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Kodi Nkhani Yaikulu Panyengo ya Khirisimasi Imakhala Chiyani?

Kodi Nkhani Yaikulu Panyengo ya Khirisimasi Imakhala Chiyani?

 Kodi Nkhani Yaikulu Panyengo ya Khirisimasi Imakhala Chiyani?

KWA anthu ambiri nyengo ya tchuthi ndi nthawi yocheza ndi mabanja awo ndiponso anzawo; imakhala nthawi yolimbikitsa ubale wawo. Enanso ambiri amaona kuti nthawi imeneyi ndi yoganizira za kubadwa kwa Yesu Kristu ndiponso mbali yomwe iye anachita pa chipulumutso cha anthu. Ku Russia, mosiyana ndi m’mayiko ambiri, sikuti nthawi yonseyi anthu akhala akuloledwa kukondwerera Khirisimasi ayi. Ngakhale kuti kwa zaka zambirimbiri mamembala a Tchalitchi cha Orthodox cha ku Russia anakhala akukondwerera Khirisimasi, iwo sankaloledwa kutero mbali yaikulu ya zaka za m’ma 1900. Kodi zinasintha chifukwa chiyani?

Gulu la Chikomyunizimu, lotchedwa Bolshevik, litangosintha zinthu ku Russia m’chaka cha 1917, akuluakulu a boma la Soviet anatsatira mfundo yokakamiza anthu m’dziko lonselo kuti asamakhulupirire kuti kuli Mulungu. Anayamba kudana ndi nyengo yonse ya tchuthi cha Khirisimasi limodzi ndi zochitika zonse zachipembedzo panyengoyi. Boma linayamba ntchito yofalitsa nkhani zoipitsa chikondwerero cha Khirisimasi ndiponso cha Chaka Chatsopano. Ndipo nthawi zina ankachita kudzudzuliratu poyera zinthu zimene ankagwiritsa ntchito kumeneko panyengoyi, monga mtengo wokondwerera Khirisimasi ndi Ded Moroz, kapena kuti Grandfather Frost, dzina la ku Russia la Father Christmas.

Mu 1935, zinthu zinasintha ndipo zinasokoneza kwambiri mmene anthu ku Russia ankakondwerera nyengo ya tchuthiyi. Boma linalolanso Grandfather Frost, mtengo wokondwerera nyengoyi, ndiponso chikondwerero cha Chaka Chatsopano, koma zitasinthidwa kwambiri. Iwo anati, Grandfather Frost azibweretsa mphatso, osati pa Khirisimasi, koma pa Tsiku la Chaka Chatsopano. N’zomwenso anachita ndi mtengo wokondwerera Khirisimasi. Anausintha, n’kumautcha mtengo wokondwerera Chaka Chatsopano. Motero, ku Soviet Union nkhani yaikulu panyengoyi inasintha kwambiri. Apa, chikondwerero cha Chaka Chatsopano chinalowa m’malo mwa Khirisimasi.

Nyengo ya Khirisimasi sinakhalenso nyengo ya zinthu zauzimu, inangokhala nyengo ya zinthu zakuthupi basi. Zinthu zomwe ankakongoletsera mtengo wokondwerera Chaka Chatsopano sizinalinso zokhudzana ndi zachipembedzo, zinali zokhudzana ndi zinthu zakuthupi zosonyeza kutukuka kwa dziko la Soviet Union. Magazini ina ya ku Russia, ya Vokrug Sveta (Zochitika Padziko Lonse) inafotokoza kuti: “N’zotheka kudziwa mbiri ya Chikomyunizimu mwa kuona mmene akhala akukongoletsera mtengo wokondwerera Chaka Chatsopano m’zaka zosiyanasiyana m’nthawi ya Soviet Union. Kuwonjezera pa tiana ta a kalulu, madzi oundana, ndiponso buledi, zomwe zinali zofala kwambiri, anayambanso kukonza zinthu zooneka ngati mazenga, nyundo, ndi mathirakitala. Kenako anasiya zimenezi n’kuyamba kupanga tizidole ta anthu ogwira ntchito m’migodi ndi opita m’mlengalenga, zipangizo zokumbira mafuta, maroketi, ndiponso timagalimoto toyendera kumwezi.”

