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Wessel Gansfort “Anali ndi Mfundo Zosintha Zinthu”

Wessel Gansfort “Anali ndi Mfundo Zosintha Zinthu”

 Wessel Gansfort “Anali ndi Mfundo Zosintha Zinthu”

Anthu onse amene anaphunzirapo za zomwe zinachitika kuyambira mu 1517, pomwe magulu a anthu ankachoka m’Chikatolika n’kuyambitsa matchalitchi awo, akudziwa bwino anthu monga Luther, Tyndale, ndi Calvin. Koma ndi anthu ochepa chabe amene akudziwa munthu wotchedwa Wessel Gansfort. Iyeyu watchulidwa kuti ndiye “anali woyamba kukhala ndi mfundo zosintha zinthu” anthu enawa asanayambe kutero. Kodi mungakonde kudziwa zambiri za munthu ameneyu?

WESSEL anabadwa mu 1419 m’tauni ya Groningen ku Netherlands. Panthawiyo anthu ambiri analibe mwayi wopita ku sukulu koma Wessel anatero. Anali mwana wanzeru kwabasi koma anasiya sukulu ali ndi zaka 9 chifukwa makolo ake anali osauka kwambiri. Mwamwayi, mayi wina wamasiye, yemwe anali wolemera anamva za mwana wanzeru kwambiriyu ndipo anayamba kum’lipirira sukulu. Motero, Wessel anapitiriza sukulu mpaka kulandira digiri ya ukadaulo. Zikuoneka kuti patsogolo pake anthu anayamba kum’tchula mawu aulemu akuti kachenjede wamaphunziro apamwamba a zaumulungu.

Wessel anali munthu wokonda kuphunzira zinthu zatsopano. Komano, panthawiyo panali malaibulale ochepa chabe. Ngakhale kuti luso losindikiza mabuku analitulukira panthawiyi, mabuku ambiri anali olembedwa pamanja ndipo anali okwera mtengo. Wessel anali m’gulu la akatswiri amaphunziro amene ankapita ku malaibulale osiyanasiyana ndiponso ku nyumba zosiyanasiyana za ansembe pofunafuna mabuku ovuta kupeza ndiponso mabuku amene anasoweratu. Ndiyeno akapeza mabukuwa, ankauzana zimene aphunziramo. Wessel anaphunzira zinthu zambiri zedi ndipo m’kope lake analembamo zinthu zosiyanasiyana zomwe anakopera m’mabuku a Chigiriki ndi Chilatini. Nthawi zambiri akatswiri ena a maphunziro apamwamba a zaumulungu ankamukayikira chifukwa choti iye ankadziwa zinthu zambiri zimene iwowo anali asanamvepo n’komwe. Motero anam’patsa dzina lakuti Katakwe Wokonda Kutsutsa.

“Bwanji Osanditsogolera kwa Khristu?”

Kutatsala zaka 50 kuti magulu a anthu ayambe kuchoka m’Chikatolika, Wessel anakumana ndi Thomas à Kempis (anabadwa mu 1379 n’kumwalira mu 1471), yemwe anthu ambiri amavomereza kuti ndiye analemba buku lotchuka la Chitaliyana lakuti Kutsanzira Khristu. Thomas à Kempis anali m’gulu linalake lolimbikitsa kwambiri zokhala munthu wodzipereka, lotchedwa Abale a Moyo Wodzipereka. Munthu wina yemwe analemba nkhani yosimba za moyo wa Wessel anati Thomas à Kempis anam’limbikitsa Wessel nthawi zingapo kuti apemphere kwa Mariya kuti amuthandize. Wessel anayankha kuti:  “Bwanji osanditsogolera kwa Khristu, chifukwa iyeyo ndiye akuitana aliyense wogwira ntchito yolemetsa ndi olemedwa kuti apite kwa iye.”

Akuti Wessel sankafuna kukhala wansembe. Panthawi ina anamufunsa kuti n’chifukwa chiyani amakana kudzozedwa kuti akhale m’busa n’kumeta pamutu monga chizindikiro cha ubusawo. Iye anayankha kuti angalolere kunyongedwa kusiyana ndi kulola kuti maganizo ake asokonezedwe pokhala m’busa. Pamenepa iye anali kunena za ufulu womwe abusa ankakhala nawo woti asamaimbidwe mlandu uliwonse. Zikuonekadi kuti ubusa unathandiza ambiri kuti asanyongedwe pa milandu imene ankapalamula. Wessel anakananso kukhulupirira ziphunzitso zambiri za panthawiyo. Mwachitsanzo, ena ankamunena chifukwa choti iye sankakhulupirira zozizwitsa zimene zinasimbidwa m’buku linalake lotchuka panthawiyo, lotchedwa Dialogus Miraculorum. Iye anawayankha kuti: “Bwanji osamangowerenga Malemba Oyera?”

