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Chikhristu Chifalikira ku Asia Minor

Chikhristu Chifalikira ku Asia Minor

 Chikhristu Chifalikira ku Asia Minor

M’NTHAWI ya atumwi, mipingo yambiri yachikhristu inabadwa ku Asia Minor (makamaka m’dziko limene masiku ano amati Turkey). Ayuda ambiri ndiponso anthu ochuluka amene sanali Ayuda analabadira uthenga wachikhristu. Buku lina lotanthauzira mawu a m’Baibulo limati: “Kupatulapo dera la Siliya ndi Palestina, ku Asia Minor n’kumene Chikhristu chinayambira ndiponso kufala kwambiri.”

Tingamvetse za kufalikira kwa Chikhristu m’derali poona zinthu zosiyanasiyana zimene zalembedwa zokhudza nkhaniyi. Tiyeni tione mmene tingapindulire ndi zinthu zimene zalembedwazi.

Akhristu Oyambirira ku Asia Minor

Chinthu choyamba chimene chinathandiza kuti Chikhristu chifalikire ku Asia Minor chinachitika kalekale pa Pentekosite mu 33 C.E., pamene gulu la anthu a zinenero zosiyanasiyana linasonkhana ku Yerusalemu. Pagululi panalinso Ayuda omwe ankakhala kunja kwa Palestina ndiponso anthu ena otembenukira ku Chiyuda. Atumwi a Yesu analalikira uthenga wabwino kwa alendo amenewa. Baibulo limati kunali anthu osiyanasiyana ochokera m’chigawo chachikulu cha ku Asia Minor monga ku Kapadokiya, Ponto, chigawo chachikulu cha Asiya, * Fulugiya, ndi Pamfuliya. Anthu pafupifupi 3,000 analabadira uthenga wachikhristu ndipo anabatizidwa. Anthuwa anapititsa kwawo Chikhristu chimene anaphunziracho.​—Machitidwe 2:5-11, 41.

Tsopano tiyeni tione zimene nkhani ya m’Baibulo imanena pofotokoza ulendo wa mtumwi Paulo ku Asia Minor. Paulendo wake woyamba, womwe anauyamba m’ma 47 C.E. n’kuumaliza m’ma 48 C.E., Paulo ndi anzake anayenda ulendo wa pamadzi wochokera ku Kupuro kupita ku Asia Minor, n’kukafika ku Pega m’chigawo cha Pamfuliya. Chifukwa choti anthu ambiri anamvera zimene Paulo ndi anzakewo ankalalikira mumzinda wa Antiokeya ku Pisidiya, Ayuda anachita nsanje n’kuyamba kulimbana ndi Paulo ndi anzake. Kenaka Paulo atapita kum’mwera chakumadzulo n’kupita ku Ikoniyo, Ayuda ena anakonza chiwembu choti awachite chipongwe amishonalewo. Anthu a m’dera lakufupi ndi kumeneku, lotchedwa Lusitara, omwe anali osachedwa kutengeka maganizo, anayamba kum’tenga Paulo ngati mulungu. Koma atabwera Ayuda ena ochokera ku Antiokeya ndi Ikoniyo, omwe ankalimbana ndi Paulo, khamu la anthulo linayamba kumugenda  Paulo ndipo linamusiya poganiza kuti wafa. Pambuyo pa zimenezi, Paulo ndi Baranaba analowera m’dera la Debe, m’chigawo cholamulidwa ndi Aroma cha Galatiya, lomwe anthu ake ankalankhula chinenero cha ku Lukaoniya. Anakhazikitsa mipingo, ndipo anaika akulu. Motero mungathe kuona kuti patatha zaka 15 kuchokera pa Pentekosite mu 33 C.E., Chikhristu chinali chitakhazikika ku Asia Minor.​—Machitidwe 13:13–14:26.

Paulendo wake wachiwiri, womwe anauyamba m’ma 49 C.E. n’kuumaliza m’ma 52 C.E., Paulo ndi anzake anayamba n’kuyenda ulendo wapamtunda wopita ku Lusitara, ndipo n’kutheka kuti anadutsa kwawo ku Tariso m’tauni ya Kilikiya. Atakumana ndi abale a ku Lusitara n’kulowera kumpoto, Paulo anayesa “kulankhula mawu” m’chigawo cha Bituniya ndi Asiya. Komabe mzimu woyera unawaletsa kutero ndipo madera amenewa anadzalalikidwa mtsogolo. M’malomwake, Mulungu anatsogolera Paulo kulalikira dera loyambira kumpoto chakumadzulo kwa Asia Minor mpaka kukafika m’dera la m’mphepete mwa nyanja lotchedwa Torowa. Kenaka Paulo anauzidwa m’masomphenya kuti akalalikire uthenga wabwino ku Ulaya.​—Machitidwe 16:1-12; 22:3.

