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‘Anasonkhanitsa a Bwalo la Akulu’

‘Anasonkhanitsa a Bwalo la Akulu’

 ‘Anasonkhanitsa a Bwalo la Akulu’

MKULU wa ansembe ndi olamulira a Ayuda anali atathedwa nzeru. Kodi akanatani kuti athetse nkhani imene inali m’kamwam’kamwa yonena za Yesu Kristu? Chiwembu chomwe anakonza choti Yesu aphedwe chinali chitayenda bwino, koma tsopano ophunzira ake anali kufalitsa mu Yerusalemu yense nkhani ya kuuka kwake. Kodi akanawaletsa bwanji? Pofuna kupeza zoti achite, mkulu wa ansembe limodzi ndi anthu omuthandiza ‘anasonkhanitsa a bwalo la akulu,’ limene limatchedwanso kuti Sanihedirini, lomwe linali khoti lalikulu la Ayuda.​—Machitidwe 5:21.

Mu Israyeli nthawi imeneyo, kazembe wachiroma Pontiyo Pilato ndiye anali wolamulira wamkulu. Koma kodi bwalo la akulu linkagwira motani ntchito zake ndi Pilato? Kodi mphamvu zawo onse zinali zotani? Kodi ndani anali mamembala a bwalo la akululo? Ndipo kodi linkagwira ntchito zake motani?

Mmene Bwalo la Akulu Linayambira

Mawu a Chigiriki amene anawatanthauzira kuti “bwalo la akulu” kwenikweni amatanthauza “kukhala upo.” Anali mawu otanthauza msonkhano uliwonsewo. M’mbiri ya Chiyuda, mawuwa kawirikawiri ankaimira bungwe lachipembedzo loweruza milandu, kapena kuti khoti.

Olemba buku la malamulo achiyuda lotchedwa Talmud, limene linakonzedwa pambuyo pa kuwonongedwa kwa Yerusalemu mu 70 C.E., anafotokoza ngati kuti bwalo la akulu linali bungwe lakale kwambiri. Iwo ankaganiza kuti linali gulu la anthu ophunzira kwambiri amene ankakumana kuti akambirane mfundo za malamulo a Ayuda ndipo ankakhulupirira kuti bwalo la akulu linayamba nthawi imene Mose anasonkhanitsa amuna akulu 70 kuti am’thandize kutsogolera Aisrayeli. (Numeri 11:16, 17) Akatswiri a mbiri yakale savomereza  zimenezi. Iwo amati m’mbuyo monsemo kunalibe chilichonse chofanana ndi bwalo la akulu la m’zaka 100 zoyambirira mpaka nthawi imene Perisiya anayamba kulamulira Israyeli. Akatswiri a mbiri yakale amanenanso kuti gulu la anthu ophunzira kwambiri lomwe olemba Talmud ankaliganizira likugwirizana kwambiri ndi mabungwe a Arabi a m’zaka za m’ma 100 ndi m’ma 200 C.E., osati bwalo la akulu. Nangano, kodi bwaloli linayamba liti?

Baibulo limafotokoza kuti anthu andende amene anabwerera ku Yuda kuchokera ku Babulo mu 537 B.C.E. anali ndi gulu lowayang’anira. Nehemiya ndi Ezara anatchula akalonga, akulu, aufulu ndi olamulira, ndipo mwina chimenechi ndiye chinali chiyambi cha gulu lomwe m’tsogolo linadzakhala bwalo la akulu.​—Ezara 10:8; Nehemiya 5:7.

Kuyambira pamene anatsiriza kulemba Malemba Achihebri mpaka nthawi imene ankakonza Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyu, inali nthawi ya chipwirikiti kwa Ayuda. Mu 332 B.C.E., Alesandro Wamkulu anayamba kulamulira Yudeya. Alesandro atamwalira, Yudeya analamulidwa ndi maufumu awiri a Agiriki omwe iye anali kuwalamulira. Ufumu woyamba kulamulira Yudeya unali wa mafumu achitolemi ndipo kenako analamulidwa ndi mafumu achiselukasi. M’mabuku a mbiri ya ulamuliro wa mafumu achiselukasi, umene unayamba mu 198 B.C.E., timapezamo malo oyamba kutchula za nyumba ya malamulo ya Ayuda. Mwachidziwikire, nyumba imeneyi inali ndi mphamvu zochepa, komabe inachititsa kuti Ayuda azikhala ngati ali ndi boma lodzilamulira.