Nanga bwanji za Tsiku la Khirisimasi lenilenilo? N’zoonekeratu kuti silinali lovomerezedwa. M’malo mwake, akuluakulu a boma la Soviet Union anati tsikuli lili ngati masiku ena onse antchito. Ofuna kukondwerera Khirisimasi monga tsiku la zachipembedzo, ankatero mobisa kwambiri, ndipo akanati apezedwa akanakhumudwitsa boma ndiponso zotsatira zake zikanakhala zoopsa. Inde, ku Russia, m’zaka za m’ma 1900, nyengo ya tchuthi imeneyi inasintha n’kukhala chikondwerero wamba m’malo mwa mwambo wachipembedzo.

Kusintha Kwina Kwaposachedwapa

Mu 1991 boma la Soviet Union linatha, ndipo anthu anapeza ufulu wochuluka. Kunalibenso mfundo ya boma ija  yolimbikitsa anthu kukana zoti kulibe Mulungu. Maboma osiyanasiyana oima paokha omwe anapangidwa sankalowerera kwenikweni pa zachipembedzo, ndipo anali kusiyanitsa Tchalitchi ndi Boma. Anthu ambiri opembedza anaona kuti imeneyi ndi nthawi yawo yolimbikitsa zikhulupiriro zawo. Iwo ankati imodzi mwa njira zochitira zimenezi ndiyo kukondwerera tchuthi cha chipembedzo cha Khirisimasi. Koma sipanatenge nthawi yaitali, ambiri mwa anthu amenewa anakhumudwa kwambiri. Chifukwa chiyani?

Chaka ndi chaka, nkhani yochita malonda pa tchuthichi imakula. Inde, monga mmene zilili kumayiko a kumadzulo kwa Ulaya, nyengo ya Khirisimasi yakhala nthawi yomwe mafakitale, achipiku, ndi a malonda ena amapangira ndalama. M’makonde a sitolo amayalamo moonekera kwambiri katundu wokongoletsera zinthu pa Khirisimasi. Tsopano m’sitolo mumamveka nyimbo za Khirisimasi zofanana ndi zimene zimaimbidwa m’mayiko a kumadzulo kwa Ulaya, ndipotu nyimbozi ndi zoti m’mbuyomu sizinkadziwika ku Russia. Amalonda amayenda ndi matumba akuluakulu a zidole za Khirisimasi, ndi kumagulitsa m’sitima ndi m’mabasi. Izi ndi zomwe zimachitika panopa.

Ngakhale anthu amene saona vuto lililonse ndi mchitidwe wolimbikitsa za malonda panyengoyi, sangasangalale ndi chinthu chinanso chokhumudwitsa chomwe chimachitika panyengoyi. Anthu amamwa mowa kwambiri ndipo zotsatira zake zimakhala mavuto. Dokotala wina woona za matenda aakulu pachipatala china ku Moscow anafotokoza kuti: “Kwa madokotala, n’zosachita kufunsa kuti pokondwerera Chaka Chatsopano, anthu ambiri amavulala, ena amakhala ndi mabala ang’onoang’ono pamene ena amakhala ndi mabala a mpeni kapena oomberedwa ndi mfuti, ndipo ambiri amavulalira pa ziwawa za kunyumba, ndewu za anthu oledzera, ndiponso pangozi za galimoto.” Mkulu wina wa nthambi ya za sayansi pa sukulu ya Russian Academy anati: “Imfa zokhudzana ndi mowa zawonjezeka mwadzidzidzi. Mu 2000 ndi mmene imfazi zinachuluka kwambiri. Nachonso chiwerengero cha odzipha ndiponso anthu ochita kuphedwa chinakwera.”

