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Ntchito ya Alembi Akale Yokopera Mawu a Mulungu

Ntchito ya Alembi Akale Yokopera Mawu a Mulungu

 Ntchito ya Alembi Akale Yokopera Mawu a Mulungu

MALEMBA ACHIHEBERI anamalizidwa kulembedwa chaka cha 400 B.C.E. chisanafike. Zaka mazana zotsatira, akatswiri achiyuda, makamaka Asoferimu kenako Amasorete, anali ndi udindo wokopa ndi kusunga Malemba Achiheberi mosamala. Komabe, zaka 1,000 Asoferimu asanakhaleko, mabuku oyambirira a m’Baibulo anali atalembedwa kale nthawi ya Mose ndi Yoswa. Zinthu zimene ankagwiritsa ntchito kulembapo mabukuwo zinali zoti zinkawonongeka. Choncho ayenera kuti mipukutuyo ankaikopera mobwerezabwereza. Kodi ntchito ya alembi inali yotani nthawi imeneyo? Kodi kalelo m’Isiraeli munali akatswiri odziwa kukopera mipukutu?

Mipukutu yakale kwambiri ya mabuku a m’Baibulo imene ilipo lero ili m’gulu la mipukutu yomwe inapezeka ku Nyanja Yakufa. Ina mwa mipukutuyi inakopedwa pakati pa zaka za m’ma 300 ndi 101 B.C.E. Pulofesa Alan R. Millard, katswiri wa zinenero ndi zinthu zakale za kumayiko a kum’mawa kwa nyanja ya Mediterranean, anati: “Tilibe mipukutu yakale kwambiri ya mabuku a m’Baibulo. Koma tikaona ntchito ya alembi a m’mayiko ozungulira [Isiraeli], titha kudziwa mmene alembi akalewo ankagwirira ntchito yawo. Ndipo zimenezi zingatithandize kufufuza Malemba Achiheberi ndi mbiri yake.”

Ntchito ya Alembi Akale

Zaka 4,000 zapitazo ku Mesopotamiya, kunkalembedwa mipukutu yofotokoza mbiri, chipembedzo, malamulo, maphunziro ndi nkhani zinanso. Kunali sukulu zambiri za alembi komwe ankaphunzitsakonso luso lokopera mipukutu molondola. Akatswiri a masiku ano akafufuza mipukutu ya ku Babulo, amapeza kuti malemba ake anangosintha pang’ono chabe ngakhale kuti anakopedwa mobwerezabwereza pa zaka 1,000 kapena kuposerapo.

Sikuti ntchito ya alembi inali ku Mesopotamiya kokha ayi. Buku lina limati: “M’zaka za m’ma 1500 BCE, mlembi wa ku Babulo akapita ku mzinda uliwonse kumene kunali ntchito yaulembi, monga ku Mesopotamiya, Suriya, Kanani ngakhale ku Iguputo, zikuoneka kuti sankakhala mlendo chifukwa ntchitoyo inali yofanana.”​—The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. *

Ntchito yaulembi inali yapamwamba kwambiri ku Iguputo nthawi ya Mose. Alembi nthawi zonse ankagwira ntchito yokopera mipukutu. Umboni wa zimenezi umaoneka pa zinthu zokongoletsera  manda a ku Iguputo amene akhalako kwa zaka zoposa 4,000. Buku limene talitchulalo limafotokoza za alembi akale apanthawi imeneyo. Limati: “Pofika zaka za m’ma 1999 mpaka 1001 BCE, anali atalemba ndi kusonkhanitsa mipukutu yambirimbiri yofotokoza chitukuko cha ku Mesopotamiya ndi ku Iguputo. Mipukutu imeneyi inapanga mfundo zoyenera kutsatira pa ntchito yaulembi.”