Mu 167 B.C.E., mfumu yachiselukasi, Antiyokasi Wachinayi (kapena kuti Epifanasi), inayesa kukakamiza Ayuda kuti azitsatira chikhalidwe cha Agiriki. Inadetsa kachisi wa ku Yerusalemu mwa kupereka nsembe ya nkhumba yopita kwa Zeu paguwa lansembe la m’kachisimo. Izi zinachititsa kuti am’galukire, ndipo panthawiyo Amakabeo anachoka m’manja mwa mafumu achiselukasi ndi kukhazikitsa ulamuliro wa Ahasimoni. * Nthawi yomweyonso, alembi ndi Afarisi, omwe ankatsogolera anthu ambiri omwe anasangalala ndi kugalukirako, anapeza mphamvu zoyendetsera dzikolo m’malo mwa ansembe.

Uku kunali kuyambika kwa bwalo la akulu lofotokozedwa m’Malemba Achigiriki. M’tsogolo mwake linadzakhala bungwe lolamulira ndiponso khoti lalikulu lotanthauzira malamulo a Ayuda.

Kugawana Mphamvu

Pofika m’zaka 100 zoyambirira, Yudeya anali m’manja mwa Roma. Komabe, Ayuda anali ndi ufulu ndithu. M’malamulo awo, Aroma ankapatsa anthu awo ufulu wochuluka ndithu wodzisankhira zochita. Motero, akuluakulu a boma la Aroma sankalowerera pantchito za makhoti a m’dzikolo ndipo ankapewa mavuto omwe akanayamba chifukwa chosiyana zikhalidwe. Cholinga chawo pochita zimenezi chinali kulimbikitsa mtendere ndiponso kuti anthu a m’madera awo akhale omvera mwa kuwalola kutsatira miyambo yawo ndiponso kudziyendetsera okha zinthu zina. Kusiyapo nkhani yochotsa ndi kuika paudindo mkulu wa ansembe, yemwe anali mtsogoleri wa bwalo la akulu, ndiponso kutolera misonkho, Aroma ankalowerera pa zochita za Ayuda akaona kuti zikusemphana ndi zofuna za ufumu wawo kapena zolinga zawo. Malinga ndi zomwe zinachitika pa kuweruzidwa kwa Yesu,  zikuoneka kuti Aroma ndiwo anali ndi mphamvu zopereka chilango cha imfa.​—Yohane 18:31.

Motero zinthu zambiri zochitika pakati pa Ayuda zinkayendetsedwa ndi bwalo la akulu. Linali ndi asilikali ake omanga anthu. (Yohane 7:32) Makhoti ang’onoang’ono ankaweruza milandu ing’onoing’ono popanda Aroma kulowererapo. Mlandu ukalephereka m’makhoti ang’onoang’onowo, unkapita ku bwalo la akulu, ndipo chiweruzo chake sichinkasinthidwa.

Pofuna kuti lipitirize kukhala ndi mphamvu, bwalo la akulu linkafunika kulimbikitsa mtendere ndi Aroma ndiponso kuthandizira ulamuliro wawo. Koma Aroma akaona kuti pali kuswa malamulo a kayendetsedwe ka boma lawo, ankalowererapo n’kuchita zomwe iwo akuona kuti n’zofunika. Chitsanzo cha zimenezi ndi kumangidwa kwa mtumwi Paulo.​—Machitidwe 21:31-40.

Mamembala a Bwaloli

Bwalo la akulu linkakhala ndi mamembala 71, omwe anali mkulu wa ansembe ndi amuna 70 odziwika mu mtunduwo. M’nthawi ya Aroma, bwaloli linkakhala ndi anthu apamwamba ochokera ku mabanja a ansembe (omwe ambiri mwa iwo anali Asaduki), anthu ena otchuka, ndi alembi ophunzira kwambiri a chipani cha Afarisi. Anthu apamwamba ochokera ku mabanja a ansembe, omwe ankathandizidwa ndi anthu otchukawo ndiwo anali ambiri m’khotili. * Ngakhale kuti Asaduki anali anthu osafuna kusintha zinthu, Afarisi ankakonda kusintha ndipo ambiri a iwo anali anthu wamba amene anali kutsatiridwa ndi anthu ambiri. Malinga ndi zimene analemba katswiri wa mbiri yakale, dzina lake Josephus, Asaduki ankavomereza monyinyirika zofuna za Afarisi. Paulo anapezera mwayi pa kupikisana kwa magulu awiriwa ndiponso kusiyana kwawo zikhulupiriro pamene ankafotokoza mfundo zodzitchinjirizira pamaso pa bwalo la akulu.​—Machitidwe 23:6-9.

