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Pomasulira Baibulo Loyamba la Chipwitikizi Panagona Khama

Pomasulira Baibulo Loyamba la Chipwitikizi Panagona Khama

 Pomasulira Baibulo Loyamba la Chipwitikizi Panagona Khama

“KANTHU n’khama.” Mwambi umenewu umapezeka pa tsamba loyamba la buku lonena za mawu a Mulungu la m’zaka za m’ma 1600, lolembedwa ndi João Ferreira de Almeida. N’zovuta kupeza mwambi wina wogwirizana kwambiri ndi zimene anachita Almeida. M’moyo wake, iyeyu anadzipereka kwambiri pantchito yomasulira Baibulo m’Chipwitikizi ndi kulifalitsa.

Almeida anabadwa mu 1628 m’tauni ya Torre de Tavares, kumpoto kwa Portugal. Poti anali mwana wamasiye, iye analeredwa ndi bambo ake aang’ono ndipo ankakhala ku Lisbon, likulu la dziko la Portugal. Bambo ake aang’onowo anali mkulu m’chipembedzo chawo. Anthu ambiri amakhulupirira kuti Alemeida anaphunzitsidwa bwino kwambiri n’cholinga choti adzakhale m’busa moti ankadziwa bwino zinenero zambiri adakali mwana.

Komabe Almeida akanapitirizabe kukhala ku Portugal n’zokayikitsa kuti akanagwiritsa ntchito luso lakeli pomasulira Baibulo. Panthawiyi, mayiko a kumpoto kwa Ulaya anakhala ndi Mabaibulo ambiri a zinenero za anthu wamba chifukwa cha magulu ambiri a anthu omwe anachoka m’Chikatolika. Koma dziko la Portugal linali lisanachoke m’khwapa mwa Akatolika. Moti munthu akangopezeka ndi Baibulo la m’chinenero cha anthu wamba ankatha kumutengera ku khoti la Akatolika, lomwe nthawi zambiri limaweruza anthu otere kuti aphedwe. *

N’kutheka kuti Almeida ankafuna kupewa kuponderezedwa kotereku, n’chifukwa chake anasamukira ku Netherlands ali ndi zaka 14. Adakali ndi zaka 14 zomwezo, anayamba ulendo wopita ku Asia, podzera ku Batavia (pano amati ku Jakarta), m’dziko la Indonesia, komwe panthawiyi kunali likulu la kampani ya Dutch East India m’chigawo chonse cha ku Southeast Asia.

Anayamba Kumasulira Ali Wamng’ono

Chakumapeto kwa ulendo wake wopita ku Asia, Almeida anawerenga buku limene  linasinthiratu moyo wake. Ali m’sitima yapamadzi, pochoka ku Batavia kupita ku Malacca (pano amati Meleka), cha kumadzulo kwa dziko la Malaysia, iye anapeza mwamwayi buku la m’Chisipanishi, lolembedwa ndi anthu amene anachoka m’Chikatolika. Bukuli linali ndi mutu wakuti Kusiyana Maganizo M’matchalitchi Achikhristu (Diferencias de la Cristiandad). Bukuli linanena zinthu zambiri zonyoza ziphunzitso zonyenga, koma mawu amene anam’khudza kwambiri Almeida anali akuti: “Kulalikira m’tchalitchi m’chinenero chomwe anthu sakuchidziwa, ngakhale mutakhala kuti mukufunadi kutamanda Mulungu, sikupindulitsa ngakhale pang’ono munthu amene samva chinenerocho.”​—1 Akorinto 14:9.

