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Ankakonda Mawu a Mulungu

Ankakonda Mawu a Mulungu

 Ankakonda Mawu a Mulungu

NTHAWI zambiri anthu amakonda kumasulira uthenga wofunika kwambiri m’zinenero zosiyanasiyana, kuti anthu ambiri aumve. Baibulo, lomwe ndi Mawu a Mulungu, lili ndi uthenga wofunika kwambiri. Ngakhale kuti linalembedwa kale kwambiri, mfundo zake “zinalembedwa kuti zitilangize” ndipo zimatitonthoza komanso zimatithandiza kuti tiziyembekezera moyo wosatha.​—Aroma 15:4.

Choncho m’pomveka kuti Baibulo, lomwe lili ndi uthenga wofunika kwambiri kuposa wina uliwonse, lafalitsidwa m’zinenero zambiri. Kuyambira kale kwambiri, anthu osiyanasiyana akhala akuyesetsa kumasulira Baibulo ngakhale kuti ena mwa anthuwa nthawi zina ankadwala kwambiri, ankaletsedwa ndi boma kapenanso ankaopsezedwa kuti awanyonga. Anthuwo anagwira ntchito yomasulira Baibuloyi chifukwa chakuti ankakonda Mawu a Mulungu. M’nkhani ino, tiona mbali yochepa chabe yokhudza zimene anthu ena anachita pantchitoyi.

“Angelezi Amaphunzira Mosavuta Chilamulo cha Khristu M’chinenero Chawo”

Panthawi imene John Wycliffe anabadwa cha m’ma 1330, ku England, mwambo wa mapemphero unkachitika m’chilatini. Koma pazochitika za tsiku ndi tsiku anthu ankalankhulana ndiponso kupemphera m’Chingelezi.

Wycliffe, yemwenso anali wansembe wachikatolika ankalankhula bwino kwambiri Chilatini. Komabe anaona kuti sibwino kuphunzitsa Mawu a Mulungu m’chilatini, chomwe iye ankaona kuti n’chilankhulo cha anthu apamwamba. Iye analemba kuti: “Malamulo a Mulungu ayenera kuphunzitsidwa m’chinenero chimene anthu angamve mosavuta, chifukwa choti ndi mawu a Mulungu.” Choncho Wycliffe ndi anzake anakhazikitsa kagulu koti kamasulire Baibulo m’Chingelezi, ndipo ntchitoyi inawatengera zaka 20.

Koma Tchalitchi cha Katolika sichinasangalale ndi zimenezi ndipo buku lina linafotokoza chifukwa chake. Bukuli linati: “Zimenezi zikanachititsa  kuti anthu wamba akhale ndi mwayi wosiyanitsa ziphunzitso ndiponso moyo wa Akhristu oyambirira ndi za Tchalitchi cha Katolika . . . Akanathanso kuona kusiyana kwakukulu kwa ziphunzitso za amene anayambitsa Chikhristu [Yesu] ndi za papa, yemwe amadziona kuti ndi wachiwiri kwa Yesu.”​—The Mysteries of the Vatican.

Komanso Papa Gregory XI, analemba zikalata zisanu zodzudzula Wycliffe. Komabe Wycliffe sanasiye ntchito yake ndipo anayankha kuti: “Angelezi amaphunzira mosavuta chilamulo cha Khristu m’chinenero chawo. Mose anamva chilamulo cha Mulungu m’chinenero chake, n’chimodzimodzinso ophunzira a Yesu.” Pofika m’chaka cha 1382, gulu limene Wycliffe anakhazikitsa lija linatulutsa Baibulo loyamba m’chingelezi ndipo patapita masiku ochepa, iye anamwalira. Patapita zaka 10, munthu wina wa m’gululi anatulutsa Baibuloli atalikonza mwina ndi mwina kuti likhale losavuta kuwerenga.

