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Kodi Ziphunzitso za Abambo a Atumwi Zimagwirizana ndi za Atumwi a Yesu?

Kodi Ziphunzitso za Abambo a Atumwi Zimagwirizana ndi za Atumwi a Yesu?

 Kodi Ziphunzitso za Abambo a Atumwi Zimagwirizana ndi za Atumwi a Yesu?

POFIKA chakumayambiriro kwa m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., choonadi cha Chikhristu chinali chitaipitsidwa ndi ziphunzitso zonyenga. Zimenezi zinali zogwirizana ndi ulosi wouziridwa wakuti atumwi onse akadzamwalira, anthu ena adzasiya choonadi n’kuyamba kutsatira “nkhani zonama.” (2 Timoteyo 4:3, 4) Cha m’ma 98 C.E., Yohane, mtumwi yekhayo amene anali adakali ndi moyo panthawiyi, anachenjeza za ziphunzitso zonyenga ndiponso za anthu ‘amene adzayesa kusocheretsa’ Akhristu okhulupirika.​—1 Yohane 2:26; 4:1, 6.

Pasanapite nthawi, anthu amene anayamba kutchedwa ndi dzina loti Abambo a Atumwi, anayamba kulemba mabuku awo. Komano, kodi iwo anachitapo chiyani pa chinyengo chomwe chinali chitayambika m’chipembedzo? Kodi anamvera chenjezo la mtumwi Yohane?

 Kodi Iwo Anali Ndani Kwenikweni?

Mawu akuti “Abambo a Atumwi” akhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito ponena za anthu amene ankalemba mabuku achipembedzo. Mwina anthuwa ankadziwana ndi ena mwa atumwi a Yesu kapena anaphunzitsidwa ndi anthu omwenso anaphunzitsidwa ndi atumwi. Anthu amenewa anakhala ndi moyo kuyambira chakumapeto kwa m’nthawi ya atumwi mpaka chapakati pa m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E. * Ena mwa anthuwa anali Clement wa ku Roma, Ignatius wa ku Antiokeya, Papias wa ku Herapoli ndiponso Polycarp wa ku Simuna. Ena mwa mabuku amene analembedwa m’nthawi imeneyi ndi The Didache, Epistle of Barnabas, Martyrdom of Polycarp ndiponso kalata yachiwiri ya Clement. Koma anthu amene analemba mabukuwa sanatchulidwe mayina awo.

Masiku ano, n’zovuta kunena kuti zimene Abambo a Atumwi ankaphunzitsa zinali zogwirizana ndi ziphunzitso za Yesu. Koma n’zosakayikitsa kuti cholinga chawo chinali kuteteza kapena kulimbikitsa Chikhristu cha mtundu winawake. Mwachitsanzo, iwo ankaletsa kulambira mafano ndiponso makhalidwe oipa. Komanso ankakhulupirira kuti Yesu ndi Mwana wa Mulungu ndiponso kuti anaukitsidwa. Komabe, iwo analephera kuletsa ziphunzitso zampatuko zomwe zinkafalikira m’Chikhristu ndipo ena mwa iwo, ankalimbikitsa ziphunzitsozo.

Kodi Zinthu Zimene Anasintha Zilibe Vuto Lililonse?

Ziphunzitso zina za Abambo a Atumwiwo zinali zosemphana kwambiri ndi zimene Khristu ndiponso atumwi ake ankaphunzitsa. Mwachitsanzo, mosiyana ndi zimene Yesu anayambitsa pa Mgonero wa Ambuye, womwenso umatchedwa kuti Mgonero Womaliza, munthu yemwe analemba buku lotchedwa The Didache anafotokoza kuti vinyo ayenera kuyendetsedwa koyamba, osati mkate. (Mateyo 26:26, 27) Iye ananenanso kuti palibe vuto ngati munthu atabatizidwa mongothiridwa madzi pamutu ngati palibe madzi okwanira. (Maliko 1:9, 10; Machitidwe 8:36, 38) M’bukuli, iye analimbikitsanso Akhristu kuti azisala kudya kawiri mlungu uliwonse ndiponso kuti azinena pemphero la Atate Wathu mosalakwitsa ngakhale pang’ono, katatu patsiku.​—Mateyo 6:5-13; Luka 18:12.

