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Laibulale Yakale Kwambiri ya ku Russia Ithandiza ‘Kumvetsetsa’ Baibulo

Laibulale Yakale Kwambiri ya ku Russia Ithandiza ‘Kumvetsetsa’ Baibulo

 Laibulale Yakale Kwambiri ya ku Russia Ithandiza ‘Kumvetsetsa’ Baibulo

AKATSWIRI awiri a maphunziro anali kalikiliki kufunafuna malemba a pamanja a Baibulo akale. Aliyense anayenda m’chipululu ndi kufufuza m’mapanga, m’nyumba za amonke ndi m’nyumba zogoba za m’mapiri. Patatha zaka zingapo chiyambireni kufufuza kwawo, aliyense anafika ku laibulale ina ya anthu onse yomwe ndi yakale kwambiri ya ku Russia. Kumeneku, anthuwa anabweretsa malemba a pamanja a Baibulo ochititsa chidwi kwambiri padziko lonse. Kodi anthu amenewa ndani? Kodi chuma chamtengo wapatali chimene iwo anapeza, chinakapezeka bwanji ku Russia?

Malemba a Pamanja a Baibulo Akale Athandiza Kusakayikira Mawu a Mulungu

Kuti tidziwe mmodzi wa akatswiri a maphunziro amenewa, tiyeni tibwerere kuchiyambi kwa m’ma 1800. M’zaka zimenezo anthu ku Ulaya anayamba kuzama ndi maphunziro. M’nyengo imeneyi yomwe anthu anayamba kutsogola pa zasayansi ndiponso kukhala moyo wotukuka, anthu ambiri anayamba kukayikira zikhulupiriro zamakolo. Akatswiri ena ofufuza Baibulo anayamba kuchititsa anthu kulikayikira. Ndipotu panthawiyo, akatswiri a maphunziro anayamba kufotokoza maganizo onena kuti Baibulo linasinthidwa.

Chotero anthu ena oteteza Baibulo anaona kuti m’pofunika kupeza zinthu zina zatsopano, makamaka malemba a pamanja a Baibulo akale, amene akanatsimikizira anthu kuti Mawu a Mulunguwo sanasinthidwe. Pakanapezeka malemba a pamanja akale kuposa amene analipo panthawiyo, akanakhala umboni wotsimikizira kuti Baibulo silinapotozedwe, ngakhale kuti anthu ena anali atayesa kale kupotoza uthenga wake kangapo konse. Malemba oterowo akanathandizanso anthu kuzindikira malo ochepa omwe anthu ena analakwitsa pomasulira.

Kwina kumene anthu anatsutsana modetsa nkhawa pankhaniyi ndi ku Germany. Kumeneko pulofesa wina wachinyamata anasiya moyo wake wa wofuwofu n’kuyamba ulendo womwe mapeto ake anakatulukira zinthu zochititsa chidwi koposa zokhudza Baibulo. Mnyamata ameneyu dzina lake anali Konstantin von Tischendorf. Katswiri wa maphunziro a Baibulo ameneyu sanagwirizane ndi anthu okayikira Baibulo ndipo anachita zazikulu potsimikizira kuti zimene zili m’Baibulo sizinasinthidwe. Ulendo wake woyamba wa ku chipululu cha Sinai mu 1844 unali wopambana kwambiri. Ali kumeneko m’nyumba ina ya amonke, anaona malemba a pamanja a Baibulo la Septuagint m’dengu  lotayamo zinyalala. Limeneli linali Baibulo lachigiriki limene analimasulira kuchokera ku Malemba Achihebri ndipo n’lakale kwambiri kuposa ena onse amene apezekapo.

Tischendorf anasangalala kwambiri ndipo paulendowu anatengako zolemba pamanja zokwanira 43. Iye ankakhulupirira kuti angathe kukapezako zina, koma atapitakonso mu 1853, anangopeza zochepa chabe. Kodi zina zinali kuti? Pakuti panthawiyi n’kuti ndalama zitamuthera, Tischendorf anaganiza zokapempha thandizo la ndalama kwa munthu wachuma ndipo anaganiza zochokanso kwawo n’kuyamba kukafunafuna malemba a pamanja a Baibulo akale. Iye anaganiza kuti asananyamuke ulendo wake akapemphe chithandizo kwa mfumu ya dziko la Russia.

