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Mmene Mawu Anakhalira Malemba Opatulika Kulemba M’nthawi ya Atumwi

Mmene Mawu Anakhalira Malemba Opatulika Kulemba M’nthawi ya Atumwi

 Mmene Mawu Anakhalira Malemba Opatulika Kulemba M’nthawi ya Atumwi

KUYAMBIRA kalekale, anthu ambiri okhulupirira Baibulo akhala akuchita khama kuwerenga, kuphunzira ndi kufufuza mabuku a Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu. Mabuku amenewa ali m’gulu la mabuku otchuka kwambiri ndipo anthu ambiri amawatcha kuti Chipangano Chatsopano. Mabukuwa, pamodzi ndi mabuku ena onse a m’Baibulo, asintha kwambiri zochita ndiponso makhalidwe a anthu padziko lonse. Athandizanso kwambiri pa zolembalemba ndiponso pa luso losiyanasiyana. Komanso chachikulu kwambiri n’chakuti athandiza anthu ambiri, mwinanso kuphatikizapo inuyo, kudziwa zoona zake za Mulungu ndi Yesu.​—Yohane 17:3.

Mabuku a uthenga wabwino ndiponso mabuku ena onse a Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu, analembedwa patapita nthawi ndithu kuchokera pamene Yesu anamwalira. Mwachitsanzo, zikuoneka kuti Mateyo analemba buku lake la uthenga wabwino patadutsa zaka 7 kapena 8 Yesu atamwalira, ndipo Yohane analemba buku lake patadutsa zaka pafupifupi 65. Ndiyeno kodi zinatheka bwanji kuti atumwiwa alembe molondola zinthu zimene Yesu ananena ndi kuchita? N’zoonekeratu kuti mzimu woyera wa Mulungu unawathandiza kwambiri pantchitoyi. (Yohane 14:16, 26) Komano kodi zimene Yesu anaphunzitsa zinasungika bwanji mpaka kudzafika pokhala Malemba Opatulika?

Kodi “Tinganene Kuti Anali Osaphunzira”?

M’zaka zam’mbuyomu, akatswiri ena anenapo kuti n’zokayikitsa kuti ophunzira a Yesu ankalemba zimene Yesu ankaphunzitsa ndi kuchita koma kuti ankangowasimbira ena nkhanizo. Mwachitsanzo, katswiri wina wa maphunziro a Baibulo anati: “Olemba mabuku a uthenga wabwino analemba zimene Yesu ananena patapita zaka zambiri ndithu. Panthawi yonseyi anthu ankangosimbirana zonse zimene ankadziwa zokhudza  Yesu.” Ofufuza ena anachita kufika ponena kuti ophunzira a Yesu “tinganene kuti anali osaphunzira.” * Iwo anenaponso kuti pa zaka zonsezo, nkhani zokhudza utumiki wa Yesu zinasinthidwa ndipo anawonjezeramo zinthu zambirimbiri. Motero, iwo amati nkhanizo n’zosiyana kwambiri ndi zimene zinachitikadi.

Mfundo ina imene akatswiri ena a Baibulo amanena ndi yakuti, ophunzira a Yesu achiyuda ankagwiritsira ntchito njira imene Arabi ankaphunzitsira anthu zinthu. Iwo ankangoloweza zinthu, ndipo zimenezi zinathandiza kuti nkhani zimene ankasimbazo zizikhala zolondola. Kodi ophunzirawo ankangodalira nkhani zimene anthu ankasimba pofotokoza utumiki wa Yesu, kapena n’zotheka kuti anachita kuzilemba? Sitinganene motsimikiza, koma n’zotheka kuti nkhanizi anachita kuzilemba.

Anthu Ankakonda Kulemba Zinthu

M’nthawi ya atumwi anthu osiyanasiyana ankadziwa kulemba. Pamfundo imeneyi, Alan Millard, yemwe ndi pulofesa wa zinenero monga Chiheberi ndi Chialamu, anati: “Panthawi ya Yesu, anthu ambiri ankadziwa kulemba Chigiriki, Chialamu ndi Chiheberi.”

Pulofesayu anatsutsanso mfundo yakuti mabuku a uthenga wabwino “analembedwa m’madera amene anthu sankadziwa kulemba ndi kuwerenga.” Iye anati: “Zimenezo n’zosatheka chifukwa choti panthawiyi kulikonseko anthu ayenera kuti ankadziwa kulemba . . . Motero n’zotheka kuti pamsonkhano uliwonse pankakhala anthu amene ankalemba zimene zikunenedwazo, kuti adzazikumbukire m’tsogolo kapena kuti akauzeko ena.”