“Safunsa Anadya Phula?”

Wessel anaphunzira Chiheberi ndi Chigiriki ndipo anaphunziranso kwambiri zinthu zimene abambo a tchalitchi akale analemba. Iye ankakonda kwambiri zinenero zimene anthu amene analemba Baibulo anagwiritsa ntchito. Zimenezi n’zochititsa chidwi kwambiri makamaka tikaganizira kuti Erasmus ndi Reuchlin * anakhalako pambuyo pa iyeyu. Isanafike nthawi imene magulu a anthu anachoka m’Chikatolika n’kuyambitsa matchalitchi awo, anthu ambiri sankadziwa Chigiriki. Ku Germany, kunali anthu ophunzira ochepa chabe odziwa Chigiriki, ndipo kunalibe njira iliyonse yothandiza munthu kuphunzira chinenerochi. Mzinda wa Constantinople utagonjetsedwa mu 1453, zikuoneka kuti Wessel anakumana ndi ansembe achigiriki amene anathawira m’mayiko akumadzulo, ndipo iwowa anam’phunzitsako Chigiriki pang’ono. Panthawiyi, Ayuda ndiwo makamaka ankalankhula Chiheberi, ndipo zikuoneka kuti Ayuda otembenuka anam’phunzitsako pang’ono Chiheberi.

Wessel ankakonda kwambiri Baibulo. Ankaona kuti Baibulo ndi buku louziridwa ndi Mulungu ndipo ankakhulupirira kuti mabuku onse a m’Baibulo satsutsana ngakhale pang’ono. Iye ankaona kuti m’pofunika kuona nkhani yonse ya lemba linalake kuti mumvetse bwino tanthauzo lake, ndipo mukatero simungalipotoze. Kupotoza malemba m’njira  iliyonse kungasonyeze kupanduka. Lemba limodzi limene ankalikonda kwambiri ndi lemba la Mateyo 7:7, lomwe limati: “Funafunanibe, ndipo mudzapeza.” Chifukwa cha zimene lembali limanena, Wessel ankakhulupirira kuti ndi bwino kwambiri kufunsa mafunso, chifukwa “safunsa anadya phula.”

Anapempha Mwanzeru

Mu 1473, Wessel anapita ku Rome. Kumeneko anakaonekera kwa Papa Sixtus Wachinayi. Iyeyu anali Papa woyamba pa Apapa sikisi amene anali ndi khalidwe loipa kwambiri, lomwe linachititsa kuti magulu a anthu achoke m’Chikatolika n’kuyambitsa matchalitchi awo. Katswiri wina wa mbiri yakale Barbara W. Tuchman, anati Papayu anayamba “kuchita zinthu zandale ndiponso zodyera anthu masuku pamutu mopanda manyazi, mosabisa, ndiponso mosalekeza.” Anakhumudwitsa anthu kwambiri chifukwa cha kukondera anzake ndiponso abale ake mochita kuonetsera. Katswiri wina wa mbiri yakale anati n’kutheka kuti Papayu ankafuna kuti m’maudindo onse okhudzana ndi Papa mukhale abale ake. Anthu ambiri sakanayerekeza dala kutsutsa khalidwe loipali.

Koma sizinali choncho ndi Wessel Gansfort. Tsiku lina Papayo anauza Wessel kuti: “Mwanawe, nena chilichonse chimene ukufuna, ndikupatsa.” Nthawi yomweyo Wessel anayankha kuti: “Abambo Woyera muli apa, . . . popeza kuti padziko lapansi pano inuyo ndiye muli pampando wa wansembe wamkulu komanso m’busa, ndikukupemphani kuti . . . mukwaniritse bwinobwino udindo wanu wokwezekawu kuchitira kuti M’busa Wamkulu akadzabwera . . . adzakuuzeni kuti: ‘Unachita bwino kwambiri, kapolo wabwino ndi wokhulupirika, sangalala limodzi ndi mbuye wakone.’” Papayu anayankha kuti umenewu unali udindo wake ndi kuti Wessel asankhe chinthu choti chim’pindulire iyeyo payekha. Pamenepa Wessel anayankha kuti: “Chabwino, mundipatse Baibulo la Chigiriki ndi Chiheberi la mu Laibulale ya ku Vatican.” Papayo anavomera pempholi koma ananena kuti Wessel wapempha mopusa chifukwa akanakhala wanzeru akanapempha kuti akhale bishopu.

