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Kodi Dzina Lakuti Yehova Liyenera Kupezeka mu Chipangano Chatsopano?

Kodi Dzina Lakuti Yehova Liyenera Kupezeka mu Chipangano Chatsopano?

KODI ndi zofunika n’komwe kuti dzina la Mulungu lizipezeka m’Baibulo? N’zoonekeratu kuti Mulungu anaona kuti n’zofunika. Dzina lake, lomwe mu Chiheberi limalembedwa ndi zilembo zinayi, limapezeka nthawi 7,000 m’malemba oyambirira a mbali ya Baibulo imene anthu ambiri amaitcha kuti Chipangano Chakale. *

Akatswiri amaphunziro a Baibulo amavomereza kuti dzina lenileni la Mulungu limapezeka mu Chipangano Chakale, kapena kuti Malemba Achiheberi. Komabe, ambiri amaona kuti dzinali silinalembedwe m’mipukutu yoyambirira ya Chigiriki ya mbali ya Baibulo imene ena amaitcha kuti Chipangano Chatsopano.

Mawu ena a m’buku la Chipangano Chatsopano amagwira mawu onenedwa m’Chipangano Chakale omwe ali ndi zilembo zinayizi. Kodi omasulira amatani akapeza mawu amenewa? Zikatero omasulira ambiri amamasulira zilembo zinayizi kuti “Ambuye,” m’malo molemba dzina lenileni la Mulungu. Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano Lomasulira Malemba Oyera silitsatira njira imeneyi. Lili ndi dzina lakuti Yehova nthawi 237 m’Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu, kapena kuti Chipangano Chatsopano.

Kodi omasulira Baibulo amakumana ndi mavuto otani pankhani yoika dzina la Mulungu m’Chipangano Chatsopano? Kodi pali zifukwa zotani zoikira dzina la Mulungu m’mbali imeneyi ya Malemba Oyera? Nanga kodi inuyo nkhani yoika dzina la Mulungu m’Baibulo ikukukhudzani bwanji?

 Vuto Limene Omasulira Amakumana Nalo

Mipukutu ya Chipangano Chatsopano imene ilipo panopo si yoyambirira yeniyeni. Mipukutu yoyambirira yomwe inalembedwa ndi anthu monga Mateyo, Yohane, ndi Paulo, inkagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri, moti n’zosakayikitsa kuti inatha mwamsanga. N’chifukwa chake anthu ankaikopera, ndipo mipukutu yokoperayo ikamatha, ankaikopanso. Masiku ano mipukutu yotereyi ilipo masauzande ambiri, koma yochuluka inakopedwa patatha zaka 200 kuchokera pamene mipukutu yoyambirirayo inalembedwa. Zikuoneka kuti pofika nthawi imeneyi, okopawo anachotsa zilembo zinayi zoimira dzina la Mulungu n’kuikapo mawu a Chigiriki akuti Kuʹri·os kapena Kyʹri·os, omwe amatanthauza kuti “Ambuye.” Apo ayi, n’kutheka kuti nawonso anakopa zimenezi kuchokera ku mipukutu ina. *

Podziwa zimenezi, munthu womasulira ayenera kuona ngati pali umboni wokwanira wotsimikizira kuti zilembo zinayi zoimira dzina la Mulungu zinkapezekadi m’mipukutu yoyambirira ya Chigiriki. Ndiye kodi pali umboni uliwonse wotere? Taonani mfundo zotsatirazi:

  • Pogwira mawu kapena powerenga Chipangano Chakale, Yesu ankatchula dzina la Mulungu. (Deuteronomo 6:13, 16; 8:3; Salmo 110:1; Yesaya 61:1, 2; Mateyo 4:4, 7, 10; 22:44; Luka 4:16-21) Monga zilili masiku ano, m’masiku a Yesu ndi ophunzira ake, zilembo zinayi zoimira dzina la Mulungu zinkapezeka m’mipukutu ya Chiheberi ya mbali ya Baibulo imene ambiri amaitchula kuti Chipangano Chakale. Koma kwa zaka zambiri, akatswiri a maphunziro a Baibulo ankaganiza kuti zilembozi sizinkapezeka m’mipukutu ya Chipangano Chakale ya Baibulo la Chigiriki la Septuagint, komanso m’mipukutu ya Chipangano Chatsopano. Kenaka cha m’katikati mwa zaka za m’ma 1900, akatswiriwa anatulukira chinthu chochititsa chidwi kwambiri. Iwo anapeza zidutswa zakale kwambiri za Baibulo limeneli za m’nthawi ya Yesu. Zidutswazi zili ndi dzina la Mulungu m’zilembo za Chiheberi.