Popeza kuti bwaloli linali ndi anthu otchuka, n’kutheka kuti munthu ankakhala membala wake kwamuyaya, ndipo wina akamwalira kapena kuchotsedwa m’khotili, mamembala omwe alipo ndiwo ankasankha munthu wolowa m’malo. Malinga ndi mmene Mishnah imanenera, mamembala atsopano ankafunika kukhala “ansembe, Alevi, ndi Aisrayeli amene ana awo aakazi angaloledwe kukwatiwa ndi ansembe,” kutanthauza Ayuda omwe akanatha kupereka umboni wosonyeza kuti ndi mbadwa zenizeni zachiyuda. Popeza kuti khoti lalikululi linkayang’anira ntchito za makhoti m’dziko lonselo, zikuoneka kuti amuna a mbiri yabwino ochokera m’makhoti ang’onoang’ono ankatha kukwezedwa n’kukhala mamembala a bwalo la akululi.

Pamene Mphamvu Zake Zinkafika

Ayuda ankalemekeza kwambiri bwalo la akulu, ndipo poopa kuphedwa, oweruza m’makhoti ang’onoang’ono ankakakamizika kuvomereza zimene bwaloli lagamula. Bwaloli linali kuona ziyeneretso za ansembe ndi nkhani zokhudza Yerusalemu, kachisi wake, ndiponso nkhani zokhudza kulambira pa kachisiyo. Kwenikweni, mphamvu zoweruza milandu ndi kukhazikitsa malamulo za bwalo la akululi zinkathera mu Yudeya basi. Koma chifukwa choti pankaoneka kuti palibe amene angatsutse zomwe bwalo la akulu lanena pankhani ya Chilamulo, bwaloli linali ndi mphamvu yokhazikitsa miyezo ya makhalidwe abwino m’madera onse omwe kunali Ayuda padziko lapansi. Mwachitsanzo, mkulu wa ansembe ndi komiti yake anauza akuluakulu a masunagoge ku Damasiko kuti athandize nawo kumanga otsatira Kristu. (Machitidwe 9:1, 2; 22:4, 5; 26:12) Komanso, n’zosakayikitsa kuti Ayuda obwera ku Yerusalemu kudzachita zikondwerero ankabwerera kwawo ndi nkhani ya zimene bwalo la akulu lanena.

Malinga ndi mmene Mishnah imanenera, bwalo la akululi linali ndi mphamvu zonse pankhani zokhudza dziko lawo lonselo, polanga oweruza milandu amene anyalanyaza zonena zake, ndiponso poweruza aneneri onyenga. Yesu ndi Stefano anaonekera m’khotili n’kuweruzidwa monga ochitira mwano Mulungu, Petro ndi Yohane anaweruzidwa monga osokoneza mtundu wa Ayuda, ndipo Paulo anaweruzidwa monga wodetsa kachisi.​—Marko 14:64; Machitidwe 4:15-17; 6:11; 23:1; 24:6.

Kuweruza Yesu ndi Ophunzira Ake

Kupatula pa tsiku la Sabata ndi masiku ena opatulika, bwalo la akulu linkakumana tsiku lililonse kuyambira nthawi yopereka nsembe ya m’mawa  mpaka nthawi yopereka nsembe ya madzulo. Milandu inkaweruzidwa masana basi. Popeza kuti chigamulo cha imfa sichinkalengezedwa mpaka tsiku lotsatira kuchokera pamene mlandu waweruzidwa, milandu yotero sinkazengedwa madzulo oti tsiku lotsatira ndi la Sabata kapena la chikondwerero. Anthu amene ankachitira umboni milandu, ankauzidwa momveka bwino za kuopsa kwa kupha munthu wosalakwa. Motero, kuzenga ndi kugamula mlandu wa Yesu usiku panyumba ya Kayafa, komwe kunachitika madzulo oti tsiku lotsatira linali la chikondwerero kunali kuswa malamulo. Oweruza enieniwo anachita kufufuza mboni zonama ndi kuumiriza Pilato kuti alamule kuti Yesu aphedwe, komwenso kunali kuswa malamulo kwambiri.​—Mateyu 26:57-59; Yohane 11:47-53; 19:31.

Talmud imati, oweruza milandu yomwe chilango chake chinali cha kupha ankayesetsa kupulumutsa wozengedwa mlandu akapeza umboni wofunika kuulingalira mofatsa. Komabe, Stefano, mofanana ndi Yesu yemwe anaweruzidwa Stefanoyo asanaimbidwe mlandu, sanaweruzidwe motero. Zimene ananena pofuna kudzitchinjiriza m’khotili zinachititsa kuti aphedwe mochita kugendedwa ndi kagulu ka anthu achipolowe. Nayenso mtumwi Paulo akanaphedwa mwanjira yomweyi, Aroma akanapanda kulowererapo. Ndipotu oweruza a bwalo la akulu anakonza chiwembu chofuna kumupha.​—Machitidwe 6:12; 7:58; 23:6-15.

