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Mapale Akale Amatsimikizira Kuti Baibulo N’lolondola

Mapale Akale Amatsimikizira Kuti Baibulo N’lolondola

 Mapale Akale Amatsimikizira Kuti Baibulo N’lolondola

BAIBULO ndi Mawu ouziridwa ndi Mulungu. (2 Timoteyo 3:16) Zimene limanena pankhani zokhudza anthu, malo, zipembedzo komanso maufumu akale n’zolondola. Kuti titsimikizire kuti Baibulo n’lolondola, sipafunikira umboni wa zinthu zimene akatswiri a mbiri ya zinthu zakale zokumbidwa pansi apeza. Komabe, zinthu zimenezi zimathandiza kuti timvetse nkhani zina za m’Baibulo.

Zinthu zambiri zimene akatswiri a mbiri ya zinthu zakale zokumbidwa pansi apeza ndi mapale. Kalelo, mapale anali zinthu zotsika mtengo zimene anthu ankagwiritsa ntchito polemba zina ndi zina ku Middle East komanso ku Iguputo ndi ku Mesopotamiya. Nthawi imeneyo anthu ankagwiritsa ntchito mapale ngati mapepala. Iwo ankalembapo zinthu zokhudzana ndi ntchito komanso malonda. Nthawi zambiri ankagwiritsa ntchito inki polemba mawu amodzi, ziganizo ngakhalenso ndime zingapo pamapalewo.

Zinthu zimene akatswiri a zinthu zakale zokumbidwa pansi akumba m’dziko la Israel zikusonyeza kuti zinalembedwa m’nthawi za m’Baibulo. Mapale ena amene akatswiriwa anapeza analembedwa cha m’ma 600 kapena 700 B.C.E., ndipo ndi ochititsa chidwi chifukwa amatsimikizira kuti nkhani za m’Baibulo n’zolondola. Mapale amenewa anapezedwa ku Samariya, ku Aradi ndiponso ku Lakisi. Tsopano tiyeni tione bwinobwino za mapale amenewa.

Mapale a ku Samariya

Mzinda wa Samariya unali likulu la ufumu wa mafuko khumi wa kumpoto wa Isiraeli mpaka pamene Asuri anawononga mzindawu mu 740 B.C.E. Ponena za mmene mzinda wa Samariya unayambira, lemba la 1 Mafumu 16:23, 24 limati: “Chaka cha makumi atatu ndi chimodzi cha Asa mfumu ya Yuda [947 B.C.E], Omri anayamba kukhala mfumu ya Isiraeli, . . . Ndipo anagula kwa Semeri chitunda cha Samariya ndi matalente awiri a siliva, namanga pa chitundapo, natcha dzina lake la mudzi anaumanga Samariya.” Mzindawu unalipobe m’nthawi imene Aroma ankalamulira ndipo unkatchedwa Sebaste, koma unatheratu cha m’ma 500 B.C.E.

Mu 1910, akatswiri okumba zinthu zakale anapeza mapale ku Samariya ndipo anati mapalewo analembedwa m’ma 700 B.C.E. Pamapale amenewa panalembedwa za mafuta ndi vinyo zimene zinkabwera ku Samariya kuchokera ku madera ozungulira mzindawo. Pothirira ndemanga za zinthu zimenezi, buku lina linati: “Mu 1910 anthu anapeza mapale 63 . . . ndipo m’pake kuti anthu amati izi ndi zinthu zofunika kwambiri zimene zinalembedwa mu Isiraeli, zomwe zasungikabe mpaka pano. Mapale amenewa ndi ofunika kwambiri osati chifukwa cha nkhani zake . . . koma chifukwa choti ali ndi mayina ambiri a anthu, mabanja ndiponso malo osiyanasiyana a ku Isiraeli.” (Ancient Inscriptions​—Voices From the Biblical World) Kodi mayina amenewa amatsimikizira bwanji kuti Baibulo n’lolondola?

Aisiraeli atalanda Dziko Lolonjezedwa n’kuligawa mogwirizana ndi mafuko awo, dera limene kunali Samariya linali m’chigawo cha Manase. Malinga ndi lemba la Yoswa 17:1-6, mabanja 10 a fuko la Manase kudzera mwa mdzukulu wake Gileadi anagawiridwa dera limeneli. Mabanjawo anali, Abiezere, Heleki, Asiriyeli, Sekemu ndi Semida. Lachisanu n’chimodzi linali banja la Heferi, koma iye anali ndi  zidzukulu zazikazi zokhazokha zisanu ndipo mayina awo anali: Mala, Nowa, Hogila, Milika ndi Tiriza. Awanso anapatsidwa malo awo.​—Numeri 27:1-7.