  • Yesu ankatchula dzina la Mulungu ndipo ankadziwitsa ena za dzinali. (Yohane 17:6, 11, 12, 26) Yesu ananena momveka bwino kuti: “Ndabwera m’dzina la Atate wanga.” Iye anagogomezeranso kwambiri mfundo yakuti ntchito  zimene ankachita ankazichita “m’dzina la Atate [wake].” Ndipotu dzina lake, lakuti Yesu, limatanthauza kuti “Yehova ndiye Chipulumutso.”​—Yohane 5:43; 10:25.

  • M’Malemba Achigiriki muli chidule cha dzina la Mulungu. Chidule cha dzina la Mulungu chimapezeka m’mawu akuti “Aleluya” pa Chivumbulutso 19:1, 3, 4, 6. [Buku Lopatulika ndilo Mawu a Mulungu]. Tanthauzo lenileni la mawu amenewa ndi lakuti “Tamandani Ya, anthu inu.” Mawu akuti Ya ndi chidule cha dzina lakuti Yehova.

  • Mabuku akale a Ayuda amasonyeza kuti Akhristu achiyuda ankaika dzina la Mulungu m’zinthu zimene ankalemba. Buku lakale la malamulo a Ayuda, lotchedwa Tosefta, lomwe anamaliza kulilemba cha m’ma 300 C.E., limanena mawu otsatirawa pofotokoza za mabuku a Akhristu omwe ankawotchedwa tsiku la Sabata: “Mabuku a anthu olengeza Uthenga Wabwino ndiponso mabuku a Ayuda omwe anatembenuka n’kukhala Akhristu [n’kutheka kuti anthu amenewa ndi amene ankatchedwa kuti a minim] amatenthedwa pamoto. Koma amawasiya kuti angonyekera pamene aikidwapo basi, . . . moti mabuku onsewo pamodzi ndi masamba onse otchula Dzina la Mulungu amatenthedwa.” Buku lomweli limagwiranso mawu a Rabi Yosé wa ku Galileya, amene anakhalako cha kumayambiriro kwa m’ma 100 C.E. Limati Rabiyo anati ngati tsiku limenelo si la sabata, “timangochotsako masamba [a malemba achikhristu] amene ali ndi dzina la Mulungu ndipo ena onsewo timawotcha.” Motero pali umboni wokwanira wosonyeza kuti Ayuda a m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., ankakhulupirira kuti Akhristu ankaika dzina la Yehova m’zinthu zimene ankalemba.

Kodi Omasulira Ena Athana Nalo Bwanji Vutoli?

Kodi Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano Lomasulira Malemba Oyera ndi lokhalo limene limabwezeretsa dzina la Mulungu pomasulira Malemba Achigiriki? Ayi. Malinga ndi umboni umene tafotokozawu, omasulira Baibulo ambiri aona kuti ndi bwino kubwezeretsa dzina la Mulungu m’Chipangano Chatsopano.