Apa mfundo yake inali yoonekeratu kwa Almeida: Kuti anthu adziwe kuti akuphunzitsidwa ziphunzitso zonyenga, m’pofunika kumasulira Baibulo m’zinenero zimene aliyense amamva. Motero atafika ku Malacca kuja, iye analowa tchalitchi cha Dutch Reformed ndipo nthawi yomweyo anayamba kumasulira mbali zina za mauthenga abwino kuchokera m’Chisipanishi kuti zikhale m’Chipwitikizi ndipo ankazigawira kwa anthu amene “anasonyeza chidwi chenicheni chofuna kudziwa choonadi.” *

Patatha zaka ziwiri, Almeida anali atakonzeka kugwira ntchito ina yaikulu yomasulira. Iye ankafuna kumasulira Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu pogwiritsa ntchito Baibulo la Latin Vulgate. N’zodabwitsa kwambiri kuti mwana wa zaka 16 zokha anamaliza ntchitoyi chaka chisanathe n’komwe. Mwanayu analimba mtima n’kutumiza Baibulo limene anamasuliralo kwa bwanamkubwa wachidatchi ku Batavia kuti lifalitsidwe. Zikuoneka kuti tchalitchi cha Dutch Reformed cha ku Batavia chinatumiza ku Amsterdam mapepala oyamba a Baibulo la Almeida, koma m’busa wachikulire amene anapatsidwa mapepalawo anamwalira, ndipo ntchito yonse imene Almeida anagwira inalowa m’madzi.

Tchalitchi cha Dutch Reformed chitapempha Almeida kuti achipatse Baibulo lake loyambirira kuti chikaligwiritse ntchito ku Ceylon (pano amati Sri Lanka), mu 1651, Almeida anadabwa kuona kuti Baibulolo sakulipeza m’nkhokwe ya tchalitchi yosungira mabuku. Iye sanafooke ayi, moti atafufuza kwambiri anapeza Baibulo limodzi lotere, ndipo n’kutheka kuti limeneli linali Baibulo loyamba lenilenilo limene anali asanamalize kulikonza. Ndipotu chaka chotsatira, iye anamaliza ntchito imene ankachita, yokonzanso mauthenga abwino ndi buku la Machitidwe. Bungwe lotsogolera tchalitchi cha Dutch Reformed ku Batavia linamupatsa tindalama tochepa chabe, akuti poyamikira ntchitoyo. Mnzake wina wa Almeida anati chimenechi chinali ngati “chipongwe poganizira chintchito chachikulu chimene iye anagwira.”

Ngakhale kuti Almeida sanayamikiridwe chifukwa cha ntchito yake, iye anapitiriza ntchitoyo, motero anakapereka Baibulo lake lomwe anamaliza kumasulira la Chipangano Chatsopano mu 1654. Apanso anapeza mwayi wofalitsa Baibulolo, koma zimenezi sizinatheke chifukwa choti anangokonza Mabaibulo angapo chabe olemba pamanja kuti azigwiritsidwa ntchito m’matchalitchi ena.

Khoti la Akatolika Linamuimba Mlandu

Kwa zaka khumi zotsatira, Almeida anatanganidwa kwambiri ndi ntchito yaubusa ndi umishonale m’tchalitchi cha Dutch Reformed. Iye anaikidwa kukhala mbusa mu 1656 ndipo anayamba kutumikira ku Ceylon, ndipo pambuyo pake anakhala m’mishonale woyamba wachipulotesitanti kufika ku India. Nthawi ina ali ku Ceylon anangotsala pang’ono kupondedwa ndi njovu.

Almeida anali munthu wochoka m’Chikatolika komanso yemwe ankatumikira mfumu ya dziko lina. Motero anthu ambiri a m’madera olankhula Chipwitikizi, ankamuona ngati wopanduka ndiponso woukira. Iye ankayambananso kawirikawiri ndi amishonale a Chikatolika chifukwa choti  ankadzudzula kwambiri makhalidwe oipa a ansembe ndiponso ankatsutsa ziphunzitso zonyenga za tchalitchichi. Chidanichi chinaipa kwambiri moti mu 1661, khoti la Akatolika ku Goa m’dziko la India, linalamula kuti Almeida aphedwe, akuti chifukwa cholalikira zinthu zampatuko. Khotili linawotcha chidole chofanizira iyeyu, pofuna kusonyeza kuti n’ngoyeneradi kuphedwa. Posakhalitsa, bwanamkubwa wamkulu wa ku Netherlands anamuitana kuti abwerere ku Batavia ndipo mwina anatero chifukwa choona kuti Almeida akuvutitsa kumeneko.

