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Kalendala ya Zaulimi ya mu “Dziko Lokoma”

Kalendala ya Zaulimi ya mu “Dziko Lokoma”

 Kalendala ya Zaulimi ya mu “Dziko Lokoma”

MU 1908 anthu anatulukira chinthu chochititsa chidwi kwambiri mumzinda wa Gezeri, womwe umatchulidwa m’Baibulo. Mzinda umenewu uli m’dera la m’mphepete mwa nyanja cha kumadzulo kwa Yerusalemu. Kumeneku anapezako kamwala kolembedwa zinthu, komwe akuganiza kuti n’kakale kwambiri mwina m’zaka za m’ma 900 B.C.E. Pakamwalako, analembapo zinthu m’zilembo zakale za m’Chiheberi. Akuti mwina imeneyi ndi ndandanda yachidule yosonyeza kalendala ya zaulimi. Kamwala kameneka kanayamba kudziwika ndi dzina loti Kalendala ya ku Gezeri.

Pakamwalaka panalembedwa dzina lakuti Abiya. Anthu ambiri amaona kuti mwana wa sukulu ndiye analemba zimenezi pakamwalako, monga ndakatulo, kuti akachongetse kwa aphunzitsi. Komabe si akatswiri onse a mbiri ya zinthu zakale zokumbidwa pansi amene amavomereza zimenezi. * Kodi mungakonde kuona mmene chaka chinkayendera panthawiyo poona zimene mnyamatayu analemba? Kuchita zimenezi kungakuthandizeni kukumbukira nkhani zina zimene zinalembedwa m’Baibulo.

Miyezi Iwiri Yokolola

Mukalendala yakaleyi mnyamatayo anayamba kulemba nyengo yokolola. Ngakhale kuti m’kalendalayi anayamba n’kulemba za ntchito yokolola, mungathe kumvetsa chifukwa chimene Aisiraeli ankaona ntchito yokololayi ngati chimake, kapena kuti mapeto a nyengo yofunika kwambiri yachaka. Mwezi wa Etani (womwe unadzayamba kutchedwa kuti Tishiri) umayenderana ndi miyezi ya September/​October pakalendala ya masiku ano. Anthu ankasangalala kwambiri panthawiyi chifukwa choti ankakhala atamaliza kukolola. Ana monga Abiya ayenera kuti nawonso ankasangalala kwambiri panthawiyi. Taganizirani mmene Abiya ankasangalalira pothandiza bambo ake kukonza msasa woti akhalemo kwa mlungu wonsewo pothokoza Yehova mosangalala chifukwa chowapatsa zokolola zambiri.​—Deuteronomo 16:13-15.

Panthawiyi azitona anali atatsala pang’ono kukhwima, ndipo akakhwima, banja la Abiya linkam’kolola  pokwapula nthambi za mtengo wa azitonawo. N’kutheka kuti mwana ngati Abiya sakanakwanitsa kuchita ntchitoyi koma ankasangalala kungoonerera ena akutero. (Deuteronomo 24:20) Iwo ankatolera zipatso za azitonazo n’kupita nazo ku malo enaake pafupi omwe kunali mphero pofuna kuti akayenge mafuta m’zipatsozi. Nthawi zina banja linkayenga mafuta pogwiritsira ntchito njira yachidule, yoviika m’madzi zipatso zonyenyeka za azitona kenaka n’kutsanula mafuta ake akamayandama pamwamba pa madziwo. Kaya agwiritsa ntchito njira yotani, mafuta amtengo wapataliwa ankathandiza m’njira zinanso osati pazakudya zokha. Ankawathiranso m’nyali ndiponso ankawapaka pa mabala ndi zilonda. N’kutheka kuti ana ngati Abiya ankakhala ndi zilonda zoterezi chifukwa chosewera.