Popeza kuti panthawiyi kunalibe makina osindikizira, mpukutu uliwonse unkakoperedwa pamanja mosamala kwambiri, ndipo zinkatenga miyezi 10 kuti amalize kuukopera. Komabe Tchalitchi cha Katolika chinkada nkhawa chifukwa cha kufalikira kwa Baibuloli, ndipo bishopu wamkulu anaopseza kuti aliyense amene angapezeke akuwerenga Baibuloli achotsedwa m’tchalitchichi. Patapita zaka zoposa 40 Wycliffe atamwalira, akuluakulu a tchalitchi anafukula mtembo wake ndipo anauwotcha, n’kutaya phulusalo mumtsinje wa Swift. Iwo anachita zimenezi atalamulidwa ndi bungwe limene papa anakhazikitsa. Koma anthu ofunitsitsa kudziwa choonadi ankawerengabe Baibuloli. Ndipo pulofesa wina dzina lake William M. Blackburn ananena kuti: “Mabaibulo a Wycliffe anasindikizidwa ochuluka zedi ndipo anafalitsidwa kwambiri mpaka kwa anthu a m’mibadwo yotsatira.”

Baibulo la Anthu Wamba

Patapita zaka 200 anthu anasiya kulankhula chingelezi ngati chimene chinalembedwa m’Baibulo la Wycliffe. Mlaliki wina wachinyamata, yemwe dzina lake anali William Tyndale, ndipo ankalalikira kufupi ndi mzinda wa Bristol, anakhumudwa kwambiri ataona kuti ndi anthu ochepa okha omwe ankalimvetsa bwino Baibuloli. Panthawi ina, mlalikiyu anamva bambo wina wophunzira kwambiri akunena kuti ndi bwino kukhala opanda chilamulo cha Mulungu kusiyana ndi kukhala opanda chilamulo cha papa. Poyankha, Tyndale ananena kuti Mulungu akalola, iye adzayesetsa kuti ngakhale anthu wamba alidziwe bwino Baibulo kuposa anthu ophunzira kwambiri.

Wycliffe anamasulira Baibuloli pamanja kuchokera ku Baibulo lachilatini la Vulgate. Mu 1524, Tyndale anachoka ku England kupita ku Germany ndipo anayamba kumasulira Baibuloli kuchokera ku malemba oyambirira Achiheberi ndiponso Achigiriki ndipo kenako anakalisindikiza mu mzinda wa Cologne. Koma patangopita nthawi yochepa, adani a Tyndale anamva za nkhaniyi, ndipo ananyengerera akuluakulu a mzinda wa Cologne kuti apereke lamulo loti mabaibulowa alandidwe.

Kenako Tyndale anathawira mu mzinda wina wa ku Germany komweko wotchedwa Worms, ndipo anapitirizabe ntchito yake ija. Pasanapite nthawi, mabaibulo a Tyndale a Malemba Achigiriki anatumizidwa mwachinsinsi ku England. M’miyezi 6 yokha, mabaibulo ambiri anali atagulitsidwa ndipo zimenezi zinachititsa kuti mabishopu aitanitse msonkhano wawo wa mwadzidzidzi. Pam’sonkhanowu iwo anakhazikitsa lamulo loti mabaibulowa alandidwe n’kuwotchedwa.

Pofuna kuti Baibulo la Tyndale lisafalikire  ndiponso kuti anthu asamaliwerenge, bishopu wa ku London analemba ntchito Bwana Thomas More kuti azilemba nkhani zotsutsa zimene Tyndale analemba. Bwana More anakhumudwa kwambiri makamaka chifukwa choti pomasulira Baibuloli, Tyndale anagwiritsa ntchito mawu akuti “mpingo” m’malo mwa “tchalitchi,” ndiponso “mkulu” m’malo mwa “wansembe.” Mawu amenewa anachititsa kuti anthu azikayikira ulamuliro wa papa ndiponso kuti azikayikira zoti pali kusiyana pakati pa akuluakulu a tchalitchi ndi anthu wamba. Thomas More sanagwirizanenso ndi m’mene Tyndale anamasulilira mawu Achigiriki akuti a·gaʹpe, kuti “chikondi” m’malo mwakuti “ntchito zachifundo.” Poikira ndemanga pankhaniyi, buku lina linati: “Zimenezinso zinali zoopsa kwa akuluakulu a tchalitchichi chifukwa kusagwiritsa ntchito mawu akuti ‘ntchito zachifundo’ kukanachititsa kuti anthu asamapereke mowolowa manja. Anthu akanasiyanso kupereka ndalama zambirimbiri zomwe ankapatsa ansembe kuti apempherere abale awo amene anamwalira, kuti abale awowo akalowe kumwamba. Komanso anthu akanasiya zoti tchalitchichi chizitenga chuma chawo chonse iwo akamwalira, n’cholinga choti akalowe kumwamba.”​—If God Spare My Life.