N’zoonekeratu kuti matabwa opaka phula ankapezeka mosavuta ndipo anthu ankalemba pa matabwawa. Tingaone chitsanzo cha zimenezi mu chaputala choyamba cha buku la  Luka. Zekariya atasiya kulankhula kwakanthawi, anafunsidwa kuti am’patse dzina mwana wake. Vesi 63 limati: “Iye [mwina polankhula ndi manja] anapempha cholembapo chathabwa ndipo analemba kuti: ‘Dzina lake ndi Yohane.’” Mabuku otanthauzira mawu a m’Baibulo amafotokoza kuti n’kutheka kuti “cholembapo chathabwa” chimenechi ankachipaka phula. Zimenezi zikutanthauza kuti Zekariya anapatsidwa cholembapo chathabwacho ndi munthu wina amene anali pomwepo.

Tiyeni tione chitsanzo china chosonyeza kuti panthawiyo anthu ankagwiritsa ntchito zolembapo zathabwa. M’buku la Machitidwe muli nkhani ya Petulo akulankhula ndi gulu la anthu m’kachisi powalimbikitsa kuti: “Lapani . . . kuti machimo anu afafanizidwe.” (Machitidwe 3:11, 19) Mawu a Chigiriki amene anamasuliridwa kuti ‘kufafaniza’ amatanthauza “kupukuta,” kapena “kufufuta.” Buku lina lotanthauzira mawu limati: “Palembali ndiponso m’malemba ena, mawuwa amatanthauza kusalaza pa thabwapo kuti alembepo zina.”​—The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology.

Nkhani za m’mabuku a uthenga wabwino zimasonyezanso kuti ena mwa anthu amene ankatsatira Yesu ndi kumvetsera ulaliki wake ankalemba zinthu zosiyanasiyana tsiku ndi tsiku. Mwachitsanzo, ena a iwo anali okhometsa misonkho monga Mateyo ndi Zakeyu (Mateyo 9:9; Luka 19:2); m’tsogoleri wa sunagoge (Maliko 5:22); kapitawo wa asilikali (Mateyo 8:5); Yohana, mkazi wa kapitawo wa Herode Antipa (Luka 8:3); komanso alembi, Afarisi, Asaduki, ndi akuluakulu ena a m’Bungwe Lalikulu la Ayuda. (Mateyo 21:23, 45; 22:23; 26:59) N’zosakayikitsa kuti ophunzira ndiponso otsatira ambiri a Yesu, mwinanso onse, ankatha kulemba.

Ophunzira, Aphunzitsi, Ndiponso Olemba

Kuti aphunzitse anthu ena Chikhristu, ophunzirawo ankafunikira kudziwa zimene Yesu ananena ndi kuchita komanso ankafunikira kumvetsa mmene Khristu anakwaniritsira Chilamulo komanso maulosi olembedwa m’Malemba Achiheberi. (Machitidwe 18:5) N’zochititsa chidwi kuti Luka analembapo za nthawi ina imene Yesu ndi ophunzira ake anakumana, Yesuyo atangouka kumene. Kodi Luka anati Yesu anachita chiyani panthawiyo? “Anayamba kuwasanthulira Zolemba za Mose ndi za aneneri zonse akumawatanthauzira zinthu zokhudza iye m’Malemba onse.” Pasanapite masiku ambiri, Yesu anauzanso ophunzira ake kuti: “‘Awa ndi mawu anga amene ndinakuuzani pamene ndinali nanu pamodzi, kuti zonse zokhudza ine zolembedwa m’chilamulo cha Mose, m’Zolemba za aneneri ndi m’Masalimo zikwaniritsidwe.’ Pamenepo anawatseguliratu maganizo awo kuti amvetse tanthauzo la Malemba.” (Luka 24:27, 44, 45) Patsogolo pake, ophunzirawo “anakumbukira” zonse zimene Yesu anawathandiza kumvetsa.​—Yohane 12:16.