Almedia anali m’mishonale wakhama kwambiri, koma sanaiwale cholinga chake chomasulira Baibulo m’Chipwitikizi. M’malo mwake, iye anayesetsa kwambiri kukwaniritsa cholinga chake ataona umbuli umene unalipo pakati pa atsogoleri azipembedzo ndiponso anthu ambiri pankhani ya kudziwa Baibulo. M’mawu ake oyamba a m’kapepala kamene kanalembedwa mu 1668, Almeida analengeza izi: “Ndikukhulupirira kuti . . . posachedwapa ndikupatsani chuma chamtengo wapatali kwambiri chimene simunalandirepo. Chuma chake ndi Baibulo lonse la m’chinenero chanu.”

Almeida Analimbana ndi Komiti Younika Baibulo Lake Asanalisindikize

Mu 1676, Almeida anapereka mapepala otsiriza a Baibulo lake la Chipangano Chatsopano ku bungwe lotsogolera la ku Batavia kuti iliunike. Pachiyambi pomwe, zinthu sizinali bwino pakati pa womasulirayu ndi anthu am’komitiyi. Wolemba wina, dzina lake J. L. Swellengrebel anafotokoza kuti n’kutheka kuti anzake achidatchi a Almeida amene ankaunika Baibulo lakeli, sankadziwa bwinobwino Chipwitikizi, moti zina ndi zina sankazimvetsa. Komanso sankamvana chimodzi pa nkhani ya kusankha mawu abwino. Nkhani yake inali yakuti kodi m’Baibulomo alembemo Chipwitikizi chimene anthu wamba ankalankhula kapena Chipwitikizi chapamwamba chovuta kumvetsa? Mapeto ake, zimenezi zinachititsa kuti pakhale kukolanakolana chifukwa choti Almeida ankafunitsitsa kuti ntchito yakeyi imalizidwe.

Ntchitoyo inkayenda pang’onopang’ono, mwina chifukwa cha mikanganoyi kapena chifukwa choti anthu am’komiti ija sankaikirapo mtima. Patatha zaka zinayi, anthu am’komitiyi anali adakalimbanabe pa machaputala oyambirira a buku la Luka. Pokhumudwa ndi kuchedwa kumeneku, Almeida anatumiza mapepala ake oyamba a Baibuloli ku Netherlands kuti likafalitsidwe popanda akomiti aja kudziwa.

Ngakhale kuti bungwe lotsogolera tchalitchi cha Dutch Reformed linayesa kuletsa zofalitsa Baibulo la Chipangano Chatsopanolo, Baibulolo analitumiza ku Amsterdam mu 1681 kuti likasindizidwe, ndipo chaka chotsatira anthu a ku Batavia anayamba kulandira Mabaibulo oyamba osindikizidwawo. Tangoganizirani mmene Almeida anakhumudwira atatulukira kuti komiti imene inaunika Baibulo lakelo ku Netherlands inasintha zinthu zambirimbiri m’Baibulo lakelo. Chifukwa choti anthu am’komitiyo sankadziwa Chipwitikizi bwinobwino, Almeida anaona kuti iwo analowetsamo “zinthu zosamveka ndiponso zotsutsana, zimene zinkabisa tanthauzo la Mzimu Woyera.”

Akuluakulu aboma ku Netherlands nawo sanakhutitsidwe ndi Baibuloli ndipo analamula kuti awononge Mabaibulo onse. Ngakhale zinali choncho, Almeida anapempha akuluakulu abomalo kuti asiyeko Mabaibulo angapo. Iwo ananena kuti avomera kutero ngati zolakwikazo za m’Baibulomo zitakonzedwa pamanja. Cholinga chake chinali choti Mabaibulo amenewa azigwiritsidwa ntchito mpaka atadzalikonza mwina ndi mwina.