Thomas More analimbikitsa kuti “anthu ogalukira” tchalitchichi aziwotchedwa ndipo zimenezi zinachititsa kuti mu October 1536, Tyndale aphedwe mwa kuotchedwa atakhomedwa pamtengo. Koma patapita nthawi, nayenso Thomas More anaphedwa mochita kudulidwa mutu atasemphana maganizo ndi mfumu. Komabe, mu 1935, tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika chinalengeza kuti More anali mmodzi mwa anthu oyera mtima. Ndiponso m’chaka cha 2000, Papa Yohane Paulo Wachiwiri anapereka ulemu wapadera kwa Bwana More ponena kuti anali munthu yoyera mtima amene ankathandiza andale.

Koma Tyndale sanapatsidwe ulemu wapadera ngati umenewo. Komabe iye asanamwalire, mnzake wina dzina lake Miles Coverdale anasonkhanitsa mabuku a m’Baibulo amene Tyndale anamasulira, n’kupanga Baibulo limodzi. Baibuloli linali loyamba pa mabaibulo a m’chingelezi omasulidwa kuchokera m’Chiheberi ndi m’Chigiriki. Zimenezi zinachitsa kuti ngakhale anthu wamba azitha kuwerenga Mawu a Mulungu. Nanga bwanji za mabaibulo a m’zinenero zina?

“Zinkaoneka Ngati Zosatheka”

Mu 1807, m’mishonale wina wa ku Britain dzina lake Robert Morrison anayamba ulendo wapanyanja wopita ku China n’cholinga choti akamasulire Baibulo m’chinenero cha kumeneko. Iye anachita zimenezi ngakhale kuti anthu a m’banja lake ndiponso anzake ankamuletsa. Komanso ntchito yomasulira Baibuloyi inali yovuta kwambiri. Charles Grant, yemwe panthawiyo anali bwana wamkulu wa kampani inayake zamalonda (East India Company), ananena kuti: “Ntchito yomasulirayi inali yovuta kwambiri moti zinkaoneka ngati zosatheka.”

Atangofika, Morrison anauzidwa kuti anthu a m’dzikolo saloledwa kuphunzitsa chinenero chawo kwa anthu a ku mayiko ena. Munthu akapezeka akuchita zimenezi chilango chake chinali kuphedwa. Choncho pofuna kudziteteza ndiponso kuteteza anthu amene anadzipereka kum’phunzitsa chinenerocho, Morrison ankangobindikira m’nyumba. Anthu ena anafotokoza kuti: “Patangotha zaka ziwiri zokha, Morrison ankatha kulankhula  ndiponso kulemba chinenero cha ku China chotchedwa Mandarin ndiponso zinenero zina zingapo.” Panthawiyi, mfumu ya dzikolo inalamula kuti aliyense wopezeka akusindikiza mabuku achikhristu aphedwe. Ngakhale kuti panali lamuloli, pa November 25, 1819, Morrison anamaliza kumasulira Baibulo lonse m’chinenero cha ku China.

Pofika mu 1836, pafupifupi mabaibulo a thunthu a m’chinenero cha ku China okwana 2,000 anali atasindikizidwa. Komanso mabaibulo ena okwana 10,000 omasulira Malemba Achigiriki, ndiponso makope a mabuku ena a m’Baibulo okwana 31,000 anali atasindikizidwa. Anthuwa anakwanitsa kuchita zinthu zimene “zinkaoneka ngati zosatheka”chifukwa ankakonda Mawu a Mulungu.

Anabisa Baibulo mu Pilo

Mu February, chaka cha 1812, m’mishonale wina wa ku America dzina lake Adoniram Judson limodzi ndi mkazi wake Ann, anayamba ulendo wautali wopita ku Burma ndipo anakafika mu 1813. * Panthawiyi n’kuti patangotha milungu iwiri yokha atakwatirana. Atangofika anayamba kuphunzira chinenero cha m’dzikolo chotchedwa Chibama chomwe ndi chimodzi mwa zinenero zovuta kwambiri padziko lonse. Ataphunzira chinenerochi kwa zaka zingapo, Judson analemba kuti: “Taphunzira chinenero cha anthu akutali kwambiri ndi kwathu ndiponso chosiyana kwambiri ndi chathu . . . Sitikugwiritsa ntchito buku lotanthauzira mawu komanso palibe munthu amene wotimasulira chinenerochi.”