Nkhani zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti atumwi ndi ophunzira a Yesu ayenera kuti ankafufuza ndi kuphunzira Malemba mwakhama kuti amvetse bwinobwino tanthauzo la zimene anaona ndi kumva zokhudza Mbuye wawo, Yesu Khristu. (Luka 1:1-4; Machitidwe 17:11) Pamfundo imeneyi, Harry Y. Gamble, yemwe ndi pulofesa wa maphunziro a zachipembedzo pa yunivesite  ya Virginia, analemba kuti: “N’zosakayikitsa kuti ngakhale pamene Chikhristu chinali chitangoyamba kumene panali Akhristu, mwinanso magulu angapo, omwe ankaphunzira mwakhama Malemba Achiheberi kuti athe kuwamvetsa. Ankatero pofuna kupeza mfundo zotsimikizira chikhulupiriro chawo n’kumalemba mfundozo kuti Akhristu ena azizigwiritsa ntchito polalikira.”

Zonsezi zikusonyeza kuti ophunzira a Yesu sankangodalira nkhani zongosimbidwa, koma ankachita khama kuphunzira, kuwerenga, ndiponso kulemba nkhani zokhudza utumiki wa Yesu. Iwowa anali ophunzira, aphunzitsi, ndiponso olemba. Ndipo chachikulu kwambiri n’chakuti anali anthu okonda zinthu zauzimu amene ankadalira kwambiri mzimu woyera kuti uwatsogolere. Yesu anawatsimikizira kuti “mzimu wa choonadi” patsogolo pake ‘udzawakumbutsa zonse zimene anawauza.’ (Yohane 14:17, 26) Mzimu woyera wa Mulungu unawathandiza kukumbukira ndi kulemba zimene Yesu ananena ndi kuchita, ngakhale nkhani zazitali, monga ulaliki wa pa phiri. (Mateyo chaputala 5 mpaka 7) Mzimu womwewo ndi umenenso unathandiza olemba mabuku a uthenga wabwino kuti alembe zinthu zina zosonyeza mmene Yesu ankamvera mumtima mwake ndiponso zimene ankanena popemphera.​—Mateyo 4:2; 9:36; Yohane 17:1-26.

Motero zilibe kanthu kuti zinthu zina zimene olemba mabuku a uthenga wabwino analemba zinali zokumva ndiponso zina zolembedwa, chifukwa mfundo yofunika kwambiri ndi yakuti zonse zimene analemba zinachokera kwa mwiniwake Yehova Mulungu, yemwe ndi wokwezeka kwambiri ndipo sangauzire zinthu zabodza. N’chifukwa chake sitiyenera kukayika ngakhale pang’ono kuti “Malemba onse anawauzira ndi Mulungu,” ndipo angathe kutiphunzitsa ndi kutilangiza kuchita zinthu zomusangalatsa.​—2 Timoteyo 3:16.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 14]

N’zosakayikitsa kuti ena mwa anthu amene ankatsatira Yesu ankalemba zinthu zosiyanasiyana tsiku ndi tsiku

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 15]

Mzimu woyera wa Mulungu unathandiza ophunzira a Yesu kukumbukira ndi kulemba zimene Yesu ananena ndi kuchita

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 15]

 Kodi Atumwi Anali Osaphunzira?

Olamulira ndi akulu a ku Yerusalemu “ataona mmene Petulo ndi Yohane anali kulankhulira molimba mtima, komanso atazindikira kuti anali anthu osaphunzira ndiponso anthu wamba, anadabwa kwambiri.” (Machitidwe 4:13) Kodi atumwi analidi osaphunzira, kapena osadziwa kulemba? Pamfundo imeneyi, buku lina lotanthauzira nkhani za m’Baibulo linati: “Mawu amenewa ndi ofunika kuwamvetsa bwino chifukwa sakutanthauza kuti Petulo [ndi Yohane] sanapite ku sukulu ndipo sankadziwa kulemba ndi kuwerenga. Koma amene anayankhula mawuwa ankangosonyeza kuti ankadziona kuti anali apamwamba kuyerekezera ndi atumwiwo.”​—The New Interpreter’s Bible.

[Chithunzi patsamba 13]

“Iye anapempha cholembapo chathabwa ndipo analemba kuti: ‘Dzina lake ndi Yohane’”

[Chithunzi patsamba 13]

Ili ndi thabwa lopaka phula ndipo pamwambapo pali zolembera za m’nthawi ya atumwi kapena patsogolo pake

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© British Museum/​Art Resource, NY