Baibulo ena anaikira umboni kuti anzawo ena analemba Baibulo mouziridwa ndi Mulungu. Mwachitsanzo, mtumwi Petulo anatchula makalata a Paulo ndipo ananena kuti anali ogwirizana “ndi Malemba ena onse.” (2 Petulo 3:15, 16) Nayenso mtumwi Paulo ankadziwa kuti atumwi ndiponso aneneri ena achikhristu anauziridwa ndi Mulungu.​—Aefeso 3:5.

Choncho, m’mabuku a Uthenga Wabwino muli umboni wamphamvu wosonyeza kuti nkhani zake n’zosakayikitsa ndiponso n’zolondola. Nkhanizi sinthano kapena zongopeka. Zinalembedwa mosamala kwambiri ndi anthu amene anachita kuona zimene zinachitikazo ndipo anthu amene anauziridwa ndi mzimu woyera wa Mulungu.

Kodi Ndani Anasankha Mabuku Ovomerezeka a M’Baibulo?

Anthu ena olemba mabuku amati tchalitchi, molamuliridwa ndi Mfumu Constantine, ndi chimene chinasankha mabuku ovomerezeka a Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu patatha zaka zambiri mabuku onse atalembedwa. Komabe, zimenezi si zoona.

Mwachitsanzo, onani zimene Pulofesa Oskar Skarsaune, yemwe ndi katswiri wambiri ya tchalitchi ananena. Iye anati: “Si tchalitchi kapena munthu mmodzi amene anasankha kuti mabuku ena  akhale m’Chipangano Chatsopano ndipo ena asakhale . . . Mabukuwa sanasankhidwe mwachinsinsi koma anasankhidwa mwanzeru: Anthu ankakhulupirira kuti mabuku amene analembedwa ndi atumwi kapena atumiki anzawo a m’nthawi imeneyo, ndi amene anali ovomerezeka. Mabuku ena, makalata, kapena mabuku amene ena amati ndi a uthenga wabwino, amene analembedwa zaka zambiri zimenezi zitadutsa, sanaikidwe m’gulu la mabuku ovomerezekawa . . . Ndipo zimenezi zinachitika kale kwambiri Constantine asanabadwe ndiponso tchalitchi chake chisanayambe. Tchalitchi cha Akhristu okhulupirika amene ankazunzidwa ndiponso kuphedwa n’chimene chinatipatsa Chipangano Chatsopano.”

Komanso Ken Berding, yemwe ndi pulofesa wa Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu, anatchula mfundo iyi ponena za mmene zinakhalira kuti mabuku ena akhale ovomerezeka: “Si tchalitchi chimene chinasankha mabuku ovomerezeka; koma chinangotenga mabuku amene Akhristu ankaona kuti ndi Mawu a Mulungu ovomerezeka.”

Komabe, Akhristu oyambirira sanasankhe okha mabukuwa kuti akhale ovomerezeka. Baibulo limatiuza kuti chinthu china champhamvu chinathandiza kwambiri pantchito imeneyi.

Malinga ndi Baibulo, imodzi mwa mphatso zozizwitsa imene mzimu unkapereka kwa Akhristu oyambirira inali “kuzindikira mawu ouziridwa.” (1 Akorinto 12:4, 10) Choncho, ena mwa Akhristu amenewo anapatsidwa mphamvu yoposa yachibadwa kuti athe kuzindikira mawu amene analidi ouziridwa ndi Mulungu ndiponso amene anali osauziridwa. Chotero Akhristu masiku ano sangakayikire ngakhale pang’ono kuti malemba a m’Baibulo ndi ouziridwa.

Apa n’zoonekeratu kuti mabuku ovomerezekawa anasankhidwa kale kwambiri mothandizidwa ndi mzimu woyera. Ndipo chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., anthu ena olemba mabuku anaikira ndemanga kuti mabuku a m’Baibulo amenewa ndi ovomerezeka. Komabe anthu olemba mabuku amenewa si amene anasankha kuti mabuku ena akhale odalirika. Iwo anangotsimikizira zimene Mulungu anali atasankha kale kudzera mwa atumiki ake, omwe anawatsogolera ndi mzimu woyera.

Komanso pali mabuku akale kwambiri a m’Chigiriki choyambirira amene amapereka umboni wosatsutsika wosonyeza kuti mabuku ovomerezeka amene timagwiritsa ntchito masiku ano ndi olondola. Mabuku akalewa, omwe ndi a Malemba Achigiriki, alipo oposa 5,000 ndipo ena mwa mabuku amenewa analembedwa m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E. ndi 200 C.E. Choncho mabuku ovomerezekawa, osati mabuku owonjezera, ndi amene ankaonedwa kuti ndi ouziridwa kuyambira m’nthawi ya atumwi ndipo anakopedwa n’kufalitsidwa m’madera ambiri.

Komabe, umboni wodalirika kwambiri wosonyeza kuti mabukuwa ndi olondola timaupeza m’mabuku omwewa. Mabukuwa ndi ogwirizana ndi “chitsanzo cha mawu opindulitsa” omwe timawapeza  m’mabuku onse a m’Baibulo. (2 Timoteyo 1:13) Mabukuwa amalimbikitsa anthu kuti azikonda Yehova, azimulambira ndiponso azim’tumikira. Ndipo amachenjeza anthu kuti azipewa kukhulupirira mizimu ndiponso kulambira zinthu zolengedwa. Mabukuwa amanena zinthu molondola, mogwirizana ndi nthawi imene zinthuzo zinachitika ndiponso ali ndi ulosi wolondola. Komanso mabukuwa amalimbikitsa anthu kuti azikondana. M’mabuku a Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu muli mfundo zapadera zimenezi. Nanga bwanji mabuku owonjezera, kodi nawonso amalimbikitsa mfundo zimenezi?

