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Baibulo la Chitaliyana Mavuto Amene Lakumana Nawo

Baibulo la Chitaliyana Mavuto Amene Lakumana Nawo

 Baibulo la Chitaliyana Mavuto Amene Lakumana Nawo

“BAIBULO ndi limodzi la mabuku ofalitsidwa kwambiri m’dziko lathu [Italy], koma mwina lilinso pakati pa mabuku amene amawerengedwa pang’ono kwambiri. Anthu okhulupirika sawalimbikitsa kuti alidziwe Baibulo ndiponso kuliwerenga monga Mawu a Mulungu. Pali anthu ena amene amafuna kudziwa Baibulo, koma nthawi zambiri palibe munthu woti awaphunzitse Mawuwo.”

Mawu amenewa analankhulidwa ndi bungwe la mabishopu a ku Italy mu 1995, ndipo anabutsa mafunso angapo. Kodi ndi anthu ochuluka motani amene ankawerenga Baibulo ku Italy m’zaka zapitazo? N’chifukwa chiyani silinali lofala kwambiri kuyerekeza ndi m’mayiko ena? N’chifukwa chiyani lidakali pakati pa mabuku amene anthu sawawerenga kwambiri ku Italy? Kupenda mbiri ya Mabaibulo a chinenero cha Chitaliyana kungayankhe mafunso ena.

Panapita nthawi yaitali kuti zinenero monga Chifalansa, Chitaliyana, Chipwitikizi, Chisipaniya ndi zina zikhalepo kuchoka mu Chilatini. M’mayiko osiyanasiyana a ku Ulaya kumene anali kulankhula Chilatini, anayamba kuona chinenero cha anthu wamba kukhala chofunika ndi kuchigwiritsa ntchito m’mabuku. Chinenero cha anthu wamba chinakhudza kwambiri ntchito yomasulira Baibulo. Motani? Panthawi ina, kusiyana pakati pa Chilatini, chinenero cha tchalitchi, ndi zinenero za anthu wamba zosiyanasiyana, kunali kwakukulu moti anthu omwe sanapite ku sukulu sanali kumva Chilatini.

Pofika chaka cha 1000, anthu ambiri okhala kudera la kunyanja la dziko la Italy akanavutika kuwerenga Baibulo la Chilatini la Vulgate, ngakhale akanakhala nalo. Kwa zaka zambiri atsogoleri achipembedzo anali kuyang’anira maphunziro kuphatikizapo zimene zinkaphunzitsidwa pa mayunivesite ochepa omwe analipo. Ndi anthu opeza bwino ochepa chabe amene anapindula. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, Baibulo linakhala “buku losadziwika.” Koma anthu ambiri ankafuna kukhala ndi Mawu a Mulungu ndi kuwamvetsa m’zinenero zawozawo.

Nthawi zambiri, atsogoleri achipembedzo sanafune kuti Baibulo limasuliridwe, chifukwa ankaopa kuti lingalimbikitse kuchuluka kwa magulu ampatuko. Malinga ndi kunena kwa katswiri wa mbiri yakale Massimo Firpo, “kugwiritsa ntchito chinenero cha anthu wamba [kukanatanthauza] kusiya [Chilatini] chimene chinali chopinga, chimene chinateteza mphamvu imene atsogoleri achipembedzo anali nayo pankhani zachipembedzo.” Chotero, miyambo, chipembedzo, ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu zonse pamodzi, zachititsa kuti anthu ambiri ku Italy asaphunzire Baibulo mpaka masiku ano.

 Ayamba Kumasulira Mbali Zina ndi Zina za Baibulo

M’zaka za m’ma 1200, anayamba kumasulira mabuku a Baibulo m’zinenero za anthu wamba kuchoka m’Chilatini. Mbali zimene zinkamasuliridwa zinkalembedwa pamanja ndipo zinali zodula kwambiri. Chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa mbali za Baibulo zomasuliridwa m’zaka za m’ma 1300, pafupifupi Baibulo lathunthu linapezeka m’zinenero za anthu wamba, ngakhale kuti mabuku ake anali omasuliridwa ndi anthu osiyanasiyana panthawi zosiyanasiyana ndiponso malo osiyanasiyana. Mabaibulo ambiri amenewa, olembedwa ndi anthu omasulira amene sanatchulidwe mayina, anali kupezeka ndi anthu olemera kapena ophunzira, okhawo amene anali ndi ndalama yogulira mabukuwa. Ngakhale pamene makina osindikizira anathandiza kuti mitengo ya mabuku itsike kwambiri, Mabaibulo anali “kupezeka ndi anthu ochepa chabe,” malinga ndi kunena kwa katswiri wa mbiri yakale Gigliola Fragnito.