Mfumu Ichita Chidwi

Tischendorf ayenera kuti anali kukayikira kuti anthu akamulandira bwanji m’dziko lalikulu la Russia la chipembedzo cha Orthodox pamene iye anali mpolotesitanti. Mwamwayi, zinthu zinali zitayamba kusintha ku Russia. Pofuna kulimbikitsa maphunziro, Mfumukazi Catherine Wachiwiri (yodziwikanso kuti Catherine Wamkulu) inali itakhazikitsa laibulale yotchedwa St. Petersburg’s Imperial Library mu 1795. Pokhala laibulale ya aliyense yoyamba ku Russia, inapereka mwayi kwa anthu ambirimbiri wowerenga mabuku ambiri.

Ngakhale kuti laibulaleyi ankaitama kuti inali m’gulu la malaibulale abwino kwambiri ku Ulaya, iyo inali ndi vuto limodzi. Patatha zaka 50 chiitsegulireni, laibulaleyi inali ndi zolemba pamanja za Baibulo zachihebri zisanu ndi chimodzi basi. Choncho sikanatha kuthandiza anthu ambirimbiri omwe anayamba kukhala ndi chidwi chophunzira zinenero za Baibulo ndiponso mabaibulo osiyanasiyana ku Russia. Komanso Mfumukazi Catherine Wachiwiri inali itatumiza akatswiri a maphunziro ku mayunivesite a ku Ulaya kukaphunzira Chihebri. Akatswiriwa atabwerako, anayambitsa maphunziro a Chihebri m’maseminale akuluakulu a tchalitchi cha Russian Orthodox. Kuwonjezera apo, kwa nthawi yoyamba akatswiri a maphunziro a ku Russia anayamba kutembenuza Baibulo la Chirasha kuchokera ku Chihebri chakale pofuna kukhala ndi Baibulo lolondola. Koma analibe ndalama zokwanira zogwirira ntchitoyi, ndiponso atsogoleri a tchalitchi amene sankafuna kusintha zinthu, sanagwirizane nawo. Kwa anthu ofuna kuphunzira Baibulo, kuwala kunalidi kusanayambe.

Mfumu Alexander Wachiwiri inaona mwamsanga kufunika kwa ntchito ya Tischendorf ndipo inavomera kum’thandiza ndi ndalama. Ngakhale kuti ena ankamuchitira “nsanje ndiponso kutsutsana naye kwambiri,” Tischendorf anapita ku Sinai ndipo anabwerako ndi zigawo zotsala za Baibulo la Septuagint. * Pambuyo pake malemba a pamanja amenewa anawatcha Codex Sinaiticus, ndipo ndi ena mwa malemba a pamanja akale kwambiri amene alipobe. Atabwerera ku St. Petersburg, Tischendorf anapita msangamsanga kunyumba yachifumu ya Imperial Winter Palace. Iye anakapempha mfumuyo kuti imuthandize ndi ndalama kuti zolemba pamanja zakale zimene anapezazo azilembe pataipi, ndipo atazisindikiza anakaziika mu laibulale ya The Imperial Library. Iye anati, imeneyi “ndi ina mwa ntchito zofunika kwambiri pofufuza ndi kuphunzira Baibulo.” Mfumu ija inavomeradi mosavuta ndipo Tischendorf anasangalala kwambiri. Pambuyo pake iye analemba kuti: “Mulungu wapatsa m’badwo wathu . . . Baibulo la Sinaitic kuti litithandize kumvetsetsa Mawu a Mulungu enieni olembedwa, ndi kutithandiza kuteteza choonadi cha m’Baibulo mwa kutsimikizira kuti silinasinthidwe.”

 Malemba a Pamanja Amtengo Wapatali a ku Crimea

Kuchiyambi kwa nkhaniyi tinati panali katswiri wamaphunziro winanso amene anali kufunafuna malemba a pamanja a Baibulo amtengo wapatali. Kodi ameneyu ndani? Zaka zowerengeka Tischendorf asabwerere ku Russia, laibulale ya The Imperial Library inapatsidwa mwayi waukulu kwambiri wopeza malemba a pamanja akale, moti ngakhale mfumu inachita chidwi kwambiri. Zinthu zimenezi, zinakopa akatswiri a maphunziro a ku Ulaya konse kupita ku Russia. Analibiretu mawu ndi zimene anaona. Panali zolemba pamanja zambiri za Baibulo ndiponso zinthu zina. Zinalipo zinthu 2,412 kuphatikizapo malemba a pamanja ndi mipukutu 975. Pa zimenezi panali zolemba pamanja za Baibulo 45 zomwe zinalembedwa m’zaka za m’ma 900. Ngakhale zinthuzi zinali zochuluka chonchi, zinasonkhanitsidwa ndi munthu mmodzi dzina lake Abraham Firkovich. Iye anali katswiri wa maphunziro wa Chikaraite ndipo panthawiyi anali ndi zaka zoposa 70. Kodi Akaraite anali ndani? *

Mfumu ya Russia inafunitsitsa kuwadziwa anthu amenewa. Dziko la Russia linali litafutukula malire ake n’kutenga madera amene kale anali a mayiko ena. Chifukwa cha zimenezo mitundu ina tsopano inakhala mu ufumu wa Russia. M’dera lokongola la Crimea lomwe linali m’mphepete mwa Nyanja Yakuda, munkakhala anthu ooneka ngati Ayuda koma anali ndi miyambo yachiteki, ndipo ankalankhula chilankhulo chofanana ndi Chitata. Akaraite ankati anachokera kwa Ayuda amene anatengedwa ukapolo ku Babulo mzinda wa Yerusalemu utawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E. Iwo sanafune kutsatira buku la malamulo achiyuda la Talmud monga anachitira arabi achiyuda, koma ankalimbikira kuwerenga Malemba. Akaraite a ku Crimea anali ofunitsitsa kukapereka umboni kwa mfumuyo wotsimikizira kuti iwo anali osiyana ndi arabi achiyuda, ndipo mwa kutero angamaonedwe monga mtundu paokha. Popereka malemba a pamanjawo, Akaraite ankafuna kukasonyeza kuti iwo anachokera kwa Ayuda amene anasamukira ku Crimea atamasulidwa ku ukapolo ku Babulo.

Poyamba ntchito yake yofunafuna malemba a pamanja akale, Firkovich anayamba kufufuza m’midzi ya Chufut-Kale yomwe nyumba zake zinali zogoba m’mapiri a ku Crimea. Mibadwo yakale ya Akaraite inkakhala ndiponso kupembedza m’tinyumba ting’onoting’ono timeneti togoba m’miyala ya m’mapiri. Akaraite sankataya zolemba pamanja za Baibulo zokhala ndi dzina la Mulungu lakuti Yehova ngakhale zitatha, chifukwa ankaona kuti n’zopatulika. Malemba a Baibulo a pamanjawo ankawasunga mosamala m’nyumba yosungiramo zinthu yotchedwa genizah, kutanthauza kuti “malo obisalapo” m’Chihebri. Pakuti Akaraite ankalemekeza kwambiri dzina la Mulungu, sanali kusakatula zolembapozo kawirikawiri.

Firkovich sanagwe mphwayi ndi fumbi la mgonagona limene linali m’ma genizah, koma anafufuzamo bwinobwino. M’kanyumba kena anapezamo malemba a pamanja a Baibulo odziwika kwambiri a mu 916 C.E. Malemba a pamanja a Baibulo amenewa ndi amodzi mwa malemba akale kwambiri a Malemba Achihebri amene alipobe, ndipo amatchedwa Petersburg Codex of the Latter Prophets.

Firkovich anapeza zolemba pamanja zambiri zedi ndipo mu 1859 anaganiza zokazigulitsa ku laibulale ya The Imperial Library. Mu 1862, mfumu Alexander Wachiwiri inathandiza kugulira laibulaleyo zolemba pamanjazo pamtengo wokwera kwambiri panthawiyo wa marubo 125,000. Panthawiyo laibulale yonseyo inkayendetsedwa ndi ndalama zosakwana marubo 10,000 pachaka. Pa katunduyu  panalinso Baibulo lolemba pamanja lodziwika kwambiri la Leningrad Codex (B 19A). Baibuloli linalembedwa mu 1008 ndipo ndi Baibulo lakale kwambiri la Malemba onse Achihebri. Katswiri wina wamaphunziro anati amenewa ndi “malemba a pamanja a Baibulo ofunika kwambiri chifukwa ndiwo maziko a mabaibulo osiyanasiyana Achihebri amakono olembedwa mosamala kwambiri.” (Onani bokosilo.) M’chaka chomwecho cha 1862, Baibulo la Tischendorf lotchedwa Codex Sinaiticus linasindikizidwa ndipo izi zinasangalatsa anthu ambiri padziko lonse.

Kuwala Kwauzimu Masiku Ano

Laibulale imeneyi masiku ano imatchedwa The National Library of Russia ndipo ili ndi malemba a pamanja a Baibulo akale ochuluka kwambiri padziko lonse. * Mogwirizana ndi mbiri ya dziko la Russia, dzina la laibulaleyi lasintha kasanu ndi kawiri m’zaka 200. Dzina lina lodziwika bwino ndi lakuti The State Saltykov-Shchedrin Public Library. Ngakhale kuti laibulaleyi inawonongedwapo ndi zochitika za m’ma 1900, malemba a pamanja a Baibulo a m’laibulaleyi sanawonongeke m’pang’ono pomwe ndi nkhondo ziwiri za padziko lonse komanso pamene asilikali a Germany anafuna kuwonongeratu mzinda wa Leningrad komwe kunali laibulaleyi. Kodi malemba a pamanja a Baibulo amenewo ali ndi phindu lanji kwa ife?