Mwachitsanzo, Mabaibulo ambiri a Chipangano Chatsopano a zinenero za ku Africa kuno, ku America, Asia, ndi zilumba za m’nyanja ya Pacific, amaika dzina limeneli m’malemba ambiri. (Onani mndandanda umene uli pa tsamba 21.) Ena mwa Mabaibulo amenewa amasuliridwa posachedwapa. Chitsanzo ndi Baibulo la Rotuman (linatuluka mu 1999), lomwe lili ndi dzina lakuti Jihova nthawi 51 m’mavesi 48 a m’Chipangano Chatsopano. Baibulo linanso lotere ndi lotchedwa Batak-Toba, (linatuluka mu 1989) la ku Indonesia, lomwe lili ndi dzina lakuti Jahowa nthawi 110 m’Chipangano Chatsopano. Dzina la Mulungu  limapezekanso m’Mabaibulo a Chifalansa, Chijeremani ndi Chisipanishi. Mwachitsanzo, cha kumayambiriro kwa m’ma 1900, Pablo Besson anamasulira Baibulo la Chipangano Chatsopano m’Chisipanishi. M’Baibuloli muli dzina lakuti Yehova pa Yuda 14, ndipo pafupifupi malo 100 ali ndi mawu a mtsinde osonyeza kuti pa lembalo pangaikidwenso dzina la Mulungu.

Taonani zitsanzo zotsatirazi za Mabaibulo a Chingelezi omwe ali ndi dzina la Mulungu m’Chipangano Chatsopano:

  • A Literal Translation of the New Testament . . . From the Text of the Vatican Manuscript, lomasuliridwa ndi Herman Heinfetter (linatuluka mu 1863)

  • The Emphatic Diaglott, lomasuliridwa ndi Benjamin Wilson (linatuluka mu 1864)

  • The Epistles of Paul in Modern English, lomasuliridwa ndi George Barker Stevens (linatuluka mu 1898)

  • St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans, lomasuliridwa ndi W. G. Rutherford (linatuluka mu 1900)

  • The Christian’s Bible​—New Testament, lomasuliridwa ndi George N. LeFevre (linatuluka mu 1928)

  • The New Testament Letters, lomasuliridwa ndi J.W.C. Wand, Bishop wa mzinda wa London (linatuluka mu 1946)

Posachedwapa, mawu oyamba a m’Baibulo la New Living Translation lomwe analikonza, n’kulitulutsanso mu 2004 munali mfundo yotsatirayi, pa kamutu kakuti “Kumasulira Dzina la Mulungu”: “M’Baibulo lino, zilembo zinayi zoimira dzina la Mulungu (YHWH) tazimasulira kuti ‘AMBUYE,’ ndipo tagwiritsira ntchito mtundu  waung’ono wa zilembo zikuluzikulu, mogwirizana ndi zimene omasulira ambiri a Mabaibulo a Chingelezi achita. Tatero pofuna kulisiyanitsa ndi dzina lakuti ʹadonai, limene talimasulira kuti ‘Ambuye.’” Kenako ponena za Chipangano Chatsopano, anapitiriza motere: ‘Mawu a Chigiriki akuti kurios tawamasulira kuti ‘Ambuye,’ koma akapezeka pa lemba limene likugwira mawu Chipangano Chakale tawamasulira kuti ‘AMBUYE,’ ndipo tagwiritsira ntchito mtundu waung’ono wa zilembo zikuluzikulu.’ Mawu amenewatu akusonyeza kuti amene anamasulira Baibulo limeneli akuvomereza kuti zilembo zinayi zoimira dzina la Mulungu (YHWH) ziyenera kumasuliridwa m’malemba amenewa a m’Chipangano Chatsopano.

N’zochititsanso chidwi kuti, pa kamutu kakuti “Zilembo Zinayi za Dzina la Mulungu mu Chipangano Chatsopano,” buku lina lomasulira mawu limatchula mfundo iyi: “Pali umboni wosonyeza kuti olemba mabuku a Chipangano Chatsopano, ankalemba zilembo zinayi za dzina la Mulungu, lakuti Yahweh, m’malemba onse a m’Chipangano Chatsopano amene akugwira mawu Chipangano Chakale.” (The Anchor Bible Dictionary) Ndipo katswiri wina wa maphunziro a Baibulo, dzina lake George Howard, anati: “M’pomveka kunena kuti olemba Chipangano Chatsopano, sankachotsa zilembo zinayi zoimira dzina la Mulungu m’malemba amene akugwira mawu Chipangano Chakale. Tikutero chifukwa choti panthawiyi zilembo zimenezi zinkapezekabe m’Mabaibulo a Chigiriki [a Septuagint] omwe Akhristu ankagwiritsira ntchito.”