Kwa zaka zambiri, anthu ambiri anakhalabe osaphunzira. Ngakhale panthawi imene Italy anakhala dziko limodzi mu 1861, anthu okwana 74.7 peresenti anali osaphunzira. Ndipo, pamene boma latsopano la Italy linakonza zoti munthu aliyense anafunika kupita kusukulu ndiponso kwaulere, Papa Pius wachisanu ndi chinayi analembera mfumu mu 1870 kuiuza kuti isavomereze lamulo limeneli. Papa anafotokoza lamuloli kukhala “mliri” womwe cholinga chake chinali “kuwonongeratu sukulu za Akatolika.”

Baibulo Loyamba M’Chitaliyana

Baibulo lathunthu m’Chitaliyana linasindikizidwira ku Venice mu 1471, patapita zaka pafupifupi 16 kuchokera nthawi imene makina osindikizira anagwiritsidwa ntchito koyamba ku Ulaya. Nicolò Malerbi, wansembe wa ku Camaldoli, anamasulira Baibulo lake m’miyezi isanu ndi itatu. Iye anadalira kwambiri Mabaibulo omwe analipo, anawakonza mwa kugwiritsa ntchito Baibulo la Chilatini la Vulgate. Ndipo anachotsamo mawu ena ndi kuikamo mawu amene anali kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri m’dera limene ankakhala la Venetia. Baibulo lake linali loyamba kufalitsidwa kwambiri m’Chitaliyana.

Munthu wina amene anafalitsa Baibulo ku Venice anali Antonio Brucioli. Iye anali wolimbikitsa zaumunthu amene anatsatira ziphunzitso za Chipulotesitanti, koma sanachoke mu Tchalitchi cha Katolika. Mu 1532, Brucioli anamasulira Baibulo kulichotsa mu Chihebri ndi Chigiriki choyambirira. Limeneli linali Baibulo loyamba kulimasulira m’Chitaliyana kuchokera ku malemba oyambirira. Ngakhale kuti silinalembedwe m’Chitaliyana chabwino kwambiri, linali lapadera chifukwa chotsatira kwambiri malemba oyambirira. Makamaka kuti panthawi imeneyo ndi anthu ochepa kwambiri amene ankadziwa zinenero zakale. M’mbali zake zina ndiponso Mabaibulo ena, Brucioli anaikamo dzina la Mulungu mwa kulilemba kuti “Ieova.” Kwa zaka pafupifupi 100, Baibulo lake linadziwika kwambiri kwa Apulotesitanti ndi anthu otsutsa chipembedzo a ku Italy.

Mabaibulo ena a Chitaliyana anafalitsidwa, amene kwenikweni anali Baibulo la Brucioli limene anangokonza, ndipo ena anafalitsidwa ndi Akatolika. Palibe n’limodzi lomwe limene linafalitsidwa kwambiri. Mu 1607, Giovanni Diodati, mbusa wa chipembedzo cha Calvin amene makolo ake anapita ku Switzerland kuthawa kuzunzidwa chifukwa cha chipembedzo chawo, anafalitsa Baibulo lina ku Geneva la m’Chitaliyana kuchokera ku zinenero zoyambirira. Baibulo lake linagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi Apulotesitanti a ku Italy kwa nthawi yaitali. Kuona nthawi imene linafalitsidwa, anthu amati ndi Baibulo labwino kwambiri la Chitaliyana. Baibulo la Diodati linathandiza anthu a ku Italy kumvetsa ziphunzitso za m’Baibulo. Koma udindo wa ansembe woyang’anira mabuku unalepheretsa kufalitsidwa kwa Baibulo la Diodati ndi Mabaibulo ena.