Ngakhale kuti kuphunzira chinenerochi kunali kovuta, Judson sanafooke pantchito yake. Mu June 1823, iye anamaliza kumasulira Baibulo la Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu m’Chibama. Koma kenako m’dzikoli munayambika nkhondo. Ndipo chifukwa choti Judson ankakayikiridwa kuti anali kazitape, anaikidwa m’ndende, atam’manga ndi matcheni atatu ndipo kenako anamumangirira ku nsanamira kuti asasunthesunthe. Munthu wina dzina lake Francis Wayland analemba buku lonena za moyo wa Judson, limene analitulutsa mu 1853. M’bukuli iye ananena kuti: “Chimodzi mwa zinthu zoyamba zimene Judson anapempha ataloledwa kuonana ndiponso kulankhulana ndi mkazi wake m’Chingelezi, chinali mpukutu wa Chipangano Chatsopano.” Poopa kuti mpukutuwu ungawonongeke ndi chinyezi ngati ataukwirira m’nyumba yawo, Ann anauika mkati mwa pilo n’kusoka, kenako anakapereka piloyo kwa mwamuna wake ku ndende. Ngakhale kuti panali zovuta zambiri mpukutuwo sunawonongeke.

Patatha miyezi yambiri, Judson anatulutsidwa m’ndende. Komabe chisangalalo chake chinali chosakhalitsa chifukwa chakumapeto kwa chaka chomwecho, Ann anadwala kwambiri ndipo anamwalira patangopita milungu yowerengeka. Patangotha miyezi 6 chichitikireni zimenezi, mwana wake Maria, yemwe panthawiyo anali ndi zaka ziwiri, nayenso anamwalira atadwala matenda aakulu. Ngakhale kuti anali ndi chisoni, Judson anapitiriza ntchito yake moti anamaliza kumasulira Baibulo lonse mu 1835.

Kodi Inuyo Mumakonda Mawu a Mulungu?

Anthu omwe anamasulira Baibulowa sanali oyamba kukonda Mawu a Mulungu. Kale ku Isiraeli, wamasalmo anaimbira Yehova Mulungu kuti: “Ha! Ndikondadi chilamulo chanu; ndilingiriramo ine tsiku lonse.” (Salmo 119:97) Baibulo ndi buku lochititsa chidwi, ndiponso lili ndi uthenga wofunika kwambiri. Kodi inuyo mumakonda Mawu a Mulungu mwa kuwawerenga nthawi zonse? Dziwani kuti mudzakhala wosangalala pochita zimenezi ndiponso pogwiritsa ntchito zimene mukuphunzirazo.​—Yakobe 1:25.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 22 Masiku ano dziko la Burma ndiponso chinenero cha Chibama zimadziwika ndi dzina loti Myanmar.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 8]

“Angelezi amaphunzira mosavuta chilamulo cha Khristu m’chinenero chawo.”​—Anatero JOHN WYCLIFFE

[Zithunzi patsamba 9]

William Tyndale ndiponso tsamba la m’Baibulo lake

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Tyndale: From the book The Evolution of the English Bible

[Zithunzi patsamba 10]

Robert Morrison ndi Baibulo lake la m’chinenero cha ku China

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

In the custody of the Asian Division of the Library of Congress

Robert Morrison, engraved by W. Holl, from The National Portrait Gallery Volume IV, published c.1820 (litho), Chinnery, George (1774-1852) (after)/​Private Collection/​Ken Welsh/​The Bridgeman Art Library International

[Zithunzi patsamba 11]

Adoniram Judson ndi Baibulo lake la Chibama

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Judson: Engraving by John C. Buttre/​Dictionary of American Portraits/​Dover

[Mawu a Chithunzi Patsamba 8]

Wycliffe: From the book The History of Protestantism (Vol. I); Bible: Courtesy of the American Bible Society Library, New York