“N’chinyengo Ndiponso N’kulakwa”

Posowa njira yopezera ndalama zoti amangire tchalitchi chotchedwa Sistine Chapel, chimene panopo chili chotchuka, Papayo anaganiza zoti anthu azipereka ndalama kwa ansembe kuti apempherere abale awo amene akudwala kapena amene  anamwalira pofuna kuti abale awowo akhululukidwe machimo awo. Zimenezi zinatchuka kwambiri. Buku lotchedwa Vicars of Christ​—The Dark Side of the Papacy limati: “Amayi ndi abambo amasiye, komanso makolo amene ana awo anamwalira ankawononga ndalama zawo zonse pofuna kuti akazi, amuna, ndiponso ana awo achoke ku Puligatoliyo.” Anthu wamba ankaona kuti zimenezi n’zothandiza kwambiri chifukwa ankakhulupirira kuti Papa angathe kuchititsa kuti abale awowo akalowe kumwamba.

Koma Wessel anakaniratu zokhulupirira kuti Tchalitchi cha Katolika, ngakhalenso Papa, anali ndi mphamvu yokhululukira machimo. Wessel ankanena poyera kuti kulipiritsa anthu ndalama m’njira imeneyi “n’chinyengo ndiponso n’kulakwa.” Iye sankakhulupiriranso kuti m’pofunika kuulula machimo kwa ansembe kuti ukhululukidwe.

Wessel ankatsutsanso zoti Papa salakwa, ndipo anati maziko a Chikatolika sangakhale olimba ngati anthu atamangokhulupirira Apapa nthawi zonse, chifukwa Apapa nawonso amalakwitsa. Wessel analemba kuti: “Apapa akamanyalanyaza malamulo a Mulungu n’kukhazikitsa malamulo awoawo, . . . ndiye kuti malamulo awowo ndiponso zochita zawo sizingaphule kanthu.”

Wessel Anakonza Njira Yoti Zinthu Zisinthe

Wessel anamwalira mu 1489. Ngakhale kuti anatsutsa zolakwa zina za Chikatolika, iye sanatuluke m’chipembedzochi. Komanso, tchalitchichi sichinkamuona ngati munthu wopanduka. Komano atamwalira, ansembe enaake aliuma anayesetsa kuwononga mabuku ndiponso zinthu zina zimene iyeyu analemba chifukwa ankaziona kuti n’zosocheretsa. M’nthawi ya Luther, n’kuti dzina la Wessel litaiwalika ndithu. Palibe buku lililonse la Wessel lomwe linali litasindikizidwa, ndipo n’zinthu zochepa chabe zimene iyeyu analemba zomwe zinalipobe. Moti nthawi yoyamba imene anafalitsapo zinthu zimene Wessel analemba inali pakati pa chaka cha 1520 ndi 1522. Zina mwa zinthuzi inali kalata imene Luther analembamo mawu oyamikira mabuku a Wessel.

Ngakhale kuti Wessel sanapanduke m’Chikatolika monga anachitira Luther, iye ankatsutsa poyera zina mwa zoipa zimene zinachititsa kuti magulu a anthu achoke m’Chikatolika n’kuyambitsa matchalitchi awo. Ndipotu buku lina lolembedwa ndi McClintock ndiponso Strong linati iyeyu ndi “munthu wofunika kwambiri pa gulu la anthu ochokera ku Germany amene anathandiza kukonza njira yoti zinthu zisinthe.”