Mapale a ku Samariya ali ndi mayina 7 a mabanja amenewa. Pamapalewa pali mayina onse 5 a ana aamuna a Gileadi ndiponso mayina a zidzukulu za Heferi, omwe ndi Hogila ndi Nowa. Buku lina limati: “Mayina a mabanja omwe ali pamapale a ku Samariya amagwirizana kwambiri ndi Baibulo chifukwa amasonyezanso madera omwe Baibulo limanena kuti ndi komwe mabanjawa ankakhala.” (NIV Archaeological Study Bible) Motero mapalewo amatsimikizira nkhani ya m’Baibulo ya mafuko a Isiraeli.

Mapale a ku Samariya amatsimikiziranso zimene Baibulo limanena pa nkhani ya kulambira mu Isiraeli. Panthawi imene mapalewa ankalembedwa n’kuti Aisiraeli akulambira Yehova komanso Baala, yemwe anali mulungu wa Akanani. Ulosi wa Hoseya unalembedwanso cha m’ma 700 B.C.E. ndipo unalosera za nthawi imene Aisiraeli analapa n’kumaitana Yehova kuti: “Mwamuna wanga,” osati “Baala wanga.” (Hoseya 2:16, 17) Pamapale a ku Samariya pali mayina otanthauza, “Baala ndi atate anga,” “Baala akuimba,” “Baala ndi wamphamvu,” “Baala amakumbukira” ndi mayina enanso. Pamayina 11 aliwonse amene ali ndi dzina la Yehova, mayina 7 ali ndi zilembo zina zoimira Baala.

Mapale a ku Aradi

Aradi unali mzinda wakale m’dera lotchedwa Negebu lomwe linali chakummwera kwa Yerusalemu. Pofukula ku mabwinja a Aradi, ofukulawo anapeza malinga 6 a Aisiraeli, kuyambira ndi linga la mu ulamuliro wa Solomo (1037-998 B.C.E.) mpaka linga limene linalipo panthawi imene Yerusalemu anawonongedwa ndi Ababulo mu 607 B.C.E. Anthu amene anakumba zinthu zakale ku Aradi anapeza mapale ambiri amene analembedwa m’nthawi za m’Baibulo. Mwa zina, panali mapale oposa 200 olembedwa m’Chiheberi, Chialamu ndi zinenero zina.

Mapale ena amene anapezeka ku Aradi amasonyeza mfundo zina za m’Baibulo zokhudza mabanja a ansembe. Mwachitsanzo, phale lina linali ndi mayina a “ana a Kora” otchulidwa pa Eksodo 6:24 ndi Numeri 26:11. Mitu ing’onoing’ono ya Masalmo 42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, ndi 88 imasonyeza kuti masalmo amenewa analembedwa ndi “ana a Kora.” Mabanja ena a ansembe otchulidwa m’mapale a ku Aradi ndi a Pasuri ndi Meremoti.​—1 Mbiri 9:12; Ezara 8:33.

Taonani chitsanzo china. M’mabwinja a linga lomwe linalipo Ababulo asanawononge Yerusalemu, anthu okumba zinthu zakale anapezamo phale lokhala ndi uthenga wopita kwa mtsogoleri wa gulu la nkhondo. Malingana ndi zimene buku lina linanena, mwa zina uthengawo unati: “Kwa mbuye wanga Eliyasibu. Yahweh [Yehova] akusungeni . . . Ndachita zonse zimene munandilamulira kuchita, tsopano iye akukhala mu kachisi wa Yahweh.” (The Context of Scripture) Anthu ambiri ophunzira akukhulupirira kuti kachisi yemwe akutchulidwayu ndi wa ku Yerusalemu, yemwe anamangidwa m’nthawi ya Solomo.

Mapale a ku Lakisi

Mzinda wakale wa Lakisi unali ndi malinga ndipo unali pamtunda wa makilomita 43 kum’mwera  chakumadzulo kwa Yerusalemu. Mu 1930 okumba zinthu zakale anapezako mapale. Ndipo 12 mwa mapale amenewa ndi makalata omwe anthu ena akuti ndi “ofunika kwambiri . . . chifukwa akufotokoza m’mene nkhani ya ulamuliro komanso zinthu zina zinalili pa nthawi yomwe Ayuda ankakonzekera kuukiridwa ndi Nebukadinezara” mfumu ya Babulo.