Miyezi Iwiri Yodzala

Abiya ayenera kuti ankasangalala kwambiri mvula ya chizimalupsa ikayamba kugwa chifukwa mwina ankasewera pa mvulayo. N’kuthekanso kuti bambo ake ankamuuza za kufunika kwa mvula m’nthaka. (Deuteronomo 11:14) Mvulayi inkathandiza kuti nthaka yomwe inali itauma chifukwa chowombedwa ndi dzuwa kwa miyezi ingapo ifewe moti ikhale yosavuta kugalawuza. Alimi apanthawiyi ankagalawuza ndi mapulawo a thabwa koma okhala ndi khasu la chitsulo, omwe ankakokedwa ndi ziweto. Ankatero pofuna kukonza mizere yowongoka bwino m’mundawo. Malo olima anali ofunika kwambiri kwa Aisiraeli moti ankalima pa malo aliwonse angachepe bwanji, ngakhale malo omwe ali potsetsereka kwambiri. Koma malo oterewa ankawagalawuza ndi khasu.

Akagalawuza nthaka yofewa ija, ankadzala tirigu ndi barele. N’zochititsa chidwi kuti miyezi yotsatira imene  inalembedwa mu Kalendala ya ku Gezeri ija inali miyezi iwiri yodzala mbewu zimenezi. Podzala, mlimiyo ankatapa mbewuzo m’thumba la chovala chake n’kumazimwaza.

Miyezi Iwiri ya Chibwereza

“Dziko lokoma” linali la mwanaalirenji. (Deuteronomo 3:25) Mu December, mvula inkafika pa chimake ndipo m’dziko lonseli munkaphukira zomera zosiyanasiyana. Imeneyi inali nthawi yodzala mbewu za chibwereza za m’gulu la nyemba monga nsawawa, ndi mbewu zina zamasamba. (Amosi 7:1, 2) Pamwalawo, nyengo imeneyi Abiya anaitcha kuti “zakudya za nyengo ya masika,” ndipo ena amamasulira mawuwo kuti nyengo ya “chibwereza.” Iyi inali nthawi ya zakudya zokoma monga ndiwo zamasamba zomwe ankatchola panthawiyi.

Kenako nyengo yozizira pang’ono imeneyi ikadutsa, mitengo ya mchiwu imachita maluwa omwe amakhala oyera ndi ofiira ndipo zimenezi zinali chizindikiro cha masika. Mitengoyi inkayamba maluwa mwamsanga kwambiri mwina mu January kukangoyamba kutentha pang’ono.​—Yeremiya 1:11, 12.

Mwezi Umodzi Wodula Nthamza

Kenaka Abiya anatchula za nthamza. Mwina zimenezi zikukukumbutsani zimene zinachitika zaka zambiri m’mbuyomo kum’mawa kwa mapiri a Yudeya, Abiya asanabadwe. Kumzinda wa Yeriko, Rahabi anabisa azondi awiri “ndi mitengo ya nthamza” yomwe inayanikidwa pa denga. (Yoswa 2:6) Mbewu ya nthamza inali yofunika kwambiri kwa Aisiraeli. Akafuna kuchotsa ulusi wake, ankasiya mitengoyo kuti iwole ponyowa ndi mame. Akangodalira mame okha, mitengoyi inkawola pang’onopang’ono. Komano sinkachedwa kuwola akaiviika m’chitsime kapena mumtsinje. Ulusi wakewo ankapangira nsalu, zomwe ankazigwiritsa ntchito popanga malona, zovala ndiponso zinsalu zoika pamwamba pa zombo zoyendera mphepo. Nthawi zina ankagwitsiranso ntchito ulusi umenewu popanga zingwe za nyali.

Anthu ena amatsutsa zoti ku Gezeri ankalimako nthamza, chifukwa amati kumeneko madzi anali osowa. N’chifukwa chake ena amakhulupirira kuti mu Kalendala ya ku Gezeri, mawu akuti “nthamnza” kwenikweni amatanthauza udzu wodyetsa ziweto. Koma ena amati zimenezi zinali zotheka chifukwa choti kunali kumapeto kwa chaka.

