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“Zombo za ku Kitimu” Panyanja

“Zombo za ku Kitimu” Panyanja

 “Zombo za ku Kitimu” Panyanja

KUM’MAWA kwa nyanja ya Mediterranean kunachitika nkhondo zambiri zapanyanja. Tayerekezani kuti mukuona nkhondo ina yomwe inachitika zaka 500, Khristu asanabwere padziko lapansi. Chombo cha mizere itatu ya anthu opalasa, chomwe ndi chotha kutembenuka mosavuta, chikuyenda mothamanga kwambiri. Amuna 170 ali kalikiliki kupalasa chombochi atakhala pa mapilo opangidwa ndi zikopa.

Chombochi chikulowera komwe kuli chombo cha adani awo, ndipo chikuyenda pa liwiro la makilomita 13 mpaka 17 pa ola limodzi. Adaniwo akuyesa kuthawa ndi chombo chawo, koma chikuyenda mwapendapenda ndipo potembenuka, nsonga yamkuwa ya kutsogolo kwa chombo chothamanga kwambiri chija ikuboola m’nthiti mosalimba mwa chombo cha adaniwo. Opalasa chombo cha adanicho akuchita mantha ndi phokoso la kusweka kwa matabwa ndiponso mkokomo wa madzi amene akulowa malo amene nsonga ija yaboola. Kenako, kagulu ka asilikali azida zambiri kakuchoka m’chombo chothamanga chija n’kulowa m’chombo cha adaniwo kuti athane nawo. Zoonadi, zombo zina zakale zinali zoopsa kwambiri.

Anthu ophunzira Baibulo akhala akuchita chidwi ndi nkhani zonena za “Kitimu” ndiponso “zombo za ku Kitimu,” zimene zina mwa nkhanizo ndi ulosi. (Numeri 24:24; Danieli 11:30; Yesaya 23:1) Kodi Kitimu anali kuti kwenikweni? Kodi tikudziwapo chiyani za zombo zake? Ndipo n’chifukwa chiyani muyenera kuchita chidwi ndi mayankho a mafunso amenewa?

Wolemba mbiri yakale wachiyuda dzina lake Josephus anatchula Kitimu kuti “Chethimos,” ndipo apa anam’gwirizanitsa ndi chilumba cha Kupuro. Mzinda wa Kition (kapena kuti Citium) womwe unali kum’mwera chakum’mawa kwa chilumbachi umagwirizanitsanso Kitimu ndi Kupuro. Chilumba  cha Kupuro chinali pa mphambano ya njira zakale zimene anthu a malonda ankadutsamo pa nyanja. Choncho chilumba cha Kupuro chinkapindula kwambiri chifukwa choyandikira madoko a kum’mawa kwa nyanja ya Mediterranean. Chifukwa cha malo amene chinali, chilumbachi chin’kakakamizika kulowerera nkhondo za mayiko ena. Motero, chilumbachi nthawi zina chinkakhala mdani woopsa kwambiri kapena mthandizi wofunika kwambiri.

Anthu a ku Kupuro ndi Nyanja

Zimene ofukula mabwinja apeza pansi pa nyanja ndiponso m’manda, komanso zolemba ndi zithunzi zojambulidwa pa zipangizo zadothi zakale, zimatipatsa chithunzithunzi chabwino cha zombo za ku Kupuro. Kalelo, anthu a ku Kupuro anali akatswiri popanga zombo. Chilumbachi chinali ndi nkhalango zowirira kwambiri komanso magombe abwino kwambiri kukochezamo zombo. Kuwonjezera pa kupangira zombo, iwo ankadulanso mitengo kuti asungunulire miyala yamkuwa, yomwe inapangitsa kuti Kupuro akhale wotchuka kwambiri kalekalelo.

Afoinike ataona kuti malonda ankayenda bwino ku Kupuro, anakhazikitsa mizinda m’njira zimene amalondawo ankadutsa. Umodzi wa mizinda imeneyi unali wa Kition, ku Kupuro.​—Yesaya 23:10-12.

N’kutheka kuti mzinda wa Turo utagonjetsedwa, anthu ake ena anathawira ku Kitimu. Mwinanso, Afoinike, omwe anali odziwa bwino kayendedwe kapanyanja, anathandiza anthu a ku Kupuro kukhala ndi luso lomenya nkhondo zapanyanja. Komanso, chifukwa cha malo amene mzinda wa Kition unali, zombo za Afoinike zinkakhala zotetezeka kwambiri.

Ankachita Malonda Kwambiri ndi Mayiko Ena

Kalelo, kum’mawa kwa nyanja ya Mediterranean kunkachitika malonda a zinthu zochokera m’mayiko osiyanasiyana. Katundu wamtengo wapatali ankayenda pa zombo kuchoka ku Kupuro kupita ku Kerete, Sardinia ndi Sisile, ndiponso ku zilumba za panyanja ya Ejani. M’madera amenewa munapezeka mitsuko ndi miphika ya maluwa yochokera ku Kupuro. Ndipo ku Kupuro kunapezekanso zipangizo zambiri zadothi zochokera ku Girisi. Akatswiri ena ataphunzira mosamala mitanda ya mkuwa imene inapezeka ku Sardinia amakhulupirira kuti inachokera ku Kupuro.

 Mu 1982 anthu anapeza chombo chomwe chinamira m’ma 1300 B.C.E., kufupi ndi gombe la kum’mwera kwa dziko la Turkey. Katundu wosiyanasiyana amene anapezeka pamalowa anali mitanda ya mkuwa imene anthu akukhulupirira kuti inachokera ku Kupuro, zinthu zopangira mikanda, mitsuko ya ku Kanani, mitengo ya phingo, minyanga ya njovu, zinthu monga zibangili zagolide ndi siliva zochokera ku Kanani ndiponso zinthu zina zochokera ku Iguputo. Pambuyo pophunzira bwino za dongo limene anaumbira zinthu zimene zinali m’chombocho, anthu ena akukhulupirira kuti mwina chombocho chinachokera ku Kupuro.

N’zochititsa chidwi kuti nthawi imene Balamu ananena mwandakatulo za zombo za ku Kitimu ndi imenenso anthu akuganiza kuti chombochi chinamira. (Numeri 24:15, 24) Zikuoneka kuti panthawiyi zombo za ku Kupuro zinali zotchuka ku Middle East. Kodi zombo zimenezi zinkaoneka motani?

Zombo Zochitira Malonda

M’manda osiyanasiyana a ku mzinda wakale wa Amathus ku Kupuro, anapezamo ziboliboli zambiri za zombo zoumbidwa ndi dothi. Zimenezi zimathandiza kudziwa bwino mmene zombo za ku Kupuro zinkaonekera, ndipo ziboliboli zina anazisunga m’nyumba zosungiramo zinthu zakale zochititsa chidwi.

Zinthu zimenezi zimasonyeza kuti kalelo zombozi zinkagwiritsidwa ntchito pamalonda. Zombo zing’onozing’ono zinkakhala ndi anthu 20 opalasa. Zombo zikuluzikulu zinali zotengera katundu ndi anthu, pamaulendo aafupiafupi opita m’magombe a Kupuro. Wolemba nkhani wina, dzina lake Pliny Wamkulu, ananena kuti anthu a ku Kupuro ankakonza zombo zina zing’onozing’ono komanso zopepuka, zimene ankapalasa ndi nkhafi, ndipo zinkatha kunyamula katundu wolemera matani 90.

Ndiyeno panali zombo zina zikuluzikulu kwambiri zonyamulira katundu zofanana ndi chimene anapeza m’gombe la ku Turkey chija. Zina zimene zinkayenda maulendo ataliatali zinkatha kunyamula katundu wolemera matani 450. Zombo zikuluzikuluzi zinkatha kukhala ndi anthu opalasa okwana 50; anthu 25 mbali iliyonse. Komanso zinkafika mamita 30 m’litali, ndipo zinkakhala ndi mlongoti wa thanga wamamita 10.

 Ulosi wa M’Baibulo Wonena za Zombo Zankhondo za ku “Kitimu”

Mzimu wa Yehova ndi umene unachititsa kuti kunenedwe ulosi wakuti: “Zombo zidzafika kuchokera ku doko la Kitimu, ndipo adzasautsa Asuri.” (Numeri 24:2, 24) Kodi ulosi umenewu unakwaniritsidwa? Kodi zombo za ku Kupuro zinathandiza bwanji pa kukwaniritsidwa kwa ulosi umenewu? ‘Zombo zochokera ku doko la Kitimu’ zimenezi sizinali zamalonda zija ayi, koma zinali zombo zankhondo.

Chifukwa cha nkhondo, anthu anasintha zombo zimene ankapanga n’kuyamba kupanga zothamanga kwambiri ndiponso zamphamvu. N’kutheka kuti chithunzi china chimene chinapezeka ku Amathus chinali chosonyeza zombo zankhondo zoyambirira za ku Kupuro. Pachithunzipo pali chombo chachitali koma chowonda m’lifupi ndipo kumbuyo kwake n’kokwera ndiponso kolowa m’kati pang’ono, mofanana ndi zombo zankhondo za Afoinike. Chili ndi nsonga yolimba kutsogolo komanso chili ndi zishango m’mbali zonse ziwiri.