Malemba a pamanja a Baibulo akale ndi maziko odalirika potembenuza mabaibulo amakono. Amathandiza anthu ofunafuna choonadi kumvetsetsa Malemba Opatulika. Malemba a pamanja a Sinaiticus ndi Leningrad, anathandiza kwambiri potembenuza Baibulo lofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova la New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, lomwe linatulutsidwa lathunthu mu 1961. Mwachitsanzo, komiti yotembenuza Baibuloli ya New World Bible Translation Committee, inagwiritsira ntchito Baibulo la Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia ndi Baibulo la Kittel lakuti Biblia Hebraica omwe anamasulidwa kuchokera ku Leningrad Codex yomwe inali ndi zilembo zinayi za dzina la Mulungu maulendo 6,828 m’malemba ake oyambirira.

Pa anthu onse owerenga Baibulo, ndi anthu ochepa chabe amene akudziwa ntchito yabwino ya laibulale ya zii ya ku St. Petersburg, ndiponso ya malemba a pamanja a Baibulo amene ali mmenemo. Ena mwa malemba a pamanjawa ali ndi dzina lakale la mzindawu lakuti Leningrad. Komabe tiyenera kuyamikira kwambiri Mlembi wa Baibulo, Yehova, amene amapereka kuwala kwauzimu. Pachifukwa chimenechi, wamasalmo anam’pempha kuti: “Tumizirani kuunika kwanu ndi choonadi chanu zinditsogolere.”​—Salmo 43:3.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 11 Anabweretsanso Baibulo lathunthu la Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu la m’zaka za m’ma 300 C.E.

^ ndime 13 Kuti mumve zambiri za Akaraite, onani nkhani yakuti “Akaraite Ndi Kufunafuna Kwawo Choonadi,” mu Nsanja ya Olonda ya July 15, 1995.

^ ndime 19 Mbali zambiri za Codex Sinaiticus anazigulitsa ku nyumba yosungiramo zinthu zochititsa chidwi ya British Museum. Zidutswa zochepa chabe ndi zimene zinatsala ku laibulale ya ku Russia ya The National Library.

[Bokosi patsamba 13]

DZINA LA MULUNGU LINADZIWIKA NDIPONSO LINALI KUGWIRITSIDWA NTCHITO

Mwa nzeru zake, Yehova waonetsetsa kuti Mawu ake, Baibulo, asungidwa mpaka lero. Anthu amene anali ndi khama kukopera Mawuwa anathandizanso kuti lisungike. Ena mwa anthu amene anakopera Mawuwa mosamala kwambiri anali Amasorete. Amenewa anali alembi achihebri, akatswiri pantchito yawo a m’zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka m’ma 900 C.E. Chihebri chakale ankachilemba popanda mavawelo, ena amati zilembo za liwu. Mkupita kwa nthawi, izi zinachititsa kuti anthu aiwale katchulidwe koyenera ka mawu chifukwa chakuti Chialamu chinayamba kulowa m’malo mwa Chihebri. Amasorete anayamba kuyika m’Baibulo zizindikiro za katchulidwe koyenera ka mawu a Chihebri.

Mochititsa chidwi, zizindikiro za katchulidwe ka mawu za Amasorete mu Leningrad Codex zimathandiza kuti dzina la Mulungu lolembedwa ndi zilembo zinayi zachihebri, lizitchulidwa kuti Yehwah’, Yehwih’, kapenanso Yeho·wah’. Panopa katchulidwe kofala ka dzinali ndi kakuti “Yehova.” Anthu olemba Baibulo ndiponso anthu ena akale ankadziwa dzina la Mulungu ndi kuligwiritsa ntchito. Masiku ano, anthu mamiliyoni amadziwa ndi kugwiritsira ntchito dzina la Mulunguli. Iwo amadziwa kuti ‘Yehova ndi Wam’mwambamwamba pa dziko lonse lapansi.’​—Salmo 83:18.

[Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Chipinda cha malemba a pamanja m’laibulale ya The National Library

[Chithunzi patsamba 11]

Mfumukazi Catherine Wachiwiri

[Zithunzi patsamba 11]

Konstantin von Tischendorf (pakati) ndi Mfumu ya ku Russia, Alexander Wachiwiri

[Chithunzi patsamba 12]

Abraham Firkovich

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Both images: National Library of Russia, St. Petersburg

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 11]

Catherine II: National Library of Russia, St. Petersburg; Alexander II: From the book Spamers Illustrierte Weltgeschichte, Leipzig, 1898