Kodi Mabuku Owonjezera Amasiyana Bwanji ndi Mabuku Ovomerezeka?

Mabuku owonjezera ndi osiyana kwambiri ndi mabuku ovomerezeka. Mabuku owonjezerawa anayamba kulembedwa cha m’ma 150 C.E., mabuku ovomerezeka atalembedwa kale. Zimene mabuku owonjezerawa amanena zokhudza Yesu ndiponso Chikhristu n’zosiyana kwambiri ndi zimene Malemba ouziridwa amanena.

Mwachitsanzo, buku lowonjezera lotchedwa Uthenga Wabwino wa Tomasi limanena zinthu zina zachilendo kwambiri zimene amati ananena ndi Yesu. Malinga ndi bukuli, iye anati adzasandutsa Mariya kukhala mwamuna n’cholinga choti adzalowe mu Ufumu wa kumwamba. Buku linanso la Uthenga Wabwino wa Tomasi limanena kuti Yesu ali mwana anali wodzikonda kwambiri ndipo anapha mwana wina wake. Mabuku owonjezera a Machitidwe a Paulo ndiponso Machitidwe a Petulo amaletsa anthu, ngakhale okwatirana, kuti asamagonane ndipo amasonyeza kuti atumwi ankalimbikitsa azimayi kuti asiye amuna awo. Buku la Uthenga Wabwino wa Yudasi limanena kuti nthawi ina Yesu anaseka atumwi ake chifukwa chopemphera kwa Mulungu kuti adalitse chakudya. Mfundo zimenezi n’zosagwirizana ndi zimene zili m’mabuku ovomerezeka a m’Baibulo.​—Maliko 14:22; 1 Akorinto 7:3-5; Agalatiya 3:28; Aheberi 7:26.

M’mabuku ambiri owonjezera muli ziphunzitso za anthu ampatuko amene ankaphunzitsa kuti Mlengi wathu Yehova, ndi Mulungu woipa. Anthu ampatukowa ankakhulupiriranso kuti nkhani yokhudza kuuka kwa akufa ndi yophiphiritsa, chinthu chilichonse chooneka ndi maso n’choipa, ndiponso ankati Satana ndi amene anayambitsa mabanja ndiponso zoti anthu aziberekana.

Anthu ena amati mabuku ambiri owonjezerawa analembedwa ndi anthu otchulidwa m’Baibulo, koma zimenezi si zoona. Kodi pali anthu ena amene anachotsa mabuku owonjezerawa mobisa kuti asapezeke m’Baibulo? Katswiri wina wofufuza za mabuku owonjezerawa, dzina lake M. R. James, anati: “Palibe amene anachotsa mabukuwa m’Chipangano Chatsopano: Koma mabukuwo anadzichotsamo okha.”

Olemba Baibulo Anachenjeza Kuti Kudzabwera Anthu Ampatuko

M’mabuku ovomerezeka muli mawu ochenjeza kuti kudzabwera anthu ampatuko omwe adzasokoneza mpingo wa Chikhristu. Ndipotu mpatuko umenewu unali utayamba kale m’nthawi ya atumwi koma atumwiwo ndi amene anachititsa kuti mpatukowo usafakire. (Machitidwe 20:30; 2 Atesalonika 2:3, 6, 7; 1 Timoteyo 4:1-3; 2 Petulo 2:1; 1 Yohane 2:18, 19; 4:1-3) Mawu ochenjezawa amatithandiza kuzindikira kuti mabuku amene anayamba kulembedwa atumwi atamwalira anali osagwirizana ndi zimene Yesu ankaphunzitsa.

N’zoona kuti akatswiri ena amaphunziro komanso a mbiri yakale amaona kuti mabuku amenewa ndiofunika kuwalemekeza chifukwa ndi akale kwambiri. Koma taganizirani izi: Tiyerekezere kuti akatswiri amaphunziro alemba nkhani zochokera m’mabuku abodza, mwina zochokera m’magazini a nkhani zamiseche kapena m’mabuku a zipembedzo zolimbikitsa chiwawa, ndiyeno azisunga pamalo ena ake obisika. Patapita nthawi yaitali, kodi nkhani zimenezo zingasanduke zoona? Ngakhale patapita zaka 1,700, kodi nkhani zabodzazo zingasanduke zoona chifukwa choti papita nthawi yaitali?

Nkhanizo sizingasinthe n’kukhala zoona. N’chimodzimodzi ndi mfundo yoti Yesu anakwatira Mariya Mmagadala ndiponso nkhani zina zabodza zopezeka m’mabuku owonjezera. Ndiyeno, kodi pali chifukwa chilichonse chokhulupirira mabuku abodzawa, pomwe onena zoona alipo? Chilichonse chimene Mulungu akufuna kuti tidziwe chokhudza Mwana wake chilimo m’Baibulo, buku lomwe tiyenera kulidalira.

^ ndime 4 Pali mabuku 66 amene amadziwika kuti ndi mabuku a m’Baibulo ovomerezeka ndipo pali umboni wamphamvu wosonyeza kuti mabukuwa ndi ouziridwa ndi Mulungu komanso kuti ndi mbali yofunika kwambiri ya Mawu a Mulungu.