Ku Girisi, zombo zokhala ndi mizere iwiri ya anthu opalasa zinayamba kupangidwa m’ma 700 B.C.E. Zombo zimenezi zinkakhala zazitali mamita 24 m’litali ndiponso mamita atatu m’lifupi mwake. Poyamba, zombozi zinkangonyamula asilikali basi, pamene nkhondo yeniyeniyo ankamenyera pa mtunda. Posapita nthawi, anthu anaona kuti ndi bwino kukhala ndi mizere itatu ya opalasa ndipo ankaikanso nsonga yamkuwa kutsogolo kwake. Zombo zamtundu umenewu zinatchuka kwambiri pankhondo ya ku Salami (yomwe inamenyedwa mu 480 B.C.E.) pamene Agiriki anagonjetsa asilikali apanyanja a ku Perisiya.

Kenako, Alesandro Wamkulu anayenda ndi zombo zamtunduwu kulowera chakum’mawa, paulendo wake wogonjetsa mayiko ena. Zombo zimenezi zinali zoyenera nkhondo basi, osati maulendo ataliatali chifukwa zinali ndi malo ochepa osungiramo zinthu zofunikira paulendo. Izi zinachititsa kuti aime pa zilumba za panyanja ya Ejani kuti apeze zinthu zofunikira komanso kuti akonze zombozo. Cholinga cha Alesandro chinali chokawononga zombo za Aperisiya. Komabe, kuti apambane anafunika kugonjetsa kaye chilumba choopsa, chokhala ndi malinga cha Turo. Paulendowu iye anaima ku Kupuro.

Pomenyana ndi Turo (mu 332 B.C.E.), anthu a ku Kupuro anathandiza Alesandro Wamkulu pomupatsa zombo 120. Mafumu atatu a ku Kupuro anatsogolera zombo zawo pokathandiza Alesandro. Mafumuwo anamenya nawo nkhondo yogonjetsa Turo, imene inatenga miyezi 7. Turo anagonjetsedwa ndipo ulosi wa m’Baibulo unakwaniritsidwa. (Ezekieli 26:3, 4; Zekariya 9:3, 4) Pothokoza, Alesandro anapatsa mafumu a ku Kupuro mphamvu zoti azilamulira ngati mafumu ang’onoang’ono.

Kukwaniritsidwa Kochititsa Chidwi

Zaka pafupifupi 2,000 zapitazo, katswiri wina wolemba mbiri yakale, dzina lake Strabo, ananena kuti pokagonjetsa Arabia, Alesandro anapempha anthu a ku Kupuro ndi Foinike kuti amupatse zombo. Zombozo zinali zopepuka komanso zosavuta kumasula n’kuzimanganso, choncho anafika ku Thapsacus (kapena kuti Tiphsah) kumpoto kwa Suriya patangotha masiku 7 okha. (1 Mafumu 4:24) Apa tsopano akanatha kukafika ku Babulo.

Choncho, mfundo ya m’Baibulo imene ambiri sankatha kuimvetsa inakwaniritsidwa pambuyo pa zaka pafupifupi 1,000. Mogwirizana ndi mawu a pa Numeri 24:24, gulu la asilikali a Alesandro Wamkulu linayenda kuchoka ku Makedoniya kulowera chakum’mawa n’kulanda dziko la Asuri, ndi kugonjetsa ufumu wa Amedi ndi Aperisi.

Mfundo zochepa zimene tikudziwa zokhudza “zombo za ku Kitimu” mosakayikira zikusonyeza kukwaniritsidwa kochititsa chidwi kwa ulosi wa m’Baibulo. Umboni wa m’mbiri yakale woterewu umatithandiza kudalira ulosi wa m’Baibulo. Ulosi wosiyanasiyana ngati umenewu umakhudza tsogolo lathu, choncho ndi bwino kuti tisamaunyalanyaze.

[Mapu pamasamba 16, 17]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

ITALIYA

Sardinia

Sisile

Nyanja ya Ejani

GIRISI

Kerete

LIBIYA

TURKEY

KUPURO

Kition

Turo

IGUPUTO

[Chithunzi patsamba 16]

Chombo chankhondo cha Agiriki chokhala ndi mizere itatu ya opalasa

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Pictorial Archive (Near Eastern History) Est.

[Chithunzi patsamba 17]

Chombo chankhondo cha Afoinike chokhala ndi mizere iwiri ya opalasa

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Pictorial Archive (Near Eastern History) Est.

[Chithunzi patsamba 17]

Mtsuko wojambulidwa chombo cha ku Kupuro

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Published by permission of the Director of Antiquities and the Cyprus Museum

[Chithunzi patsamba 18]

Zombo zonyamula katundu ngati zimene zatchulidwa pa Yesaya 60:9