N’zomvetsa chisoni kuti, pali chifukwa china chomwe chimachititsa kuti mchitidwe uliwonse wamtunduwu panyengo ya tchuthiyi ku Russia uwonjezeke. M’nkhani ya mutu wakuti “Anthu ku Russia Amakondwerera Kawiri Khirisimasi,” nyuzipepala ya Izvestiya inati: “Pafupifupi mmodzi mwa anthu khumi alionse ku Russia amakondwerera kawiri Khirisimasi. Malinga ndi zomwe anapeza ochita kafukufuku a ROMIR, anthu 8 pa anthu 100 alionse amene anawafunsa pa kafukufukuyo anavomera kuti amakondwerera Khirisimasi pa December 25, mogwirizana ndi tsiku la Khirisimasi ya Akatolika, ndi pa January 7, mogwirizana ndi [Chipembedzo cha] Orthodox . . . Kwa ena, n’zoonekeratu kuti nkhani sigona pa kufunika kwa Khirisimasi pa chipembedzo koma makamaka mwayi wochita chikondwerero.” *

 Kodi Zochitika Zake Panopa Zimalemekezadi Kristu?

N’zoonekeratu kuti panyengo ya tchuthiyi pamachitika zinthu zambiri zoipa. Izi zili apo, ena angaone kuti ayenera kukondwererabe zimenezi pofuna kulemekeza Mulungu ndi Kristu. N’zosangalatsa kwambiri kukhala ndi mtima wofuna kukondweretsa Mulungu. Komano kodi Mulungu ndi Kristu amasangalala nayo nyengo ya Khirisimasiyi? Taonani mmene inayambira?

Mwachitsanzo, mulimonse mmene munthu angaonere maganizo amene akuluakulu a boma la Russia anali nawo pankhani ya Khirisimasi, n’zovuta kutsutsa mfundo zotsatirazi zopezeka m’buku la Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Bukulo limati: “Khirisimasi . . . anaitenga ku chipembedzo chomwe chinalipo kale Chikristu chisanayambe, chopembedza milungu ‘imene inafa ndi kuuka kwa akufa,’ ndipo kupembedza kumeneku kunali kofala makamaka pakati pa mitundu yodalira ulimi. Mitunduyi m’nyengo yozizira kuyambira pa December 21 mpaka 25, inkakondwerera chaka ndi chaka ‘kubadwa’ kwa Mulungu Mpulumutsi, amene amapatsanso zomera moyo.”

Mukhoza kuona kuti zimene bukuli linanena ndi zomveka. Linati: “Pachikristu choyambirira sanali kukondwerera Khirisimasi. . . . Kuyambira cham’katikati mwa zaka za m’ma 300, Akristu anatengera chikondwerero cha m’nyengo yachisanu cholambira Mithra, n’kuchisintha kukhala chikondwerero cha Khirisimasi. Anthu oyambirira kukondwerera Khirisimasi anali anthu opembedza a ku Roma. M’zaka za m’ma 900, Khirisimasi, pamodzi ndi Chikristu, zinafalikira ku Russia, komwe zinaphatikizidwa ndi chikondwerero china chomwe Asilavo ankachita m’nyengo yachisanu, polemekeza mizimu ya makolo awo.”

Mwina mungadabwe kuti, ‘Kodi Mawu a Mulungu, Baibulo, amati chiyani pankhani yoti Yesu anabadwa pa December 25?’ Kunena zoona, Baibulo silitchula deti lililonse la kubadwa kwa Yesu, ndipo palibe paliponse posonyeza kuti Yesu weniweniyo analankhulapo za tsikuli kapena kulamula kuti anthu azilikumbukira. Koma, Baibulo limatithandiza kudziwa nyengo yomwe Yesu anabadwa.

Malinga ndi zimene umanena Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyu, m’chaputala 26 ndi 27, Yesu anaphedwa pa Nisani 14, madzulo a tsiku la Paskha wa Ayuda amene anayamba pa March 31, 33 C.E. Uthenga Wabwino wa Luka umatiuza kuti Yesu anali ndi zaka pafupifupi 30 pamene anabatizidwa ndi kuyamba utumiki wake. (Luka 3:21-23) Anachita utumiki wakewu zaka zitatu ndi theka. Motero, Yesu anamwalira ali ndi zaka pafupifupi 33 ndi theka, moti akanakwanitsa zaka 34 pa October 1, 33 C.E. Luka amatiuza kuti pamene Yesu ankabadwa, abusa anali ‘kukhala kubusa ndi kuyang’anira zoweta zawo usiku.’ (Luka 2:8) Abusa sakanakhala kunja ndi zoweta zawo m’mwezi wozizira wa December, chifukwa panthawiyi ku Betelehemu kumagwa chipale chofewa nthawi zina. Koma akanakhala kumeneko ndi zoweta zawo cha m’ma October 1, ndipo malinga ndi maumboni amene alipo, tsiku limeneli ndi lomwe Yesu anabadwa.

Nangano bwanji za chikondwerero cha Chaka Chatsopano? Monga momwe taonera, pachikondwererochi pamachitika zinthu zambiri zoipa. Ngakhale kuti akhala akuyesetsa kuti tsikuli lisagwirizane  ndi zachipembedzo, nalonso linayambira kokayikitsa.

Malinga ndi maumboni amene alipo okhudza nyengo ya tchuthiyi, kunena kuti nyengoyi imakhalapo chifukwa cha Yesu, zilibe tanthauzo lililonse. Ngati mwakhumudwa ndi kulimbikitsa malonda ndiponso makhalidwe oipa omwe amachitika panyengo ya Khirisimasi, ndiponso kuti chikondwererochi chinachokera kwa akunja, musataye mtima. Pali njira yabwino kwambiri yomwe tingasonyezere ulemu woyenerera kwa Mulungu ndiponso kulemekeza Kristu, komanso kulimbitsa mabanja athu.

 Njira Yabwino Yolemekezera Mulungu ndi Kristu

Baibulo limatifotokozera kuti Yesu Kristu anabwera ‘kudzapereka moyo wake dipo la anthu ambiri.’ (Mateyu 20:28) Analola kuti aphedwe chifukwa cha machimo athu. Ena angafune kulemekeza Kristu, n’kumaganiza kuti angachite zimenezo panyengo ya Khirisimasi. Koma monga momwe taonera, Khirisimasi ndi Chaka Chatsopano sizigwirizana kwenikweni ndi Kristu ndipo anthu akunja ndiwo anayambitsa zikondwererozi. Komanso nyengo ya Khirisimasi, ngakhale kuti ena angaione kukhala yosangalatsa, nkhani yaikulu imangokhala ya malonda okhaokha. Ndiponso, tiyenera kuvomereza kuti patchuthi cha Khirisimasi pamachitika zoipa zambiri zimene Mulungu ndi Kristu sasangalala nazo.

Kodi munthu amene ali ndi mtima wofuna kukondweretsa Mulungu ayenera kutani pamenepa? M’malo moumirira miyambo yomwe ingaoneke ngati yachipembedzo, koma n’njosagwirizana ndi Malemba, munthu woona mtima ayenera kufufuza njira yoona yolemekezera Mulungu ndi Kristu. Kodi njira yoona imeneyi ndi iti, ndipo tiyenera kuchita chiyani?

Kristu mwiniwakeyo akutiuza kuti: “Moyo wosatha ndi uwu, kuti akadziwe Inu Mulungu woona yekha, ndi Yesu Kristu amene munam’tuma.” (Yohane 17:3) Zoonadi, munthu woona mtima amafuna atadziwa zinthu zoona za mmene angalemekezere Mulungu ndi Kristu. Kenako amagwiritsa ntchito zinthu zimenezo m’moyo wake, osati panthawi imodzi yokha pachaka, koma tsiku lililonse. Mulungu amasangalala kwambiri ndi zimenezo, ndipo zingathandize munthu kupeza moyo wosatha.

Kodi mukufuna kuti inuyo ndi banja lanu mukhale ena mwa anthu amene amalemekezadi Mulungu ndi Kristu mogwirizana ndi zimene zili m’Malemba? Mboni za Yehova zathandiza mabanja ambiri padziko lonse kudziwa zinthu zofunika zimenezi kuchokera m’Baibulo. Tikukulimbikitsani kulankhula ndi Mboni za Yehova m’dera lanu kapena kuzilembera kalata ku adiresi yoyenerera pa tsamba 2 la magazini ino.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 11 Zinthu zisanasinthe mu October 1917, dziko la Russia linkagwiritsa ntchito kalendala ya Julius, koma mayiko ambiri anali kugwiritsa ntchito kalendala ya Gregory. M’chaka cha 1917, kalendala ya Julius inkatsalira ndi masiku 13 pa kalendala ya Gregory. Zinthu zitasintha, akuluakulu a dzikolo anayamba kugwiritsa ntchito kalendala ya Gregory, ndipo apa dziko la Russia linayamba kugwiritsa ntchito kalendala yofanana ndi imene mayiko ena onse anali kugwiritsa ntchito. Koma Tchalitchi cha Orthodox chinapitiriza kugwiritsa ntchito kalendala ya Julius chifukwa cha zikondwerero zake, n’kumaitcha kuti kalendala yachikale. Mungathe kumva anthu ku Russia akunena za kukondwerera Khirisimasi pa January 7. Komabe, musaiwale kuti pa kalendala ya Gregory, January 7 ndi December 25 pa kalendala ya Julius. Motero, anthu ambiri ku Russia amakhala ndi zikondwerero izi panyengo ya tchuthiyi: December 25, Khirisimasi ya kumayiko a kumadzulo kwa Ulaya; January 1, tsiku lopanda zochitika zachipembedzo la Chaka Chatsopano; January 7, Khirisimasi ya a Orthodox; January 14, Chaka Chatsopano pa kalendala yachikale.

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 7]

Mmene Kukondwerera Chaka Chatsopano Kunayambira

Wansembe wa Chipembedzo cha Orthodox ku Georgia Anena Maganizo Ake

“Tchuthi cha Chaka Chatsopano chinachokera ku tchuthi zosiyanasiyana zimene akunja ku Roma ankachita kalekale. Pa 1 January pankakhala tchuthi chomwe ankachitira mulungu wachikunja dzina lake Janus, ndipo dzina la mweziwu linachokera ku dzina la mulungu ameneyu. Zithunzi za Janus zinkakhala ndi nkhope ziwiri, zolozana nkhongo, kutanthauza kuti iye anaona zakumbuyo ndi zam’tsogolo. Panali mwambi wakuti aliyense amene walowa pa January 1 ali wosangalala, woseka, ndi wodyerera ndi kumwerera amakhala wosangalala chaka chonse ndiponso zinthu zimamuyendera bwino kwambiri. Anthu a m’dziko mwathu muno amakhalanso ndi chikhulupiriro chomwecho pokondwerera chaka chatsopano . . . Patchuthi china chachikunja, anthu ankatha kupereka nsembe kwa fano. Mapwando ena ankadziwika ndi chiwerewere, chigololo ndi chisembwere chosaneneka chomwe ankachita. Nthawi zina, mwachitsanzo patchuthi cha Janus, anthu ankadya ndi kumwa mopitirira muyeso, kuledzera, ndipo akatero pankachitika zoipa za mtundu uliwonse. Tikakumbukira mmene ifeyo m’mbuyomu timachitira chikondwerero cha Chaka Chatsopano, tiyenera kuvomereza kuti tonse tinachitapo chikondwerero chachikunja.”​—Nkhaniyi inalembedwa m’nyuzipepala ina ya ku Georgia.

[Chithunzi patsamba 6]

Matchalitchi Achikristu anatengera kupembedza Mithra

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Museum Wiesbaden

[Chithunzi patsamba 7]

Sizikanatheka kuti abusa akhale panja ndi zoweta m’mwezi wozizira wa December