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Kodi Pontiyo Pilato Anali Ndani?

Kodi Pontiyo Pilato Anali Ndani?

 Kodi Pontiyo Pilato Anali Ndani?

“PILATO anali munthu wonyoza ndiponso wokayikakayika ndipo ambirife sitimumvetsa bwino. Ena amamuona ngati woyera mtima, pamene ena amamuona ngati munthu wamantha kwambiri, enanso amamuona ngati wandale wololera kuphetsa munthu pofuna kupewa zipolowe.”​—Linatero buku lotchedwa Pontius Pilate, lolembedwa ndi Ann Wroe.

Kaya inuyo mukugwirizana ndi maganizo aliwonse ali pamwambawa kapena ayi, mfundo n’njakuti Pontiyo Pilato anadziwika chifukwa cha zimene anamuchita Yesu Kristu. Kodi Pilato anali ndani? Kodi ndi zinthu zotani zimene zikudziwidwa zokhudza iyeyu? Kumvetsa bwino udindo wake kutithandiza kumvetsa nkhani yofunika kuposa nkhani iliyonse imene inachitikapo padziko pano.

Udindo, Ntchito, Ndiponso Mphamvu Zake

Tiberiyo, mfumu ya Roma anasankha Pilato kukhala kazembe wa chigawo cha Yudeya m’chaka cha 26 C.E. Akuluakulu aboma amenewa anali amuna ochokera m’mabanja odziwika, koma osati mabanja apamwamba oyendetsa nyumba ya malamulo. Zikuoneka kuti Pilato atalowa usilikali anakhala mkulu wa asilikali a fuko lake, apo ayi anakhala mtsogoleri wamng’ono wa asilikaliwo. Kenaka anatumizidwa kukagwira ntchito m’madera osiyanasiyana n’kuikidwa kukhala kazembe asanakwanitse zaka 30.

Yunifolomu imene Pilato ankavala iyenera kuti inali ya mkanjo wa chikopa pamodzi ndi choteteza pachifuwa cha chitsulo. Pagulu, ankavala chinsalu choyera chokhala ndi m’mphepete mofiirira. Pilato ayenera kuti anali ndi tsitsi lalifupi ndipo sankasunga ndevu. Ngakhale kuti anthu ena amaganiza kuti anachokera ku Spain, dzina lake limasonyeza kuti iye anali wafuko lotchedwa Pontii, la anthu apamwamba a ku Samnium, kummwera kwa dziko la Italy.

Akuluakulu aboma okhala ndi udindo wa Pilato nthawi zambiri ankawatumiza ku madera osatukuka a zipolowe. Aroma ankaona kuti Yudeya linali dera lotere. Pilato ankaonetsetsa kuti anthu akukhala mwabata, komanso ankayang’anira ntchito yotolera misonkho imene anthu ankapereka pa katundu aliyense amene agula ndiponso misonkho imene munthu wamkulu aliyense ankakhoma. Makhoti achiyuda ndiwo ankayang’anira zoweruza milandu ya tsiku ndi tsiku, koma zikuoneka kuti milandu yonse imene chiweruzo chake chinali kuphedwa inkapita kwa kazembe, chifukwa ndiye anali mkulu wa nkhani zonse zokhudza malamulo.

Pilato ndi mkazi wake ankakhala mu mzinda wa Kaisareya, womwenso unali doko, ndipo ankagwira ntchito ndi alembi, anzake ndiponso amesenjala. Pilato ankalamulira magulu asanu a asilikali oyenda pansi ndipo gulu lililonse linkakhala ndi asilikali pakati pa 500 ndi 1,000, komanso ankalamulira gulu limodzi la asilikali oyenda pa hatchi lokhala ndi asilikali mwina 500. Nthawi zambiri asilikali ake ankapachika pamtengo anthu oswa lamulo. Panthawi yamtendere, anthuwa ankawapachika atawaimba kaye mlandu wachidule, koma panthawi yoti anthu aukira, oukirawo ankangowaphera pomwepo basi, ndipo gulu lonselo ankaliphera pamodzi. Mwachitsanzo, Aroma anapha akapolo 6,000 powapachika pamtengo chifukwa chofuna kuthetsa kugalukira kumene anayambitsa munthu wina dzina lake Spartacus. Ku Yudeya kazembe akaona kuti zinthu  ziipa, nthawi zambiri ankapempha thandizo kwa kazembe wina wamkulu ku Suriya, amene ankalamulira asilikali mwina okwana 6,000. Komabe, panthawi yambiri imene Pilato ankalamulira, ku Suriya kunalibe kazembe wamkulu, motero chisokonezo chilichonse, Pilato anayenera kuchithetsa mwamsanga.

Nthawi zambiri akazembe ankadziwitsa mfumu yaikulu zimene zikuchitika. Ankatumiza malipoti a nkhani zilizonse zokhudza ulemerero wa mfumu kapena zinthu zomwe zingasokoneze ulamuliro wa Aroma, ndipo mfumuyo inkalamula zoyenerera kuchita. Ngati zinazake sizinayende bwino m’chigawo chake, kazembe ankada nkhawa kuti ena angakadandaule kwa mfumu iyeyo asanaiuze maganizo ake pa nkhaniyo. Popeza kuti ku Yudeya zinthu sizinali kuyenda bwino, Pilato ankada nkhawa kwambiri.

Kupatulapo nkhani za mu Uthenga Wabwino, Flavius Josephus ndiponso Philo, omwe anali olemba mbiri, ndiwo makamaka ananena zambiri zokhudza Pilato. Wolemba mbiri wina wachiroma, dzina lake Tacitus ananenanso kuti Pilato anapha Christus, kapena kuti Kristu, amene Akristu anatengako dzina lawo.

Anakwiyitsa Ayuda

Josephus ananena kuti akazembe achiroma anapewa kupititsa ku Yerusalemu mbendera zokhala ndi zifanizo za mfumu, pozindikira kuti Ayuda ankadana ndi zifanizo. Popeza kuti Pilato sanapewe kutero, Ayuda anakwiya nazo n’kupita ku Kaisareya kukadandaula. Pilato sanachitepo kanthu kwa masiku asanu. Pa tsiku lachisanu ndi chimodzi, iye analamulira asilikali ake kuti azungulire anthu otsutsawo n’kuwaopseza kuti akapanda kubalalika awapha. Ayudawo anayankha kuti alolera kufa kusiyana n’kuti Lamulo lawo liphwanyidwe, motero Pilato anasintha maganizo n’kulamula kuti achotse zifanizozo.

Pilato ankatha kuchita zinthu pogwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zake. Josephus analemba kuti nthawi ina Pilato anayamba ntchito yomanga ngalande yolowetsa madzi mumzinda wa Yerusalemu ndipo anatenga ndalama zoyendetsera kachisi n’kulipirira ntchito imeneyi. Pilato sanachite kulanda ndalamazi. Sakanachita zimenezo chifukwa ankadziwa kuti Ayuda ankaona kuti kufunkha zinthu m’kachisi n’kusalemekeza zinthu zopatulika, motero iwo akanapsa mtima n’kupempha kuti Tiberiyo achotse Pilato pa udindo wake. Choncho zikuoneka kuti Pilato anachita zimenezi mogwirizana ndi akuluakulu oyang’anira kachisi. Zinali zololeka kugwiritsira ntchito chuma choperekedwa kwa Mulungu, chomwe ankachitcha kuti “khobani,” pa ntchito zothandiza mzindawo. Komabe, Ayuda masauzande ambirimbiri anasonkhana pokwiya ndi zimenezi.

Pilato anatumiza asilikali kuti akalowe pachikhamu cha anthucho ndipo anawalamula kuti asatenge malupanga koma akangowamenya anthuwo ndi zibonga. N’kutheka kuti ankangofuna kuletsa anthuwo kuchita zachisokonezo popanda kuphetsa anthu ambirimbiri. Zikuoneka kuti izi zinathekadi, ngakhale kuti anthu ena anafapo ndithu. Anthu enaake amene anakamuuza Yesu kuti Pilato anasakaniza magazi a Agalileya ena pamodzi ndi nsembe zawo, ayenera kuti ankanena za nkhani imeneyi.​—Luka 13:1.

“Choonadi N’chiyani?”

Pilato amadziwika kwambiri chifukwa cha mmene anazengera mlandu umene akuluakulu ansembe achiyuda ndiponso amuna akulu achiyuda anam’bweretsera. Uwu unali mlandu wakuti Yesu ankanena kuti ndi Mfumu. Pilato atamva zoti Yesu anabwerera kudzachitira umboni choonadi, anaona kuti uyu sanali mkaidi wodetsa nkhawa Aroma. Iye anafunsa kuti: “Choonadi n’chiyani,” ndipo zikuoneka kuti anatero poganiza kuti nkhani ya choonadi n’njovuta kuimvetsa moti si yofunika kutayirapo nthawi. Kodi Pilato atamva mlanduwo anapeza zotani? “Ndilibe kupeza chifukwa cha mlandu ndi munthu uyu.”​—Yohane 18:37, 38; Luka 23:4.

Apa m’pamene mlandu wa Yesu unayenera kuthera, koma Ayuda analimbikira kunena kuti Yesu anali kuchita zinthu zosokoneza mtunduwo. Chifukwa chimene akuluakulu ansembewo anaperekera Yesu  kwa Aroma chinali nsanje, ndipo Pilato ankadziwa. Iyeyu ankadziwanso kuti akamasula Yesu zinthu zivuta, ndipo ankafuna kupewa zimenezi chifukwa mavuto otere anali atam’kwana. M’mbuyomo, Baraba ndi anzake ena anamangidwa chifukwa cha milandu youkira boma ndiponso kupha. (Marko 15:7, 10; Luka 23:2) Kuphatikizanso apo, mikangano imene Pilato anakhalapo nayo ndi Ayuda m’mbuyomo inaipitsa mbiri yake kwa Tiberiyo, amene ankadziwika ndi khalidwe lokhaulitsa kwambiri akazembe osayendetsa bwino zinthu. Komano, Pilato ankaopa kuti akagonjera zofuna za Ayudawo aoneka ngati wamantha. Motero pamenepa iye anathedwa nzeru.

Atamva za kumene Yesu ankachokera, Pilato anayesa kupereka mlandu wa Yesu kwa Herode Antipa, kuti ndiye akauzenge. Iyeyu anali wolamulira chigawo chonse cha Galileya. Zimenezi zitakanika, Pilato anayesa kuchititsa anthu amene anali atasonkhana panja pa nyumba yake yachifumu kupempha kuti Yesu amasulidwe, mogwirizana ndi mwambo wa nthawiyo womasula mkaidi mmodzi pa Paskha. Chikhamucho chinakuwa kuti chikufuna kuti Baraba ndiye amasulidwe.​—Luka 23:5-19.

N’kutheka kuti Pilato ankafuna kuchita chilungamo, komano ankafunanso kusunga ntchito yake ndiponso kusangalatsa chikhamucho. Mapeto ake analolera kuchita zinthu zotsutsana ndi chikumbumtima chake komanso chilungamo pofuna kusunga ntchito yakeyo. Iye anapempha madzi, ndipo anasamba m’manja n’kunena kuti sakufuna kukhudzidwa ndi imfa ya Yesu, imene tsopano iyeyu anali ataivomereza. * Ngakhale kuti Pilato ankakhulupirira kuti Yesu sanali wolakwa, analamula kuti akwapulidwe n’kulola asilikali kumunyoza, kumumenya, ndi kumulavulira.​—Mateyu 27:24-31.

Pilato anayesa komaliza kuti amasule Yesu, koma chikhamucho chinanena mokuwa kuti akangoyerekeza kutero, ndiye kuti si bwenzi la Kaisara. (Yohane 19:12) Atanena zimenezi, Pilato anamvera. Katswiri wina wa maphunziro ananena mawu awa pa zimene Pilato anaganiza kuchita: “Iye anaona kuti njira yachidule n’kungolamula kuti munthuyo aphedwe basi. Chifukwatu kwa iyeyo kufa kwa Myuda mmodzi wosanunkha kanthu siinali nkhani yaikulu ayi; koma ankaona kuti n’kupusa kulola kuti pabuke vuto lalikulu chifukwa cha munthu ameneyu.”

Kodi N’chiyani Chinam’chitikira Pilato?

Nkhani yomaliza yokhudza Pilato imene inalembedwa ndi yokhudzananso ndi zachipolowe. Josephus ananena kuti khamu la Asamariya linasonkhana pa phiri la Gerizimu litatenga zida pofuna kukumba zinthu zamtengo wapatali zimene ankakhulupirira kuti Mose anakwirirapo. Pilato analetsa zimenezi, ndipo asilikali ake anapha anthu angapo pagululi. Asamariyawo anakadandaula kwa bwana wa Pilato, kazembe wa ku Suriya dzina lake Lucius Vitellius. Sizikudziwika ngati kazembeyu anaona kuti Pilato ananyanya pochita zimenezi. Mulimonsemo, iye analamulira kuti Pilato apite ku Roma kukaonekera pamaso pa mfumu chifukwa cha zimene anachitazi. Komabe Pilato asanafike ku Romako Tiberiyo anamwalira.

Magazini ina inati: “Apa m’pamene Pilato anazimiririka m’zolembedwa zotsimikizirika za mbiri yakale, ngakhale kuti pali nkhani zina zambiri zosatsimikizirika zonena za iyeyu.” Anthu ambiri ayesapo kutchula zinthu zina zokhudza Pilato zimene zili zosadziwika bwinobwino. Ena amati Pilato anadzakhala Mkristu. Anthu a ku Ethiopia odzitcha kuti Akristu anamuika kukhala “munthu woyera mtima.” Eusebius, amene analemba mbiri ya kumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 200 ndi kumayambiriro kwa m’ma 300, anali munthu woyamba pa anthu ochuluka amene ananenapo kuti Pilato anadzipha ngati mmene anachitira Yudasi Isikariote. Koma palibe amene amadziwa mwa mtheradi zimene zinam’chitikira Pilato.

Inde, Pilato anali munthu wouma khosi, wokonda kukayikira zinthu, ndiponso wankhanza. Koma anakhala paudindo wake kwa zaka teni, pamene akazembe anzake ambiri a ku Yudeya ankakhala paudindo wawo kwa zaka zocheperapo. Motero, tikatengera pa mmene Aroma ankaonera zinthu, ndiye kuti Pilato anali munthu wodziwa ntchito. Anthu ena amutchulapo kuti anali munthu wamantha, yemwe pofuna kudziteteza, anachititsa kuti Yesu azunzidwe ndi kuphedwa mwankhanza kwambiri. Ena amati Pilato ntchito yake si kuti kwenikweni inali yoonetsetsa kuti zinthu zikuyenda mwachilungamo, koma inali yokhazikitsa mtendere ndiponso kuchita zofuna za Aroma basi.

N’zoona kuti m’nthawi ya Pilato zinthu zinali zosiyana kwambiri ndi masiku ano. Komabe, woweruza aliyense amadziwa kuti sichilungamo kupatsa chilango munthu amene akudziwa kuti n’ngosalakwa. Chipanda kuti Pontiyo Pilato sanakumane ndi Yesu, panopo bwenzi akungodziwika dzina lokha basi m’mabuku a mbiri yakale.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 19 Kuwasambira ena m’manja unali mwambo wa Ayuda, osati Aroma, wosonyeza kuti munthuwe sunakhetse nawo mwazi.​—Deuteronomo 21:6, 7.

[Chithunzi patsamba 11]

Zolembedwa izi, zomwe zikusonyeza kuti Pontiyo Pilato anali mkulu waboma ku Yudeya, anazipeza ku Kaisareya