Mmodzi wa Abambo a Atumwiwo, dzina lake Ignatius, ankaphunzitsa zoti Chikhristu chiyenera kukhala chatsopano, chokhala ndi bishopu mmodzi yemwe “aziimira Mulungu.” Iye anafotokoza kuti ansembe onse azikhala pansi pa bishopuyo. Kusintha zinthu kotereku kunachititsa kuti ziphunzitso zambiri zonyenga zilowe mu mpingo wachikhristu.​—Mateyo 23:8, 9.

Ankakokomeza Zinthu, Anafera Chikhulupiriro Ndiponso Ankalambiridwa

Abambo ena anayamba kuphunzitsa zinthu mokokomeza kwambiri ndipo zimenezi zinachititsa kuti ayambe kuphunzitsa zinthu zosagwirizana ndi choonadi. Mwachitsanzo, Papias ankakonda kwambiri choonadi, makamaka mfundo za m’Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu. Komabe, iye ankakhulupiriranso kuti mu Ulamuliro wa Zaka 1,000 wa Khristu, mitengo ya mpesa idzakhala ndi nthambi 10,000 ndipo nthambi iliyonse idzakhala ndi nthambi zing’onozing’ono zokwanira 10,000. Ndipo nthambi zing’onozing’onozo, zidzakhala ndi tinthambi tina tokwanira 10,000 ndipo tinthambiti tidzakhalanso ndi masango okwana 10,000. Tsango lililonse lidzabala zipatso za mphesa zokwanira  10,000 ndipo chipatso chilichonse chidzatulutsa vinyo okwana malita 1,000.

Bambo winanso anali Polycarp ndipo analolera kuphedwa m’malo mosiya chikhulupiriro chake chachikhristu. Ena amanena kuti iye anaphunzitsidwa ndi atumwi ndiponso anthu ena omwe ankadziwana ndi Yesu. Nthawi zambiri, Bamboyu ankagwira malemba a m’Baibulo ndipo zikuoneka kuti ankayesetsa kutsatira mfundo zachikhristu.

Koma anthu ena omwe ankam’khulupirira kwambiri Bamboyu, anayamba kumulambira. Mwachitsanzo, buku lina lonena za kuphedwa kwake (Martyrdom of Polycarp) linafotokoza kuti iye ataphedwa, anthu “okhulupirika” anali ofunitsitsa kukatenga mtembo wake. Anthuwo ankakhulupirira kuti mafupa ake anali “apamwamba zedi kuposa miyala yamtengo wapatali.” Apatu n’zoonekeratu kuti ziphunzitso zonyenga zinali zikufalikira kwambiri m’Chikhristu.

Mabuku Owonjezeredwa M’Baibulo

Ena mwa Abambo a Atumwiwo ankaona kuti mabuku ena owonjezeredwa m’Baibulo ndi ouziridwa ndi Mulungu. Mwachitsanzo, Clement wa ku Roma ankagwira mawu m’mabuku a Luntha ndiponso Yuditi. Komanso munthu yemwe analemba buku linalake lonena za Polycarp (The Epistle of Polycarp) ankakhulupirira kuti buku la Tobiti ndi louziridwa ndi Mulungu. Choncho iye ankagwiritsa ntchito bukuli pofuna kulimbikitsa maganizo oti munthu akhoza kupulumutsa moyo wake akamapereka mphatso zachifundo.