Mwezi Umodzi Wokolola Barele

Chaka chilichonse, pambuyo pa mwezi wodula nthamza, Abiya ankasangalala kuona ngala zobiriwira za barele ndipotu mbewu imeneyi ndiyo mbewu yotsatira imene anaitchula m’kalendala yake. Mwezi umenewu mu Chiheberi amati Abibu, kutanthauza kuti “Ngala Zobiriwira,” ndipo n’kutheka kuti mawuwa amanena za nthawi imene ngalazo zimakhala  zitakhwima koma zidakali zofewa. Yehova analamula kuti: “Samalirani mwezi wa Abibu, kuti muzichitira Yehova Mulungu wanu Pasika.” (Deuteronomo 16:1) Mwezi wa Abibu (womwe kenaka unadzatchedwa kuti Nisani), umayamba cha mu March n’kufika cha mu April. N’kutheka kuti nthawi yoyamba kukolola barele ndiyo inkathandiza kuti adziwe nthawi imene mweziwu wayambira. Ngakhale masiku ano, Ayuda otchedwa Akaraite amadalira kukhwima kwa barele kuti adziwe kuti alowa chaka chawo chatsopano. Mulimonsemo, barele woyamba kukololedwa ankamuweyula pamaso pa Yehova, padeti la Abibu 16.​—Levitiko 23:10, 11.

Mbewu ya barele inali yofunika zedi tsiku ndi tsiku kwa Aisiraeli ambiri. Barele anali wotsika mtengo poyerekezera ndi tirigu, motero anthu ambiri, makamaka osauka, ankakonda kuphika mkate wa barele.​—Ezekieli 4:12.

Mwezi Umodzi Wokolola ndi Kuyeza

Tangoganizirani kuti kalelo, tsiku lina m’mawa Abiya anayang’ana m’mwamba n’kuona kuti mitambo yamvula ikukanganuka, kutanthauza kuti mvula ikhala nthawi ndithu isanabwerenso. Panthawiyi zomera za m’dziko lokomali zinkadalira mame. (Genesis 27:28; Zekariya 8:12) Alimi a ku Isiraeli ankadziwa kuti mbewu zambiri zomwe anazikolola m’miyezi yadzuwa kwambiri pachaka zinkafunikira kuwombedwa kamphepo pang’ono mpaka nyengo ya Pentekosite. Mphepo yozizira, yobwera pamodzi ndi mvula yamawawa, yomwe inkachokera cha kumpoto iyenera kuti inkathandiza kuti mbewu zimere bwino, koma inkawononga mitengo yazipatso imene yatuluka maluwa. Mphepo yotentha yochokera kum’mwera inkathandiza kuti maluwawo atseguke bwinobwino kuti ayambe kukhwima n’kudzasanduka zipatso.​—Miyambo 25:23; Nyimbo ya Solomo 4:16.

Yehova, yemwe ndi Mbuye wa zanyengo, anakonza zoti chilengedwechi chiziyenda mwadongosolo zedi. M’nthawi ya Abiya, dziko la Isiraeli linalidi “dziko la tirigu ndi barele, ndi mipesa, ndi mikuyu, ndi makangaza; dziko la azitona a mafuta, ndi uchi.” (Deuteronomo 8:8) N’kutheka kuti Abiya, agogo ake anamuuzapo za nthawi ya mwanaalirenji, muulamuliro wa Mfumu yanzeru Solomo. Zinali zoonekeratu kuti amenewo anali madalitso a Yehova.​—1 Mafumu 4:20.

Pambuyo pa miyezi ya kukolola, pakalendalayi pali mawu ena amene amatanthauza “kuyeza.” Mwina mawuwo amanena za kuyeza zokolola pofuna kudziwa zimene zili za mwini munda, zolipira antchito, kapenanso zolipirira msonkho. Komabe akatswiri ena amati mawu a Chiheberiwo amatanthauza “kudyerera” ndipo amati mwina mawuwo ankanena za phwando la Madyerero a Masabata, lomwe linkachitika m’mwezi wa Sivani (May/​June).​—Eksodo 34:22.

Miyezi Iwiri Yolakatitsa Masamba

Kenako Abiya analemba za kusamalira mpesa. Ayenera kuti iye ankathandiza nawo kulakatitsa masamba a mpesa n’cholinga choti zipatso zake  ziziwombedwa dzuwa. (Yesaya 18:5) Ndiyeno imafika nthawi yokolola, yomwe inali yosangalatsa kwambiri kwa ana, ndipo tangoganizani mmene mphesa zoyamba kucha zimakomera. N’kutheka kuti Abiya anauzidwapo za azondi 12 amene Mose anawatuma kukazonda Dziko Lolonjezedwa kuti akaone mmene dzikolo linalili. Panthawi yomwe anakazondayo n’kuti zipatso zoyamba zitayamba kukhwima. Phava limodzi lokha la mphesa linali lolemera kwabasi moti panafunika amuna awiri kuti alinyamule.​—Numeri 13:20, 23.

Mwezi Umodzi wa Zipatso za Malimwe

Potsiriza, kalendala ya Abiya imatchula za zipatso za malimwe. Kale ku Middle East, chilimwe inali nthawi ya zipatso. Pambuyo pa nthawi ya Abiya, Yehova anagwiritsa ntchito mawu akuti “mtanga wa zipatso za malimwe” kutanthauza kuti “chitsiriziro” chinayenera kufika pa anthu ake Aisiraeli. Mawu a Chiheberi amene Yehova anagwiritsa ntchito akuti “zipatso za malimwe” amafanana ndi mawu akuti “chitsiriziro.” (Amosi 8:2) Zimenezi ziyenera kuti zinakumbutsa Aisiraeli osakhulupirika kuti zivute zitani Yehova awalanga. N’zosakayikitsa kuti polemba za zipatso za malimwe, Abiya ankatanthauzanso nkhuyu. Nkhuyu za malimwezi amatha kupangira makeke akudya kapena mankhwala opaka pa zilonda.​—2 Mafumu 20:7.

Mmene Kalendala ya ku Gezeri Imakukhudzirani

N’zosakayikitsa kuti Abiya ankadziwa bwino za ulimi wa kumeneku chifukwa panthawiyi Aisiraeli ambiri anali achikumbe. N’kutheka kuti mwina simudziwa zambiri zokhuza ulimi komabe Kalendala ya ku Gezeriyi ingakuthandizeni kumvetsa kwambiri Baibulo.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 3 Anthu samvana chimodzi pankhani ya kugwirizana kwa ndandanda ya pa Kalendala ya Gezeri ndi miyezi imene Baibulo limatchula. Komanso, m’madera osiyanasiyana a m’Dziko Lolonjezedwa, ntchito zina zaulimi zinkachitika pa nthawi yosiyanako pang’ono.

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 11]

MAWU A PA KALENDALA YA KU GEZERI TINGAWAMASULIRE CHONCHI:

“Miyezi yokolola azitona

miyezi yodzala;

miyezi ya zakudya za m’nyengo ya masika;

mwezi wopanga ulusi wa nthamza;

mwezi wokolola barele;

mwezi wokolola ndi kuyeza tirigu;

miyezi yosadzira kapena kutengulira mitengo yazipatso;

mwezi wa zipatso za m’nyengo yachilimwe.”

[dzina la wolemba:] Abiya *

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 41 Zachokera m’buku la Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions, Volume 1, lolembedwa ndi John C. L. Gibson, 1971.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Archaeological Museum of Istanbul

[Tchati/​Zithunzi patsamba 9]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

NISANI (ABIBU)

March​—April

IYARA (ZIVI)

April​—May

SIVANI

May​—June

TAMUZI

June​—July

ABI

July​—August

ELOLI

August​—September

TISHIRI (ETANIMU)

September​—October

ESHIVANI (BULI)

October​—November

KHISILEVU

November​—December

TIBETI

December​—January

SHIBATI

January​—February

EDARA

February​—March

VIYEDARA

March

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Farmer: Garo Nalbandian

[Chithunzi patsamba 8]

Mabwinja a ku Gezeri

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© 2003 BiblePlaces.com

[Zithunzi patsamba 10]

Mtengo wa mchiwu

[Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Mtengo wa nthamza

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Dr. David Darom

[Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Barele

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

U.S. Department of Agriculture