Mfundo zimenezi zinafuna kuti akamakopera mpukutu kapena phale, azilembanso mawu ofotokoza za mpukutuwo kapena phalelo. Mawu amenewo anali kutchula dzina la mlembi ndiponso mwini wake wa phale, deti lake, kumene anachotsa zimene anakopera pa phalepo, chiwerengero cha mizere yake, ndi zina zotero. Nthawi zambiri mlembi ankawonjezapo mawu akuti: “Ndakopera ndendende zimene zinali pa phale loyambirira n’kuziyerekezera, ndipo n’zofanana.” Zimenezi zikusonyeza kuti alembi akale ankaonetsetsa kuti akukopera molondola.

Pulofesa Millard ananenanso kuti: “Ntchito yokopa inkaphatikizapo kuwerenganso zimene zalembedwazo n’kuzikonza, ndipo zimenezi zinathandiza kuti apewe kulakwitsa. Zinanso zimene ankachita, monga kuwerengetsera mizere kapena mawu, n’zimenenso Amasorete ankachita zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka 1500 C.E.” Choncho panthawi ya Mose ndi Yoswa, mtima wofuna kukopera zinthu molondola ndi mosamala unali ulipo kale ku Middle East.

Kodi Aisiraeli anali ndi alembi odziwa bwino ntchito yokopera? Kodi Baibulo limasonyeza chiyani?

Kale Alembi Analiko ku Isiraeli

Mose anakulira m’banja la Farao. (Eksodo 2:10; Machitidwe 7:21, 22) Akatswiri a mbiri ya Iguputo wakale amati zimene Mose anaphunzira zingaphatikizepo kuwerenga ndi kulemba bwino kalembedwe ka Aiguputo komanso zina ndi zina za ntchito yaulembi. M’buku lake, pulofesa James K. Hoffmeier anati: “M’pake kukhulupirira zimene Baibulo limanena kuti Mose ankatha kulemba zochitika, maulendo, ndi zinthu zina zokhudzana ndi ntchito yaulembi.” *​—Israel in Egypt.

 Baibulo limatchulanso anthu ena m’Isiraeli wakale amene anali ndi luso pantchito yaulembi. Buku lakuti The Cambridge History of the Bible limati, Mose “anasankha anthu audindo odziwa kulemba ndi kuwerenga . . . kuti azilemba zigamulo ndi kukonza dongosolo loyendetsera zinthu.” Bukuli likunena zimenezi chifukwa cha zimene zili pa Deuteronomo 1:15. Pamenepa pamati: “Potero [ine Mose] ndinatenga akulu a mafuko anu . . . ndi kuwaika akhale akulu anu, atsogoleri a zikwi, ndi atsogoleri a mazana, ndi atsogoleri a makumi asanu, ndi atsogoleri a makumi, ndi akapitao, a mafuko anu.” Kodi akapitao amenewa anali ndani?

Liwu lachiheberi lomasuliridwa kuti “akapitao” limapezeka kwambiri m’ndime za m’Baibulo zimene zimasimba za nthawi ya Mose ndi Yoswa. Akatswiri ambiri amati liwu limeneli limatanthauza “mlembi,” “wolemba kaundula,” ndiponso “munthu waudindo amene anathandiza oweruza ndi ntchito yaulembi.” Popeza kuti liwu lachiheberi limeneli limapezekapezeka m’malemba, zikusonyeza kuti ku Isiraeli kunali alembi ambiri ndipo anali ndi udindo waukulu woyendetsa zinthu pamtunduwo.

Chitsanzo china ndi ansembe a mu Isiraeli. Buku lakuti Encyclopaedia Judaica limati “iwo anafunika kudziwa kulemba ndi kuwerenga kuti achite ntchito zawo zachipembedzo ndi zaboma.” Mwachitsanzo, Mose analamula ana a Levi kuti: “Pakutha pake pa zaka zisanu ndi ziwiri, . . . muzilalikira [muziwerenga] chilamulo ichi pamaso pa Israyeli wonse.” Ansembe anakhala ndi udindo wosunga mpukutu woyambirira wa Chilamulo. Anali ndi udindo wololeza ndi kuyang’anira ntchito yokopera mpukutuwo.​—Deuteronomo 17:18, 19; 31:10, 11.