Komiti ya ku Batavia inakumana kuti ipitirize ntchito yawo ya Malemba Achigiriki Achikhristu n’kuyamba kuunika mabuku aliwonse a Malemba Achiheberi amene Almeida anali atamaliza. Poopa kuti Almeida alephera kuugwira mtima, Bungwe lotsogolera linaganiza zobisa mu tchalitchi, mapepala onse a Baibuloli omwe anali atamalizidwa ndi kusainidwa. N’zosadabwitsa kuti Almeida analimbana nawo pankhaniyi.

Panthawiyi n’kuti Almeida atafooka chifukwa cha ntchito yovuta imene anagwira kwa zaka zambiri ndiponso mavuto amene anakumana nawo chifukwa chokhala m’dera lotentha. Chifukwa chodwaladwala, mu 1689 Almeida anapuma pa ntchito yake yokhudza tchalitchi kuti adzipereke kugwira ntchito yomasulira Malemba Achiheberi. N’zomvetsa chisoni kuti iye anamwalira mu 1691 akuti azimaliza chaputala chotsiriza cha buku la Ezekieli.

Baibulo lake la Chipangano Chatsopano limene anali kulikonzanso lija analimaliza atangotsala pang’ono kumwalira, ndipo analisindikiza mu 1693. Koma zikuoneka kuti apanso ntchito yakeyi inasokonezeka chifukwa cha anthu osadziwa bwino ntchito yawo omwe anali m’makomiti ounika Baibulolo.  Wolemba wina, dzina lake G. L. Santos Ferreira, m’buku lake lotchedwa A Biblia em Portugal (Mbiri ya Baibulo ku Portugal), anati: “Akomitiwa . . . anasintha zinthu zambiri m’Baibulo lambambande la Almeida, ndipo anawononga ndi kuipitsiratu zinthu zonse zabwino zimene zinatsala pambuyo poti akomiti yoyamba aja aunika Baibuloli.”

Kumaliza Ntchito Yomasulira Baibulo la Chipwitikizi

Atamwalira Almeida, panalibe aliyense wolimbikitsa ntchito younikanso ndi kufalitsa Baibulo la m’Chipwitikizili ku Batavia. Bungwe lolimbikitsa Chikhristu la ku London (Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge) ndi limene linathandiza kuti patuluke Baibulo lounikidwa kachitatu la Chipangano Chatsopano, lomwe anamasulira Almeida. Zimenezi zinachitika mu 1711 ndipo kwenikweni linali pempho la amishonale ena a ku Denmark, omwe ankatumikira ku Tranquebar, cha kum’mwera kwa dziko la India.

Bungwe la ku London lija linaganiza zokhazikitsa malo osindikizira ku Tranquebar. Koma paulendo wake wopita ku India, sitima yomwe inatenga zinthu zonse zofunika pantchito yosindikizayi ndiponso Mabaibulo a Chipwitikizi inalandidwa ndi achifwamba a ku France ndipo anakaisiya ku doko la ku Rio de Janeiro, ku Brazil. Santos Ferreira analemba kuti: “Pa zifukwa zosamvetsetseka ndiponso zooneka kuti zinachitika mozizwitsa, mabokosi amene munali zinthu zofunika pa ntchito yosindikiza zija anapezeka ali bwinobwino pansi pa chipinda chosungiramo katundu m’sitimamo ndipo anayenda pa sitima yomweyo kupita ku Tranquebar.” Amishonale a ku Denmark aja anaunika mosamala mbali yotsala ya mabuku a m’Baibulo amene Almeida anamasulira ndipo anaifalitsa. Gawo lotsiriza la Baibulo la Chipwitikizili linatuluka mu 1751, patatha zaka pafupifupi 110 kuchokera nthawi imene Almeida anayamba ntchito yake yomasulira Baibulo.