M’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., nkhani za m’mabuku enaake otchedwa mauthenga abwino, zomwe zinali zonyenga, ndipo ankati zimafotokoza moyo wa Yesu, zinafalikira kwambiri. Koma Abambo a Atumwi ankaona kuti nkhanizi n’zolondola ndipo kawirikawiri ankagwira mawu m’mabuku amenewa. Mwachitsanzo, Ignatius ankakonda kugwira mawu buku lomwe ankati ndi uthenga wabwino wopita kwa Aheberi (Gospel of the Hebrews). Ponena za Clement wa ku Roma, buku lina linati: “Zikuoneka kuti Clement anadziwa Khristu kudzera m’mabuku owonjezera, osati kudzera m’Mauthenga Abwino a m’Baibulo.”

Ziphunzitso Zonyenga Zinawonjezeka

Anthuwa analowetsa ziphunzitso zambiri zonyenga mu mpingo wachikhristu chifukwa ankaphunzitsa choonadi chachikhristu pogwiritsa ntchito nthano ndiponso maganizo a anthu. Mwachitsanzo, pofuna kupereka umboni woti akufa adzauka, Clement anafotokoza nkhani yopeka yonena za mbalame inayake. Nthanoyi imanena kuti mbalameyi inapsa n’kusanduka phulusa koma kenako inauka n’kukhalanso ndi moyo. Ndipo anthu a ku Iguputo ankagwiritsa ntchito mbalameyi polambira mulungu wawo wa dzuwa.

Winanso yemwe anapotoza choonadi cha m’Malemba ndi yemwe analemba buku lofotokoza za Baranaba (Epistle of Barnabas). Iye ankaphunzitsa kuti nkhani za m’Chilamulo cha Mose sizinali zenizeni koma zophiphiritsira chabe. Iye ankanena kuti nyama zobzikula ndiponso zogawanika chiboda, zomwe zinali zoyenera kudyedwa, zimaimira anthu omwe amasinkhasinkha Mawu a Mulungu. Ananenanso kuti chiboda chogawanika chimaimira anthu olungama omwe ali padzikoli koma amayembekezera kuti adzapita kumwamba. Maganizo amenewa ndi osagwirizana ndi Malemba ngakhale pang’ono.​—Levitiko 11:1-3.

Chenjezo la Mtumwi Yohane

Mtumwi Yohane anachenjeza kuti: “Okondedwa, musamakhulupirira mzimu uli wonse, koma yesani mizimu ngati ichokera mwa Mulungu: popeza aneneri onyenga ambiri anaturuka kulowa m’dziko lapansi.” (1 Yohane 4:1) Chenjezo limeneli linaperekedwa panthawi yoyenera kwambiri.

Pofika chakumapeto kwa nthawi ya atumwi, anthu ambiri omwe ankadzitcha kuti ndi Akhristu, anali atasiya ziphunzitso za Yesu ndiponso za atumwi ake. M’malo moletsa ziphunzitso zonyenga kuti zisafalikire m’Chikhristu, Abambo a Atumwiwa anazilimbikitsa kwambiri. Iwo anasakaniza choonadi cha m’Baibulo ndi ziphunzitso zonyenga. Ponena za anthu amenewa, mtumwi Yohane anati: “Aliyense amene apitirira malire posakhalabe m’chiphunzitso cha Khristu sali ndi Mulungu.” (2 Yohane 9) Choncho, anthu onse amene amafunitsitsa moona mtima kudziwa choonadi cha m’Malemba, amatsatira chenjezoli.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 5 Akatswiri olemba mabuku, akatswiri amaphunziro a zaumulungu ndiponso akatswiri a maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba amatchedwa ndi dzina lakuti Abambo a Tchalitchi. Akatswiriwa anakhalapo kuyambira m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E. mpaka m’ma 400 C.E.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 29]

Ena mwa Abambo a Atumwi, monga Clement, analemba mabuku awo potsatira nthano ndiponso nzeru za anthu

[Chithunzi patsamba 28]

Polycarp analolera kuphedwa m’malo mosiya chikhulupiriro chake

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

The Granger Collection, New York