 Paulendo wake wachitatu waumishonale, womwe anauyamba m’ma 52 C.E. n’kuumaliza m’ma 56 C.E., Paulo anadzeranso ku Asia Minor, n’kukafika mumzinda wokhala ndi doko wa Efeso, womwe unali mzinda wofunika kwambiri ku Asiya. Iye anali atafikako kale kumeneku pamene ankabwerera paulendo wake wachiwiri uja. Kagulu ka Akhristu kanali kulalikira mwakhama mumzindawo, ndipo kwa zaka zitatu, Paulo ndi anzake anawathandiza pa ntchitoyi. Panthawiyi, iwo anakumana ndi mikwingwirima ndiponso zoopsa zambiri, kuphatikizapo zachipolowe zimene osula siliva a ku Efeso anayambitsa pofuna kuteteza malonda awo a zachipembedzowa, omwe ankapindula nawo kwambiri.​—Machitidwe 18:19-26; 19:1, 8-41; 20:31.

Ntchito yaumishonale ya ku Efesoyi inafika kutali kwambiri. Lemba la Machitidwe 19:10 limati: “Onse okhala m’chigawo cha Asiya anamva mawu a Ambuye, Ayuda ndi Agiriki omwe.”

Zinthu Zinapita Patsogolo ku Asia Minor

Chakumapeto kwa nthawi imene anakhala ku Efeso, Paulo analembera Akorinto kuti: “Mipingo ya ku Asiya ikupereka moni.” (1 Akorinto 16:19) Kodi pamenepa Paulo ankanena mipingo iti? N’kutheka kuti ankanena mipingo ya ku Kolose, Laodikaya, ndi Herapoli. (Akolose 4:12-16) Buku lina linati: “Zikuoneka kuti ntchito imene inachitika ku Efeso ndi imene inathandiza kwambiri kutukula madera monga Simuna, Pegamo, Sade, ndi Filadefiya. . . . Madera onsewa anali pamtunda wa makilomita 192 kuchokera ku Efeso ndipo analumikizidwa ndi misewu yabwino kwambiri.”​—Linatero buku lotchedwa Paul​—His Story.

Motero patatha pafupifupi zaka 20 pambuyo pa Pentekosite mu 33 C.E., kum’mwera ndi kumadzulo kwa Asia Minor kunali mipingo ingapo yachikhristu. Koma bwanji za madera ena am’chigawochi?

Anthu Amene Petulo Anawalembera Makalata

Patatha zaka zingapo, mtumwi Petulo analemba kalata yake youziridwa, cha m’ma 62 mpaka 64 C.E. Kalata yakeyo inali yopita kwa Akhristu a ku Ponto, Galatiya, Kapadokiya, Asiya, ndi Bituniya. Kalata ya Petulo imasonyeza kuti n’zotheka kuti m’madera amenewa munali mipingo yachikhristu, chifukwa analimbikitsa akulu a m’mipingoyi kuti ‘awete gulu la nkhosa.’ Kodi mipingo imeneyi anaikhazikitsa liti?​—1 Petulo 1:1; 5:1-3.

 Ena mwa madera amene munali anthu amene analandira kalata ya Petulo, monga ku Asiya ndi Galatiya, analalikidwa ndi Paulo. Komabe Paulo sanafike mpaka ku Kapadokiya kapena ku Bituniya ndipo Baibulo silitiuza mmene Chikhristu chinafalikira m’madera amenewa. N’kutheka kuti chinafalikira ndi Ayuda kapena anthu otembenukira ku Chiyuda omwe anapita ku Yerusalemu pa Pentekosite mu 33 C.E. Mulimonsemo, monga mmene katswiri wina wa nkhani zoterezi ananenera, zikuoneka kuti patatha pafupifupi zaka 30 pambuyo pa Pentekosite pamene Petulo analemba makalata ake, panali mipingo yambiri imene “inangoti mbwee ku Asia Minor.”

Mipingo Isanu ndi Iwiri ya M’buku la Chivumbulutso

Ayuda anagalukira Aroma ndipo zimenezi zinachititsa kuti Aromawo awononge Yerusalemu mu 70 C.E. N’kutheka kuti patsogolo pake Akhristu ena a ku Yudeya anasamukira ku Asia Minor. *

Chakumapeto kwa nthawi ya atumwi, Yesu Khristu anachititsa kuti mtumwi Yohane alembere makalata mipingo isanu ndi iwiri ya ku Asia Minor. Makalata amenewa omwe anali opita ku Efeso, Simuna, Pegamo, Tiyatira, Sade, Filadefiya, ndi Laodikaya, amasonyeza kuti panthawiyi Akhristu a mbali imeneyi ya Asia Minor anali ndi mavuto osiyanasiyana omwe akanasokoneza chikhulupiriro chawo. Mavuto ake anali zinthu monga dama, kugawikana kwa anthu m’mipingo, ndiponso mpatuko.​—Chivumbulutso 1:9, 11; 2:14, 15, 20.