Anasiya Chuma Chokhalitsa

Kuyambira ali mwana, Almeida anadziwa kuti pankafunika Baibulo la m’Chipwitikizi kuti anthu wamba amvetse choonadi m’chinenero chawo. Pamoyo wake wonse, iye anachita khama zedi kuti akwaniritse cholinga chimenechi, ngakhale kuti Akatolika ankalimbana naye, anzake ankam’fooketsa, akomiti ounika Baibulo lake ankangobweretsabe zinthu zambirimbiri zoti zikonzedwe, ndiponso iyeyo ankadwaladwala. Komabe khama lake linapindula.

M’madera ambiri olankhula Chipwitikizi amene Almeida analalikirako mwangotsala anthu ochepa chabe kapena mulibiretu anthu, koma Baibulo la Almeida lidakalipobe. M’zaka za m’ma 1800, mabungwe awiri ofalitsa Baibulo (British and Foreign Bible Society ndi American Bible Society) anagawira Mabaibulo ambirimbiri omasuliridwa ndi Almeida. Anagawira Mabaibulowa ku Portugal ndi m’mizinda ya ku Brazil ya m’mphepete mwa nyanja. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, ena mwa Mabaibulo a Chipwitikizi otchuka kwambiri masiku ano anachokera pa Mabaibulo akale a Almeida.

N’zosachita kufunsa kuti pali anthu ambiri amene akuyamikira ntchito ya anthu akale monga Almeida, omwe anayamba kumasulira Baibulo. Koma tiyenera kuyamikira kwambiri Yehova, Mulungu amene anatipatsa Mawu ake, “amene chifuniro chake n’chakuti anthu, kaya akhale a mtundu wotani, apulumuke ndi kukhala odziwa choonadi molondola.” (1 Timoteyo 2:3, 4) Kwenikweni iyeyu ndiye wasunga ndi kutipatsa Mawu akewa kuti tipindule nawo. Nthawi zonse tiziyamikira kwambiri ndi kuphunzira “chuma chamtengo wapatali kwambiri” chimenechi chochokera kwa Atate wathu wakumwamba.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 4 Kuyambira cha m’ma 1550, tchalitchi cha Katolika chinatulutsa ndandanda ya mabuku oletsedwa (Index of Forbidden Books), n’kuletseratu kugwiritsa ntchito Mabaibulo a zinenero wamba. Buku lina (The New Encyclopædia Britannica) linati, “kwa zaka 200, zimenezi zinaimitsiratu ntchito yomasulira ya tchalitchi cha Katolika.”

^ ndime 8 M’Mabaibulo oyambirira a Almeida amam’tchula iyeyu ndi mawu akuti Padre (Bambo), motero anthu ena amakhulupirira kuti Almeida anakhalapo wansembe wachikatolika. Komano mawuwa analembedwa molakwitsa ndi akonzi a Baibulolo, omwe anali Adatchi, chifukwa iwo ankaganiza kuti mawuwa amatanthauza kuti m’busa.

[Bokosi/Chithunzi patsamba 21]

DZINA LA MULUNGU

Chitsanzo choonekera kwambiri cha kukhulupirika kwa Almeida pa ntchito yake yomasulira n’chakuti, iye anagwiritsa ntchito dzina la Mulungu pomasulira zilembo zinayi za m’Chiheberi zoimira dzinali.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Cortesia da Biblioteca da Igreja de Santa Catarina (Igreja dos Paulistas)

[Mapu patsamba 18]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

NYANJA YA ATLANTIC

PORTUGAL

Lisbon

Torre de Tavares

[Chithunzi patsamba 18]

Ku Batavia cha m’ma 1600

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

From Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indiën, Franciscus Valentijn, 1724

[Chithunzi pamasamba 18, 19]

Tsamba loyamba la Baibulo loyamba la Chipwitikizi la Chipangano Chatsopano, lofalitsidwa mu 1681

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Courtesy Biblioteca Nacional, Portugal