Baibulo Linakhala “Buku Losadziwika”

Buku la Enciclopedia Cattolica linati: “Tchalitchi nthawi zonse chinali kuchita bwinobwino udindo wake woyang’anira mabuku. Koma kusindikiza mabuku ndi makina kusanayambe, sichinaone kufunika kolemba mndandanda wa mabuku oletsedwa chifukwa mabuku amene ankawaona oopsa anali kutenthedwa ndi moto.” Ngakhale Apulotesitanti atayamba kuchoka m’chipembedzo cha Katolika, atsogoleri achipembedzo  kumayiko osiyanasiyana a ku Ulaya anayesetsa kuletsa anthu kufalitsa mabuku omwe ankati ndi ampatuko. Zinthu zinasintha kwambiri msonkhano wa ku Trent utachitika mu 1546, pamene anakambirana za nkhani yomasulira Baibulo m’zinenero za anthu wamba. Pamsonkhanopo anasiyana maganizo. Anthu omwe anali kuchirikiza lamulo loletsa kumasulira Baibulo anati Baibulo la m’zinenero za anthu wamba linali “chiyambi cha mipatuko yonse.” Amene sanagwirizane ndi lamuloli anati “adani” awo, Apulotesitanti, adzanena kuti Akatolika analetsa kumasulira Baibulo m’zinenero za anthu wamba chifukwa chofuna kubisa “chinyengo chawo.”

Chifukwa choti osonkhanawo sanagwirizane pa mfundo imodzi analephera kupanga chigamulo pankhani imeneyi. Koma analamula kuti Baibulo lolondola ndi la Vulgate, ndipo n’limene Tchalitchi cha Katolika chizigwiritsa ntchito. Koma Carlo Buzzetti, mphunzitsi wa pa yunivesite yakuti Pontifical University Salesianum ku Rome, anati, kunena kuti Baibulo la Vulgate ndilo “lolondola” “kunatanthauza kuti ndi Baibulo lokhalo limene kwenikweni linali lovomerezeka.” Ndipo zomwe zinachitika pambuyo pake zinatsimikizira zimenezi.

Mu 1559, Papa Paulo wachinayi anafalitsa mndandanda woyamba wa mabuku oletsedwa, amene Akatolika sanafunike kuwawerenga, kuwagulitsa, kuwamasulira, kapena kukhala nawo. Mabuku amenewa ankaonedwa kukhala oipa ndiponso owononga chikhulupiriro komanso makhalidwe abwino. Pa mndandanda umenewu analetsa kuwerenga Mabaibulo omasuliridwa m’zinenero za anthu wamba, kuphatikizapo Baibulo la Brucioli. Amene sanatsatire zimenezi anachotsedwa mumpingo. Mndandanda wa mu 1596 unakhwimitsa kwambiri zinthu. Anasiya kulola anthu kumasulira Baibulo kapena kulisindikiza m’zinenero za anthu wamba. Mabaibulo otero anali kuwonongedwa.

Chifukwa cha zimenezi, kuwotcha Mabaibulo pa mabwalo a tchalitchi kunali kuchitika kawirikawiri zaka za m’ma 1500 zitatha. Anthu ambiri anayamba kuganiza kuti Malemba ndi buku la anthu ampatuko, ndipo mpaka pano maganizo amenewa adakalipo. Pafupifupi Mabaibulo onse ndi mabuku ofotokozera Baibulo omwe anali mu malaibulale a boma ndi a anthu anawonongedwa. Ndipo zaka 200 zotsatira, panalibe Mkatolika amene anamasulira Baibulo m’Chitaliyana. Mabaibulo omwe anafalitsidwa mwakabisira ku Italy, chifukwa choopa kulandidwa, anali aja omwe anamasuliridwa ndi akatswiri omwe anali Apulotesitanti. Chotero, katswiri wa mbiri yakale Mario Cignoni anati: “Anthu wamba anasiyiratu kuwerenga Baibulo kwa zaka zambiri. Baibulo linakhala buku  losadziwika, ndipo anthu ambiri ku Italy sanali kuwerenga Baibulo pamoyo wawo wonse.”