Komabe, zikuoneka kuti mamembala angapo a khotili anali anthu abwino. N’kutheka kuti wolamulira Ayuda wachinyamata amene analankhula ndi Yesu anali membala wa bwalo la akululi. Ngakhale kuti chuma cha mnyamatayo ndi chimene chinamulepheretsa kukhala wotsatira Yesu, ayenera kuti anali munthu wamakhalidwe abwino, popeza kuti Yesu anamuitana kuti akhale wotsatira wake.​—Mateyu 19:16-22; Luka 18:18, 22.

N’kutheka kuti kuopa zimene oweruza anzake angaganize n’komwe kunachititsa kuti Nikodemo, “mkulu wa Ayuda,” apite usiku kokacheza ndi Yesu. Komabe, Nikodemo anaikira kumbuyo Yesu m’bwalo la akulu mwa kufunsa kuti: “Kodi chilamulo chathu chiweruza munthu, osayamba kumva iye, ndi kuzindikira chimene achita?” Pambuyo pake, Nikodemo anapereka “chisanganizo cha mure ndi aloe” kuti akonzere thupi la Yesu kuti liikidwe m’manda.​—Yohane 3:1, 2; 7:51, 52; 19:39.

Yosefe wa ku Arimateya, yemwenso anali membala wa bwaloli, analimba mtima n’kupempha thupi la Yesu kwa Pilato ndi kuliika m’manda ake atsopano. Yosefe “anali kuyembekezera Ufumu wa Mulungu,” koma chifukwa choopa Ayuda sanafune kudziwika monga wophunzira wa Yesu. Komabe, Yosefe anachita bwino chifukwa sanavomerezane ndi bwalo la akulu pa chiwembu chake chofuna kupha Yesu.​—Marko 15:43-46; Mateyu 27:57-60; Luka 23:50-53; Yohane 19:38.

Gamaliyeli, yemwe analinso membala wa bwalo la akulu anapatsa malangizo anzeru oweruza anzake kuti asalimbane ndi ophunzira a Yesu. Iye anati ngati sawaleka, ‘angapezeke otsutsana ndi Mulungu.’ (Machitidwe 5:34-39) Kodi n’chiyani chinalepheretsa khoti lalikululi kuzindikira kuti Mulungu ndiye ankathandiza Yesu ndiponso ophunzira ake? M’malo movomereza zozizwitsa zimene Yesu ankachita, bwalo la akululi linati: “Titani ife? Chifukwa munthu uyu achita zizindikiro zambiri. Ngati tim’leka Iye kotero, onse adzakhulupirira Iye; ndipo adzadza Aroma nadzachotsa malo athu ndi mtundu wathu.” (Yohane 11:47, 48) Mtima wofuna mphamvu ndiwo unkachititsa kuti khoti lalikulu la Ayudali lisachite zinthu mwachilungamo. Mofanana ndi zimenezi, m’malo mosangalala ophunzira a Yesu atachiritsa odwala, atsogoleri a chipembedzo ‘anadukidwa.’ (Machitidwe 5:17) Monga oweruza, anafunika kukhala anthu oopa Mulungu ndiponso achilungamo, koma ambiri mwa iwo anali anthu aziphuphu ndiponso achinyengo.​—Eksodo 18:21; Deuteronomo 16:18-20.

Chiweruzo cha Mulungu

Chifukwa choti Aisrayeli sanamvere Chilamulo cha Mulungu ndiponso anakana Mesiya, Yehova anawakana ndipo sanakhalenso anthu omwe iye anawasankha. Mu 70 C.E., Aroma anawononga mzinda wa Yerusalemu limodzi ndi kachisi wake n’kuthetsa dongosolo lonse la Ayuda ndipo m’kupita kwa nthawi anathetsanso bwalo la akulu.

Yesu Kristu, yemwe Yehova anamuika kukhala Woweruza, adzaona kuti ndani mwa mamembala a bwalo la akulu la m’zaka 100 zoyambirira akufunika kuukitsidwa kwa akufa ndipo adzaonanso kuti ndani amene anachimwira mzimu woyera. (Marko 3:29; Yohane 5:22) Sitikukayikira m’pang’ono pomwe kuti posankha zochita ngati zimenezi, Yesu adzachita zinthu mwachilungamo kwambiri.​—Yesaya 11:3-5.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 9 Kuti mumve nkhani ya Amakabeo ndi Ahasimoni, onani Nsanja ya Olonda ya November 15, 1998, tsamba 21 mpaka 24, ndiponso ya June 15, 2001, tsamba 27 mpaka 30.

^ ndime 16 Baibulo likamanena za “ansembe aakulu,” limatanthauza akulu a ansembe a panthawiyo ndi akale omwe ndiponso anthu a m’mabanja omwe mukanatha kuchoka anthu oyenerera kudzakhala pamaudindo akuluakulu a ansembe m’tsogolo.​—Mateyu 21:23.