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Werengani za Baibulo Lamakedzana

Werengani za Baibulo Lamakedzana

 Werengani za Baibulo Lamakedzana

ZAKA zambiri zapitazo, mapepala olembapo zinthu anali osowa kwambiri kuyerekezera ndi masiku ano. Anthu ankalemba pazikopa ndi pazinthu zina ndipo akafuna kulembaponso, ankazifufuta pozipala kapena kuzichapa. Ndipo ankafufutanso ndi Mawu a Mulungu a m’Baibulo omwe, amene analembedwa pazikopa zofewa.

Limodzi la mabuku akale ofunika kwambiri lomwe lili ndi mawu a m’Baibulo omwe anafufutidwa ndi Codex Ephraemi Syri. Bukuli ndi lamtengo wapatali kwambiri chifukwa ndi limodzi la mabuku akale kwambiri omwe ali ndi Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu amene alipobe masiku ano. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, buku limeneli ndi limodzi la zinthu zofunika kwambiri zothandiza kutsimikizira kuti Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu ndi olondola.

Zilembo za m’Baibulo zoyambirira zimene zinalembedwa m’bukuli m’chaka cha 400 C.E., anazifufuta m’chaka cha 1100 C.E., n’kulembamo maulaliki 38 a m’Chigiriki a katswiri wamaphunziro wa ku Suriya, dzina lake Ephraem. Chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1600 C.E., akatswiri anazindikira kuti maulalikiwa analembedwa pamwamba pa mawu a m’Baibulo. M’zaka zingapo zotsatira, akatswiri ena anayesetsa kuti awerenge mawu oyambirira amene anali m’bukulo. Komabe, zimenezi zinali zovuta chifukwa mawuwo sankaoneka bwinobwino popeza kuti anali ofufutika ndiponso bukulo linali long’ambikang’ambika, komanso zinali zovuta kuwerenga chifukwa pamwamba pa mawuwo panalembedwa mawu ena. Choncho, anathira mankhwala enaake pa mawuwo n’cholinga chakuti azioneka, komabe zimenezi sizinathandize. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, akatswiri ambiri ankaona kuti zinali zosatheka kuwerenga mawu ofufutikawo.

 Chakumayambiriro kwa m’ma 1840, katswiri wa zilankhulo wa ku Germany, dzina lake Konstantin von Tischendorf, anayamba kuyesetsa kuwerenga mawu ofufutikawo ndipo ntchito imeneyi inamutengera zaka ziwiri. Kodi chinamuthandiza n’chiyani kuti athe kuwerenga zilembozi pomwe anzake analephera?

Tischendorf ankachidziwa bwino Chigiriki cholembedwa m’zilembo zikuluzikulu zosagundana. * Chinanso chimene chinamuthandiza n’chakuti iye analibe vuto la maso, ndipo ankatha kuwerenga mawu ofufutikawo akangoyang’anitsa chikopacho kudzuwa. Koma masiku ano, akatswiri amawerenga mawu ofufutika pogwiritsa ntchito zipangizo za magetsi.

Tischendorf anasindikiza zimene anapeza m’buku la Codex Ephraemi m’chaka cha 1843 ndi 1845. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti atchuke monga katswiri wa zilembo zakale za Chigiriki.

Buku la Codex Ephraemi ndi lalikulu masentimita 31 m’litali ndiponso masentimita 23 m’lifupi, ndipo ndi limodzi la mabaibulo akale kwambiri amene analembedwa opanda mzere pakati. Pamasamba 209 a bukuli amene alipo masiku ano, 145 ndi a mabuku onse a Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu kupatulapo buku la 2 Atesalonika ndi 2 Yohane. Masamba enawo ndi a mabuku a Malemba a Chiheberi amene anamasuliridwa m’Chigiriki.

Masiku ano, bukuli limasungidwa ku National Library ya mu m’mzinda wa Paris, ku France. Kumene kunachokera bukuli sikukudziwika, ngakhale kuti Tischendorf ankakhulupirira kuti linatengedwa ku Egypt. Akatswiri a maphunziro amanena kuti buku la Codex Ephraemi ndi limodzi la mabuku a malemba a Chigiriki ofunika kwambiri amene analembedwa ndi zilembo zikuluzikulu. Ndipo maina a mabuku enawo ndi Sinaitic, Alexandrine, ndi Vatican 1209, ndipo onsewa ndi a m’zaka zapakati pa 300 C.E. ndi 400 C.E.

Uthenga wa m’Malemba Oyera unasungidwa ndi kutetezedwa m’njira zosiyanasiyana kuti ifeyo tithe kuwerenga. Ngakhale kuti anthu ena osayamikira ankafuna kufufuta mawu a m’Baibulo, uthenga wake ukadalipobe. Zimenezi zikutithandiza kukhulupirira mawu a mtumwi Petulo akuti: “Mawu a Yehova amakhala kosatha.”​—1 Petulo 1:25.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 6 Tischendorf anatchuka kwambiri chifukwa chotulukira Baibulo la Malemba a Chiheberi akale kwambiri omasuliridwa m’Chigiriki. Iye analipeza ku tchalitchi cha St. Catherine chomwe chili mphepete mwa Phiri la Sinai. Ndipo Baibulo limeneli limatchedwa Codex Sinaiticus.

[Chithunzi patsamba 16]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Buku la Codex Ephraemi Syri, lomwe ndi lofunika kwambiri limene Tischendorf anakwanitsa kuliwerenga (1815-1874)

ZILEMBO ZOYAMBIRIRA ZA BAIBULO

ZILEMBO ZA ULALIKI WA M’CHIGIRIKI ZIMENE ZINALEMBEDWA PAMWAMBA

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Bibliothèque nationale de France

[Chithunzi patsamba 17]

Baibulo la Codex Sinaiticus, limene linapezedwa m’tchalitchi cha St. Catherine

[Chithunzi patsamba 17]

Tischendorf