Tiyeni tione nthawi yoyamba imene anakopera mpukutu wa Chilamulo. Mwezi womaliza wa moyo wake, Mose anauza Aisiraeli kuti: “Ndipo kudzali, tsiku lakuoloka inu Yordano kulowa dziko limene Yehova Mulungu wanu akupatsani, kuti mudziutsire miyala yaikulu, ndi kuimata ndi njereza; ndipo mulemberepo mawu onse a chilamulo ichi.” (Deuteronomo 27:1-4) Atawononga Yeriko ndi Ai, Aisiraeli anasonkhana pa phiri la Ebala, lomwe linali chapakatikati pa Dziko Lolonjezedwa. Kumeneko Yoswa anakoperadi “chilamulo cha Mose” pamiyala ya guwa la nsembe. (Yoswa 8:30-32) Zimenezi zinatheka chifukwa chakuti anthu anali kudziwa kulemba ndi kuwerenga. Umenewu ndi umboni wakuti Aisiraeli akale anali ndi luso lokopera malemba awo opatulika molondola.

Malemba N’ngodalirika

Mose ndi Yoswa atamwalira, mipukutu ina ya Malemba Achiheberi inalembedwa, ndipo malemba amenewa anawakopera m’mipukutu inanso yolembedwa pamanja. Mipukutu imeneyi inkakopedwanso ikayamba kung’ambika kapena kuwonongeka ndi chinyezi kapena nkhungu. Ntchito yokopera imeneyi inachitika kwa zaka mazana ambiri.

Ngakhale kuti akatswiri okopera Baibulo ankayesetsa kukopera molondola, zolakwika zina zinapezekabe. Kodi zimene okoperawo analakwitsa zinasintha Baibulo kwambiri? Ayi. Zolakwika zimenezi sizinali zazikulu kwambiri moti n’kusintha uthenga wa m’Baibulo. Tikutero chifukwa chakuti kuyerekezera mipukutu yakale ndi Baibulo, kwasonyeza kuti uthenga wake sunasinthe.

Yesu Khristu ali pa dziko lapansi, anaona mipukutu ya mabuku oyambirira a m’Baibulo kukhala yodalirika. Iye anati: “Kodi inu simuwerenga m’buku la Mose?” Ndipo anatinso: “Mose anakupatsani Chilamulo, sanatero kodi?” (Maliko 12:26; Yohane 7:19) Zimenezi zimatsimikizira Akhristu kuti uthenga wa m’Malemba Opatulika sunasinthe. Yesu anatsimikiziranso kuti Malemba Achiheberi onse ndi odalirika pamene anati: ‘Zonse zokhudza ine zolembedwa m’chilamulo cha Mose, m’Zolemba za aneneri ndi m’Masalimo ziyenera kukwaniritsidwa.’​—Luka 24:44.

Choncho tili ndi zifukwa zokwana zokhulupirira kuti Malemba Opatulika anakopedwa molondola kuchokera masiku amakedzana. Zimenezi zikugwirizana ndi zimene mneneri Yesaya ananena kuti: “Udzu unyala, duwa lifota, koma mawu a Mulungu wathu adzakhala nthawi zachikhalire.”​—Yesaya 40:8.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 6 Yoswa, amene anakhala ndi moyo zaka za m’ma 1500 B.C.E., anatchula za mzinda wa ku Kanani wotchedwa kuti Kiriyati-Seferi. Dzinali limatanthauza “Mzinda wa Mabuku” kapena “Mzinda wa Alembi.”​—Yoswa 15:15, 16.

^ ndime 12 Umboni wakuti Mose analemba nkhani zamalamulo umapezeka pa Eksodo 24:4, 7; 34:27, 28 ndi pa Deuteronomo 31:24-26. Nyimbo imene analemba imatchulidwa pa Deuteronomo 31:22, ndipo nkhani yonena za ulendo wawo m’chipululu imatchulidwa pa Numeri 33:2.

[Chithunzi patsamba 18]

Mlembi wa ku Iguputo ali pa ntchito yake

[Chithunzi patsamba 19]

Mabuku oyambirira a m’Baibulo analembedwa nthawi ya Mose