Kutumikira Modzichepetsa Komanso ndi Mtima Wonse

N’zoonekeratu kuti buku la Machitidwe silifotokoza zonse zokhudza kufalikira kwa Chikhristu m’nthawi ya atumwi. Atumwi odziwika bwino monga Petulo ndi Paulo ndiwo anachita zinthu zimene zinafotokozedwa m’buku la Machitidwe, koma sitikudziwa kuti panalinso Akhristu ena ochuluka motani amene amalalikira kwina. Zimene zinachitika ku Asia Minor zimatsimikizira kuti Akhristu oyamba anamvera lamulo la Yesu lakuti: “Choncho pitani mukapange ophunzira mwa anthu a mitundu yonse.”​—Mateyo 28:19, 20.

N’chimodzimodzinso masiku ano. Pali zambiri zokhudza ntchito imene Amboni za Yehova akuchita mokhulupirika zimene sizidziwika kwa abale padziko lonse. Monga mmene zinalili ndi anthu ambiri olalikira uthenga wabwino ku Asia Minor m’nthawi ya atumwi, alaliki ambiri a uthenga wabwino masiku ano n’ngosadziwika. Koma nawonso amasangalala kwambiri ndi moyo wawo, podziwa kuti akudzipereka kupulumutsa moyo wa ena pomvera Mulungu.​—1 Timoteyo 2:3-6.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 5 M’Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu ndiponso m’nkhani ino, mawu akuti Asiya akutanthauza chigawo cholamulidwa ndi Aroma chakumadzulo kwa Asia Minor, osati ku Asia konse ayi.

^ ndime 17 Katswiri wina wa mbiri yakale, dzina lake Eusebius (yemwe anabadwa mu 260 C.E. n’kufa mu 340 C.E.) ananena kuti chisanafike chaka cha 66 C.E., “pothawa ziwembu zofuna kuwapha, atumwi anachoka ku Yudeya chifukwa moyo wawo unali pangozi. Koma pofuna kufalitsa uthenga wawo anapita m’chigawo chilichonse mwa mphamvu ya Khristu.”

[Bokosi patsamba 11]

MMENE CHIKHRISTU CHINAYAMBIRA KU BITUNIYA NDI PONTO

Chigawo cha Bituniya ndi Ponto chinali m’mphepete mwa nyanja ya Black Sea ku Asia Minor. Timadziwa zambiri zokhudza moyo watsiku ndi tsiku wa anthu am’chigawochi chifukwa cha zimene Pliny Wamng’ono, yemwe anali mmodzi wa akuluakulu a boma kumeneko, analembera Mfumu Trajan, ya Roma.

Patatha zaka 50 makalata a Petulo atafalikira ku mipingo yam’derali, Pliny anauza Trajan kuti am’patse malangizo okhudza mmene angachitire zinthu ndi Akhristu. Pliny analemba kuti: “Sindinakhalepo pabwalo loweruza milandu ya Akhristu. Motero sindikudziwa kuti ndi zilango zotani zimene amawapatsa. Anthu ambiri a zaka zosiyanasiyana, olemera ndi osauka, amuna ndi akazi, akuzengedwa mlandu chifukwa choti ndi Akhristu, ndipo zimenezi zikuoneka kuti zipitirira. Sikuti kagulu koipa kampatukoka kasokoneza matauni okha, komanso kasokoneza madera ambiri a kumidzi.”

[Chithunzi/​Mapu patsamba 9]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

MAULENDO A PAULO

Ulendo Waumishonale Woyamba

KUPURO

PAMFILIYA

Pega

Antiokeya (wa ku Pisidiya)

Ikoniyo

Lusitara

Debe

Ulendo Waumishonale Wachiwiri

KILIKIYA

Tariso

Debe

Lusitara

Ikoniyo

Antiokeya (wa ku Pisidiya)

FULUGIYA

GALATIYA

Torowa

Ulendo Waumishonale Wachitatu

KILIKIYA

Tariso

Debe

Lusitara

Ikoniyo

Antiokeya (wa ku Pisidiya)

Efeso

ASIYA

Torowa

[Mipingo Isanu ndi Iwiri]

Pegamo

Tiyatira

Sade

Simuna

Efeso

Filadefiya

Laodikaya

[Malo Ena]

Herapoli

Kolose

LUKIYA

BITUNIYA

PONTO

KAPADOKIYA

[Chithunzi patsamba 9]

Antiokeya

[Chithunzi patsamba 9]

Torowa

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© 2003 BiblePlaces.com

[Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Nyumba yazisudzo ku Efeso.​—Machitidwe 19:29

[Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Pamene panali maziko a guwa la mulungu wotchedwa Zeu ku Pegamo. Akhristu a mumzindawu ankakhala ‘kumene kunali mpando wachifumu wa Satana.’​—Chivumbulutso 2:13

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Pictorial Archive (Near Eastern History) Est.