Luther ankaona kuti maganizo a Wessel anali ofanana ndi a iyeyo. Wolemba mabuku wina, dzina lake C. Augustijn analemba kuti: “Luther anayerekezera zimene zinam’chitikira m’nthawi yake ndi zimene zinachitikira Eliya. Mneneri Eliya ankaganiza kuti watsala yekhayekha pa nkhondo ya Mulungu. Luther nayenso ankaganiza kuti watsala yekha polimbana ndi tchalitchi cha Katolika. Koma atawerenga zimene Wessel analemba anazindikira kuti Ambuye anali atapulumutsa ena amene ‘anatsala mu Isiraeli.’ Luther mpaka ananena kuti: ‘Ndikanawerenga kalekale zimene analemba Wessel, adani anga akanandinena kuti ndikuchita zinthu motengera iyeyo. Ndikutero chifukwa choti mfundo zake n’zogwirizana zedi ndi mfundo zanga.’” *

“Mudzapeza”

Anthu amene anachoka m’Chikatolika n’kuyambitsa matchalitchi awo sanachite zimenezi mwadzidzidzi. Kwa nthawi yaitali, anthu anali ndi maganizo omwe patsogolo pake anawachititsa kuchoka m’Chikatolika. Wessel anazindikira kuti makhalidwe oipa a Apapa, patsogolo pake adzachititsa anthu kufuna kuchoka m’Chikatolika. Panthawi ina anauza wophunzira wina kuti: “Mwanawe, dziwa kuti nthawi ina udzaona akatswiri amaphunziro a Chikhristu . . . atasiya kutsatira ziphunzitso za ansembe amakaniwa.”

Ngakhale kuti Wessel ankaona zoipa ndiponso zachinyengo za m’nthawi yake, sanawalitse choonadi chonse cha m’Baibulo. Komabe, ankaona kuti Baibulo ndi buku lofunika kuliwerenga ndi kuliphunzira. Buku lakuti A History of Christianity, limati Wessel “ankakhulupirira kuti Baibulo ndilo lili ndi mphamvu zonse pa nkhani yachipembedzo chifukwa ndi louziridwa ndi Mzimu Woyera.” Masiku ano, Akhristu oona amakhulupirira kuti Baibulo ndi Mawu a Mulungu ouziridwa. (2 Timoteyo 3:16) Komabe, panopo choonadi cha m’Baibulo si chovuta kumvetsa kapena kupeza. Mfundo ya m’Baibulo yotsatirayi imagwira ntchito kwambiri masiku ano, kuposa kale lonse: “Pemphanibe, ndipo adzakupatsani.”​—Mateyo 7:7; Miyambo 2:1-6.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 9 Anthu amenewa anathandiza kwambiri pamaphunziro a zinenero zimene anthu olemba Baibulo anagwiritsira ntchito. Mu 1506, Reuchlin anafalitsa buku lake la malamulo a chinenero cha Chiheberi. Bukuli linathandiza kuti anthu aphunzire mozama Malemba Achiheberi. Mu 1516, Erasmus anafalitsa Baibulo la Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu popanda kusintha chinenerocho.

^ ndime 21 Zachokera m’buku la Wessel Gansfort (1419-1489) and Northern Humanism, tsamba 9 ndi 15.

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 14]

WESSEL ANAGWIRITSA NTCHITO DZINA LA MULUNGU

M’zinthu zimene Wessel analemba, dzina la Mulungu analilemba kuti “Yohava.” Komabe, nthawi zosachepera ziwiri Wessel analemba dzinali kuti “Yehova.” Ponena maganizo a Wessel pankhaniyi, wolemba mabuku wina dzina lake H. A. Oberman ananena kuti, Wessel ankaona kuti ngati Thomas Aquinas ndi anthu ena akanakhala kuti ankadziwa Chiheberi “akanazindikira kuti dzina limene Mulungu anavumbula kwa Mose silitanthauza kuti ‘Ine ndine yemwe ndili ine,’ koma limatanthauza kuti ‘Ndidzakhala amene ndingakhale.’” * Baibulo la Dziko Latsopano la m’Chingelezi limamasulira mawuwa molondola kuti: “Ndidzakhala chimene ndingafune kukhala.”​—Eksodo 3:13, 14.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 30 Zachokera m’buku lakuti Wessel Gansfort (1419-1489) and Northern Humanism, tsamba 105.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Manuscript: Universiteitsbibliotheek, Utrecht

[Zithunzi patsamba 15]

Wessel anatsutsa zimene anavomereza Papa Sixtus Wachinayi zoti anthu azilipira ansembe kuti apempherere abale awo odwala kapena omwalira kuti akhululukidwe machimo awo