Zifukwa Ziwiri Zomveka

Pamenepatu n’zoonekeratu kuti Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano si Baibulo loyamba kukhala ndi dzina la Mulungu m’Chipangano Chatsopano. Mofanana ndi woweruza amene akuyenera kugamula mlandu womwe palibe mboni zimene zinaona zinthuzo zikuchitika, komiti yomasulira Baibulo limeneli, inayesetsa kuona umboni wonse womwe ulipo wokhudza nkhaniyi. Ndiye mogwirizana ndi umboni umenewo, komitiyi inaganiza zoika dzina la Yehova m’Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu amene inamasulira. Taonani zifukwa ziwiri zomveka zimene zinachititsa kuika dzinali.

(1) Podziwa kuti Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu anawauzira ndi Mulungu powonjezera ku Malemba Achiheberi, omasulirawo anaona kuti sizomveka kuti dzina la Yehova linangosowa lokha m’Malembawa.

N’chifukwa chiyani anaona choncho? Cha m’katikati mwa nthawi ya atumwi, mtumwi Yakobe anauza akulu a ku Yerusalemu kuti: “Sumeoni wafotokoza bwino lomwe mmene Mulungu anacheukira amitundu kwa nthawi yoyamba, kuti mwa iwo atengemo anthu a dzina lake.” (Machitidwe 15:14) Kodi panthawiyo pakanapanda munthu aliyense wodziwa dzina la Mulungu, Yakobe akananena mawu amenewa? Mungathe kuona nokha kuti sakanatero.

(2) Atatulukira Mabaibulo a Septuagint omwe anali ndi dzina la Mulungu, m’malo mwa dzina lakuti Kyʹri·os (Ambuye), komiti yomasulirayo inaona kuti Mabaibulo onse oyambirirawo amene analipo m’nthawi ya Yesu, a Chigiriki ngakhalenso a Chiheberi, anali ndi dzinali.

Motero zikuoneka kuti chipongwe chomachotsa dzina la Mulungu m’mipukutu ya Chigiriki chinayambika nthawi ya Yesu itadutsa kale. Nanga inuyo mukuganiza bwanji? Kodi mukuona kuti Yesu ndi atumwi ake akanalimbikitsa chipongwe choterechi?​—Mateyo 15:6-9.

Itanani “pa Dzina la Yehova”

Inde, Malemba paokha ali ngati mboni yomwe inaona Akhristu oyambirira akuika dzina la Yehova m’mabuku amene ankalemba, makamaka akamagwira mawu okhala ndi dzinali ochokera m’Chipangano Chakale. Motero, pali zifukwa zokwanira zimene zinachititsa kuti Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano libwezeretse dzina la Mulungu, lakuti Yehova, m’Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu.

Kodi zimene takambiranazi zikukukhudzani motani inuyo? Pogwira mawu a Chipangano Chakale, mtumwi Paulo anakumbutsa Akhristu ku Roma kuti: “Aliyense woitana pa dzina la Yehova adzapulumuka.” Kenako anafunsa kuti, “Kodi adzaitana bwanji munthu amene sakhulupirira mwa iye? Ndipo adzakhulupirira bwanji mwa munthu amene sanamve za iye?” (Aroma 10:13, 14; Yoweli 2:32) Mabaibulo amene amaika dzina la Mulungu, m’malo ofunikira amakuthandizani kuyandikira kwa Mulungu. (Yakobe 4:8) Kunena zoona, ndi mwayi waukulu kwambiri kuti timaloledwa kudziwa ndi kuitana pa dzina lenileni la Mulungu, lakuti Yehova.

^ ndime 2 Nthawi zambiri zilembo zinayi zimenezi, zomwe ndi YHWH, m’Chichewa zimamasuliridwa kuti Yehova, kapena kuti Yahweh.

^ ndime 7 Kuti mudziwe zambiri pankhani imeneyi, onani kabuku kakuti, Dzina la Mulungu Limene Lidzakhala Kosatha, kofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova, masamba 23 mpaka 27.