Apeputsako Chiletso

Patapita nthawi, Papa Benedict wa khumi ndi chinayi, m’lamulo lonena za mndandanda wa mabuku oletsedwa wa June 13, 1757, anasintha lamulo loyambalo. Iye “analola anthu kuwerenga Mabaibulo a zinenero za anthu wamba ovomerezedwa ndi Papa ndiponso ofalitsidwa mogwirizana ndi malangizo a mabishopu.” Chifukwa cha zimenezi, Antonio Martini, amene panthawi ina anakhala mkulu wa mabishopu a ku Florence, anakonzeka kumasulira Baibulo la Vulgate. Chigawo choyamba kumasuliridwa chinafalitsidwa mu 1769, ndipo kumasulira konse kunatha mu 1781. Malinga ndi kunena kwa buku lina la Akatolika, Baibulo la Martini linali Baibulo la Chitaliyana “loyamba lomwe anthu anali kuyamikira kwambiri.” Kufikira nthawi imene Baibuloli linafalitsidwa, Akatolika amene sanali kumva Chilatini sanathe kuwerenga Baibulo lovomerezedwa ndi tchalitchi. Zaka 150 zotsatira, Baibulo lokhalo la Martini ndi lomwe Akatolika a ku Italy anavomerezedwa kuwerenga.

Kusintha kwakukulu kunachitika pamsonkhano wa matchalitchi wa Vatican II. Mu 1965 chikalata chotchedwa kuti Dei Verbum kwa nthawi yoyamba chinavomereza “kumasulira Mabaibulo oyenera ndiponso olondola . . . m’zinenero zosiyanasiyana, makamaka kumasulira mwa kugwiritsa ntchito malemba oyambirira a mabuku opatulika.” Mu 1958, bungwe la Pontificio istituto biblico (Sukulu ya Maphunziro a Baibulo ya Akuluakulu a Akatolika) linafalitsa “Baibulo lathunthu loyamba la Chikatolika lomasuliridwa kuchokera m’malemba oyambirira.” Baibulo limeneli linagwiritsa ntchito dzina la Mulungu m’malo ena ochepa mwa kulilemba kuti “Jahve.”

Kuletsa kumasulira Baibulo m’zinenero za anthu wamba kunali kowononga kwambiri, ndipo anthu amakhudziwa mpaka lero ndi zimene zinachitika. Malinga ndi kunena kwa Gigliola Fragnito, kwapangitsa “okhulupirira kudziona ngati alibe ufulu woganiza pa okha ndi wodalira chikhumbumtima chawo.” Ndiponso, kunalimbikitsa miyambo yachipembedzo imene Akatolika ambiri amaiona kukhala yofunika kwambiri kuposa Baibulo. Zonsezi zapangitsa anthu kukhala osadziwa Malemba, ngakhale kuti anthu amadziwa kuwerenga.

Koma ntchito yolalikira ya Mboni za Yehova yathandiza anthu kuti akhalenso n’chidwi ndi Baibulo la Chitaliyana. Mu 1963 Mboni zinafalitsa Baibulo la New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures m’Chitaliyana. Mu 1967 Baibulo lonse lathunthu linafalitsidwa. Chiwerengero cha Mabaibulo amenewa choposa 4,000,000 chafalitsidwa ku Italy kokha. Baibulo la New World Translation limene limagwiritsa ntchito dzina la Mulungu loti Yehova, limasiyana ndi Mabaibulo ena chifukwa chotsatira kwambiri matanthauzo a malemba oyambirira.

Mboni za Yehova zimapita khomo ndi khomo, kuwerenga ndi kufotokoza uthenga wolimbikitsa wa m’Malemba kwa anthu onse ofuna kumvetsera. (Machitidwe 20:20) Mukadzakumana ndi Mboni za Yehova, bwanji osadzifunsa kuti zikusonyezeni zimene Baibulo lanu limanena zokhudza lonjezo losangalatsa la Mulungu lokhazikitsa “dziko latsopano” mmene ‘mudzakhala chilungamo’?​—2 Petro 3:13.

[Mapu patsamba 13]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Venice

ROME

[Chithunzi patsamba 15]

Baibulo la Brucioli linagwiritsa ntchito dzina la Mulungu lakuti Ieova

[Chithunzi patsamba 15]

Mndandanda wa mabuku oletsedwa unasonyeza Mabaibulo amene anamasuliridwa m’zinenero za anthu wamba kukhala oopsa

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 13]

Bible title page: Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 15]

Brucioli’s translation: Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma; Index: Su concessione del Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali