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Baibulo Lachifumu Linathandiza Kwambiri Akatswiri Omasulira Malemba

Baibulo Lachifumu Linathandiza Kwambiri Akatswiri Omasulira Malemba

 Baibulo Lachifumu Linathandiza Kwambiri Akatswiri Omasulira Malemba

SITIMA yapamadzi inanyamuka ku Spain ulendo wopita ku dziko la kunyanja la Italy m’zaka za m’ma 1500. Inali itanyamula katundu wamtengo wapatali kwambiri​—mtokoma wa makope onse a Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la Complutensian amene anasindikizidwa pakati pa 1514 ndi 1517. Mwadzidzidzi, panyanjapo panauka namondwe woopsa. Amalinyerowo anachita zonse zotheka kuti apulumutse sitimayo, koma sizinaphule kanthu. Sitimayo inamira limodzi ndi katundu wake wamtengo wapataliyo.

Chifukwa cha ngozi imeneyo anthu ambiri anafuna kuti Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero latsopano lilembedwe. Potsirizira pake, katswiri wa ntchito yosindikiza, Christophe Plantin anadzipereka kuti agwire ntchito yovutayo. Iye anafunikira munthu wachuma woti amuthandize ndalama zoyendetsera ntchitoyo. Choncho anapempha Philip Wachiwiri, mfumu ya Spain, kuti apereke thandizolo. Mfumuyo isanavomereze, inaganiza zokafunsira kwa akatswiri a Baibulo osiyanasiyana a dziko la Spain. Mmodzi wa iwo anali Benito Arias Montano, katswiri wa Baibulo wotchuka kwambiri. Iye anauza Mfumu Philip kuti: “Olemekezeka, kuwonjezera pa kutumikira Mulungu ndi kupindulitsa tchalitchi chonse, ntchitoyi idzawonjezera ulemelero wanu, ndipo idzakutchukitsani.”

Philip anaona kuti Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la Compluntensian lokonzedwanso lidzakweza mtundu wawo, choncho  anadzipereka ndi mtima wonse kuti athandize ntchito ya Plantin yosindikiza Baibulolo. Iye anapatsa Arias Montano ntchito yaikulu yolemba Baibulo limene linadzatchedwa Baibulo Lachifumu, kapena kuti Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp. *

Philip anali wofunitsitsa kuti ntchito yolemba Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero imeneyi itheke, mwakuti anapempha kuti azim’tumizira pepala lililonse limene amaliza kuti aziona ngati zili bwino. Mwachidziwikire, zinali zomuvuta Plantin kuti nthawi zonse azidikira kuti pepala limodzi lichoke ku Antwerp lipite ku Spain kaye, mfumuyo ikaliwerenge ndi kusintha zina ndi zina, kenako akalibweze kwa iye. Kwenikweni, ndi pepala limodzi lokha limene Philip anatumiza kosindikiza, mwinanso ndi masamba angapo oyambirira. Komabe, Montano anapitiriza kugwira ntchito yowerenganso yekha kuona ngati muli zolakwa. Anagwira ntchitoyo mothandizana ndi mapulofesa atatu a ku Lauvain, limodzi ndi mwana wamkazi wa Plantin.

Wokonda Mawu a Mulungu

Arias Montano anali kugwirizana bwino kwambiri ndi akatswiri a Baibulo a ku Antwerp. Chifukwa cha khalidwe lake lakumva maganizo a ena, Plantin anamukonda kwambiri Montano, moti anakhala mabwenzi ogwirizana moyo wawo wonse. Montano sanatchuke ndi ukatswiri wake wa Baibulo wokha, komanso chifukwa cha kukonda kwake Mawu a Mulungu. * Pamene anali mnyamata, anali wofunitsitsa kuti amalize maphunziro ake a kusukulu kuti akadzipereke kotheratu pa kuphunzira Malemba.

 Arias Montano anali kukhulupirira kuti kumasulira Baibulo kuyenera kutsatira kalembedwe ka mawu a chinenero choyambirira. Anayesetsa kumasulira ndendende mmene mawu a chinenero choyambirira anawalembera, kuti wowerenga azikhala akuwerenga Mawu a Mulungu enieniwo. Montano anatengera mfundo ya Erasmus, amene analimbikitsa akatswiri a Baibulo kuti “azilalikira za Kristu malinga ndi mmene zinalembedwera m’zinenero zoyambirira.” Matanthauzo enieni a zinenero zoyambirira zimene Malemba analembedwamo, anali obisika kwa anthu kwa zaka mazanamazana, chifukwa chakuti Malemba omasuliridwa m’Chilatini anali ovuta kumva.

Mmene Analikonzera

Arias Montano, anatha kuipeza mipukutu yonse imene Alfonso de Zamora anali atalemba ndi kuikonzanso posindikiza Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la Complutensian. Ndipo mipukutuyo ndi imene Montano anagwiritsa ntchito polemba Baibulo Lachifumu. *

Poyamba amafuna kuti Baibulo Lachifumulo likhale ngati kusindikiza kwachiwiri kwa Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la Compluntensian, koma sizinatero chifukwa linakhala ndi zatsopano zambiri. Malemba Achihebri ndi Achigiriki a Baibulo la Septuagint anatengedwa m’Baibulo la Compluntensian; kenako anawonjezeramo mawu ena komanso nkhani zakumapeto zambiri. Potsirizira pake, Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero latsopanolo linakhala ndi mavoliyumu asanu ndi atatu. Linatenga zaka zisanu kulisindikiza, kuchokera mu 1568 mpaka mu 1572. Imeneyi inali nthawi yaifupi kwambiri poganizira kuvuta kwa ntchitoyo. Potsirizira pake, makope 1,213 anasindikizidwa.

Ngakhale kuti Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la Complutensian la mu 1517 linakhaladi “ntchito imene panagona luso losindikiza,” Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp latsopanolo linaposa loyambalo pa luso la kusindikiza komanso mawu ake. Kunali kutsogola kwapadera m’mbiri ya ntchito zosindikiza, makamakanso chifukwa chakuti linakhala Baibulo lachitsanzo lokonzedwa bwino.

Adani a Mawu a Mulungu Aliukira

Monga momwe zinayembekezereka, anthu odana ndi kumasulira Baibulo mokhulupirika  anatulukira. Ngakhale kuti Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp linali lovomerezedwa ndi papa, ndipo Arias Montano anali munthu wotchuka monga katswiri wa Baibulo wolemekezeka, anamusumirabe ku khoti la Inkwizishoni. Adani ake anati Baibulo lakelo linaonetsa ngati kuti malemba achilatini a Santes Pagninus anamasulira molondola malemba oyambirira achihebri ndi achigiriki kuposa Baibulo la Vulgate, limene analimasulira zaka mazana angapo m’mbuyomo. Anamuimbanso mlandu Montano wa kufufuza malemba a m’zinenero zoyambirira ndi cholinga chakuti amasulire Baibulo lolondola. Kuchita zimenezo kunali kupandukira tchalitchi.

Khotilo linafika mpaka ponena kuti “ngakhale kuti Mfumuyo inathandiza pa ntchitoyo, sinalemekezeke  nayo kwenikweni.” Iwo anakhumudwa kuti Montano sanapereke ulemu wofunikira ku Baibulo lovomerezeka la Vulgate. Koma ngakhale kuti anamuimba milandu yonseyi, iwo sanapezebe umboni wokwanira kuti Montano apatsidwe chilango kepena kuti Baibulo lake liletsedwe. Potsirizira pake, anthu ambiri analikonda Baibulo Lachifumulo, ndipo linasungidwa m’mayunivesite osiyanasiyana ngati lotengerako chitsanzo.

Linakhala Chida Chothandiza pa Kumasulira Baibulo

Ngakhale kuti Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp sanalilembere anthu wamba, posapita nthawi linakhala chida chothandiza kwa omasulira Baibulo. Mofanana ndi Baibulo loyamba la Compluntensian, ilinso linathandizira pa kukonzanso bwinobwino Malemba omwe analipo. Linathandizanso omasulira kumvetsa bwino zinenero zoyambirira. Komanso linathandiza pa kumasulira Baibulo m’zinenero zikuluzikulu za ku Ulaya. Mwachitsanzo, buku lotchedwa The Cambridge History of the Bible limanena kuti omasulira Mabaibulo otchuka a King James Version, kapena Authorized Version a mu 1611, anagwiritsa ntchito Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp monga chida chowathandiza kumasulira zinenero zakale. Baibulo Lachifumulo linathandizanso pa kumasulira Mabaibulo enanso awiri ophatikiza zinenero amene anasindikizidwa m’zaka za m’ma 1600.​—Onani bokosi lakuti “Mabaibulo Ophatikiza Zinenero.”

Limodzi la mapindu ambiri a Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp, linali lakuti linathandiza akatswiri a Baibulo ambiri a ku Ulaya kukhala ndi Malemba Achigiriki m’Chisuriya kwa nthawi yoyamba. Malemba achisuriya amenewo analembedwa pambali pa Chilatini chimene anamasulira liwu ndi liwu. Mbali imene anaiwonjezera imeneyi inali yothandiza kwambiri. Zinali choncho chifukwa Baibulo lachisuriya linali limodzi mwa Mabaibulo akale kwambiri a Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu. Pokhala litalembedwa m’zaka za m’ma 400 C.E., Baibulo lachisuriya linazikidwa pamipukutu ya m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E. Malinga n’kunena kwa buku lakuti The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, “anthu ambiri amavomereza kuti Baibulo la Peshitta [lachisuriya] n’lothandiza kwambiri pa kupenda bwino malemba. Limapereka umboni wakale kwambiri komanso wofunika kopambana pa malemba akale.”

Ngozi ija ya panyanja, ngakhalenso oukira Baibulo a khoti la Inkwizishoni la ku Spain sanathe kulepheretsa Baibulo Lachifumu kuti lituluke mu 1517, motsatira linzake lotchedwa Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la Complutensian. Mbiri ya Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp ndi chitsanzo cha khama limene anthu aonetsa poyesetsa kuteteza Mawu a Mulungu.

Kaya amunawo anadziwa kapena sanadziwe, kudzipereka kwawo kwakhamako kunasonyeza choonadi chonenedwa mu ulosi wa Yesaya. Pafupifupi zaka zikwi zitatu zapitazo, iye analemba kuti: “Udzu unyala, duwa lifota, koma mawu a Mulungu wathu adzakhala nthawi zachikhalire.”​—Yesaya 40:8.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 4 Linatchedwa Baibulo Lachifumu chifukwa amene anapereka ndalama zolikonzera anali Mfumu Philip. Komanso limatchedwa Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp chifukwa analisindikizira mu mzinda wa Antwerp pamene unali dera la Ufumu wa Spain.

^ ndime 7 Iye anali wodziwa bwino Chiarabu, Chigiriki, Chihebri, Chilatini, ndi Chisuriya. Izi ndizo zinali zinenero zikuluzikulu zisanu zimene zinagwiritsidwa ntchito polemba Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero limeneli. Analinso katswiri pa zinthu zakale zofukulidwa pansi, komanso pa zamankhwala, zachilengedwe, ndi zaumulungu. Maphunziro ake pambali zimenezi anam’thandiza kwambiri pokonza nkhani zakumapeto kwa Baibulo limenelo.

^ ndime 10 Kuti mumve zambiri za kufunika kwa Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la Compluntensian, onani Nsanja ya Olonda ya April 15, 2004.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 13]

“Mawu a Mulungu wathu adzakhala nthawi zachikhalire”

[Bokosi/​Zithunzi patsamba 12]

MABAIBULO OPHATIKIZA ZINENERO

“Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero limakhala ndi zilankhulo zosiyanasiyana,” anafotokoza motero Federico Pérez Castro, katswiri wa Baibulo wa ku Spain. Anatinso: “Komabe, kwenikweni mawuwo anayenera kutanthauza Mabaibulo amene mawu ake ali m’zinenero zoyambirira. Kutengera tanthauzo limeneli, Mabaibulo ophatikiza zinenero alipo ochepa kwambiri.”

1. Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la Complutensian (1514-1517), linasindikizidwa ku Alcalá de Henares, ku Spain, mwa thandizo la kadinala Cisneros. Baibuloli linali ndi mavoliyumu asanu ndi limodzi amene anaphatikiza zinenero zinayi: Chihebri, Chigiriki, Chiaramu, ndi Chilatini. Linathandiza omasulira Malemba a m’zaka za m’ma 1500 kukhala ndi chitsanzo chabwino cha Malemba Ophatikiza Chihebri ndi Chiaramu.

2. Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp (1568-1572), linalembedwa ndi Benito Arias Montano. Iye anatenga Malemba a Complutensian n’kuwonjezeramo Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu ochokera mu Peshita ya Chisuriya, komanso Malemba a Tagamu ya Chiaramu olembedwa ndi Jonathan. Malemba achihebri, omwe anali ndi timadontho toimira mavawelo ndiponso zizindikiro zina za matchulidwe a mawu, anakonzedwanso malinga ndi malemba achihebri ovomerezeka olembedwa ndi Jacob ben Hayyim. Choncho, anakhala Malemba Achihebri achitsanzo kwa omasulira Baibulo ena.

3. Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Paris (1629-1645) Amene anapereka thandizo losindikizira Baibulo limeneli anali loya wa ku France, Guy Michel le Jay. Linazikidwa pa Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp, ngakhale kuti linalinso ndi malemba ena achisamariya ndi achiarabu.

4. Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku London (1655-57), lolembedwa ndi Brian Walton. Nalonso linazikidwa pa Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp. Baibulo Lophatikiza Zineneroli linalinso ndi mbali zina za Baibulo zakale kwambiri zomasuliridwa m’Chiitopiya ndi Chiperesiya, ngakhale kuti malemba amenewo sanali othandiza kwenikweni kumveketsa bwino Baibulo.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Banner and Antwerp Polyglots (two underneath): Biblioteca Histórica. Universidad Complutense de Madrid; Antwerp Polyglot (on top): By courtesy of Museum Plantin-Moretus/​Stedelijk Prentenkabinet Antwerpen; London Polyglot: From the book The Walton Polyglot Bible, Vol. III, 1655-1657

[Chithunzi patsamba 9]

Philip Wachiwiri, mfumu ya ku Spain

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Philip II: Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid

[Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Arias Montano

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Montano: Biblioteca Histórica. Universidad Complutense de Madrid

[Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Makina osindikizira oyambirira ku Antwerp, Belgium

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Press: By courtesy of Museum Plantin-Moretus/​Stedelijk Prentenkabinet Antwerpen

[Chithunzi patsamba 11]

Kumanzere: Christophe Plantin ndi chikuto chakumaso cha Baibulo Lophatikiza Zinenero la ku Antwerp

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Title page and Plantin: By courtesy of Museum Plantin-Moretus/​Stedelijk Prentenkabinet Antwerpen

[Chithunzi patsamba 11]

Pamwamba: Eksodo chaputala 15 m’madanga anayi a malemba

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 9]

Title page and Plantin: By courtesy of Museum Plantin-Moretus/​Stedelijk Prentenkabinet Antwerpen

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 13]

Biblioteca Histórica. Universidad Complutense de Madrid