Makalata ofunika kwambiri ndi amene mkulu wa ankhondo a ku Lakisi dzina lake Yaosi ankalemberana ndi wachiwiri wake. Kalembedwe ka makalatawa kakufanana ndi ka mneneri Yeremiya yemwe anakhalanso m’nthawi imene makalatawo analembedwa. Tiyeni tione mmene awiri mwa makalata amenewa amagwirizanirana ndi zimene Baibulo limanena zokhudza nthawi yovuta imeneyi.

Pa Yeremiya 34:7 mneneriyu ananena za nthawi “pamene nkhondo ya mfumu ya ku Babulo imamenyana ndi Yerusalemu, ndi midzi yonse ya Yuda imene inatsala, ndi Lakisi ndi Azeka; pakuti midzi ya Yuda yamalinga yotsala ndi imeneyi.” Zikuoneka kuti munthu amene analemba imodzi mwa makalata a ku Lakisi anafotokozanso zochitika zimenezi. Iye analemba kuti: “Tikuyembekezera kuona chizindikiro [cha moto] ku Lakisi . . . chifukwa Azeka sakuoneka.” Anthu ambiri ophunzira akukhulupirira kuti mawu amenewa akutanthauza kuti Azeka anali atagonjetsedwa ndi Ababulo ndipo Lakisi anali atatsala pang’ono kuwonongedwa. N’zochititsa chidwi kuti m’kalatayi anatchulamo za “chizindikiro” cha moto. Lemba la Yeremiya 6:1 limanenanso za kulankhulana mwa njira imeneyi.

Nkhani ya m’kalata ina yomwe inapezedwa ku Lakisi ikutsimikizira zimene mneneri Yeremiya ndiponso mneneri Ezekieli ananena zokhudza mfumu ya Yuda yomwe inkayesa kupeza thandizo ku Iguputo pogalukira Ababulo. (Yeremiya 37:5-8; 46:25, 26; Ezekieli 17:15-17) Kalatayo inanena kuti: “Tsopano kapolo wanu walandira uthenga wakuti mkulu wa asilikali dzina lake Konyahu mwana wa Elinatani walowera chakum’mwera kupita ku Iguputo.” Anthu ophunzira akukhulupirira kuti ulendowu unali wokapempha thandizo la asilikali ku Iguputo.

Pamapale a ku Lakisi palinso mayina omwe akupezekanso m’buku la Yeremiya. Pali mayina monga: Neriya, Yaasaniya, Gemariya, Elinatani ndi Hosiya. (Yeremiya 32:12; 35:3; 36:10, 12; 42:1) Sitikudziwa bwinobwino ngati mayinawa akunena za anthu amodzimodzi. Koma popeza Yeremiya anakhalapo nthawi imeneyi n’zochititsa chidwi kuti mayinawa akufanana.

Mapalewa Akufanana pa Mfundo Imodzi

Mapale a ku Samariya, Aradi ndi Lakisi amatsimikizira nkhani zambiri za m’Baibulo. Amanena za mayina a mabanja, malo osiyanasiyana, zinthu zina zokhudza kulambira, ndiponso mmene zinthu zinalili pankhani ya ulamuliro wa panthawiyo. Koma mapale onsewa ndi ofanana pa mfundo imodzi yofunika kwambiri.

M’makalata a ku Aradi ndi ku Lakisi muli mawu monga akuti: “Yehova akusungeni mumtendere.” M’makalata 7 a ku Lakisi, dzina la Mulungu linatchulidwa maulendo 11. Komanso, mayina ambiri a Chiheberi opezeka m’mapale onsewa ali ndi zilembo zina zoimira dzina lakuti Yehova. Choncho, mapalewa akusonyeza kuti dzina la Mulungu linkagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ndi Aisiraeli a m’nthawi imeneyo.

[Chithunzi patsamba 13]

Phale limene linapezedwa m’mabwinja a ku Aradi lokhala ndi uthenga wopita kwa Eliyasibu

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Photograph © Israel Museum, Jerusalem; courtesy of Israel Antiquities Authority

[Chithunzi patsamba 14]

Kalata imene anapeza ku Lakisi inatchula dzina la Mulungu

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum