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Filo wa ku Alexandria Anawonjezera Malingaliro Aumunthu ku Malemba

Filo wa ku Alexandria Anawonjezera Malingaliro Aumunthu ku Malemba

 Filo wa ku Alexandria Anawonjezera Malingaliro Aumunthu ku Malemba

M’CHAKA cha 332 B.C.E., Alesandro Wamkulu analowa m’dziko la Igupto. Asanalowere cha kum’mawa, pankhondo yake yofuna kugonjetsa dziko lonse, anakhazikitsa mzinda womwe anautcha Alexandria. Mzindawu unakhala likulu la chikhalidwe cha Agiriki. Cha m’ma 20 B.C.E., mu mzinda umenewu munthu winanso wokhala ndi cholinga chogonjetsa anabadwa. Iye zida zake sizinali malupanga ndi nthungo, koma malingaliro aumunthu. Iye ankatchedwa Filo wa ku Alexandria, kapena Philo Judaeus.

Kusamuka kwa Ayuda kumene kunachitika Yerusalemu atawonongedwa mu 607 B.C.E., kunapangitsa kuti Ayuda ambiri akakhale ku Igupto. Ayuda ambiri ankakhala mu mzinda wa Alexandria. Koma panali mavuto pakati pa Ayuda ndi Agiriki omwe ankakhala moyandikana. Ayuda ankakana kulambira milungu ya Agiriki, pamene Agiriki anali kunyoza Malemba Achihebri. Chifukwa chokhala ndi maphunziro achigiriki ndiponso kuleredwa ndi makolo achiyuda, Filo anali kudziwa bwino lomwe za kusagwirizanako. Iye ankakhulupirira kuti Chiyuda ndicho chinali chipembedzo choona. Koma mosiyana ndi anthu ena ambiri, Filo anafuna njira yamtendere yotsogolera Akunja kwa Mulungu. Iye anafuna kuti Agiriki ayanje Ayuda.

Kuwonjezera Matanthauzo Atsopano ku Malemba Akale

Chilankhulo cha Filo chinali Chigiriki monga momwe Ayuda ambiri okhala ku Alexandria analili. Chotero, pophunzira anali kugwiritsa ntchito Baibulo lachigiriki la Septuagint la Malemba Achihebri. Pamene anali kuphunzira malemba a Septuagint, anatsimikiza kuti malembawa anali ndi malingaliro aumunthu ndiponso kuti Mose anali “wafilosofi waluso kwambiri.”

Zaka mazana angapo m’mbuyomo, agiriki anzeru anapeza kuti nthano zachigiriki za milungu yachimuna ndi yachikazi zinali zovuta kumvetsa. Iwo anayamba kumasuliranso nthano zakale zimenezo. Ponena za njira imene anagwiritsa ntchito, katswiri wamaphunziro achigiriki James Drummond ananena kuti: “Wafilosofi anali kufufuza matanthauzo ovuta kuwadziwa omwe anali obisika m’nthano zakalezo. Ndiyeno, kuchokera m’nthano zonyansa ndi zolaulazo zimene wolemba ankazifotokoza modzutsa chilakolako chogonana, anali kupezamo choonadi chofunika ndi chothandiza.” Njira imeneyi ndiko kumasulira koona zolembedwa kukhala maphiphiritso, ndipo Filo anagwiritsa ntchito njira imeneyi pofotokoza Malemba.

Mwachitsanzo, taonani lemba la Genesis 3:22 m’Baibulo la Bagster la Septuagint. Baibuloli limati: “Ambuye Mulungu anapangira Adamu ndi mkazi wake malaya azikopa, nawaveka iwo.” Agiriki anaona kuti Mulungu ndi wokwezeka kwambiri moti sangagwire ntchito yotsikayo yopanga zovala. Chotero, Filo anatenga mawu a vesili kukhala ophiphiritsa ndipo anati: “Malaya azikopa akuphiphiritsira khungu la munthu, kapena kuti, thupi lathu. Mulungu poyamba atapanga  nzeru anaitcha Adamu; atachita zimenezi analenga mphamvu ya umoyo, imene anaitcha Moyo. Pomaliza, iye anapanganso thupi limene mogwiritsa ntchito mawu ophiphiritsa analitcha kuti, malaya azikopa.” Chotero, Filo anasonyeza kuti kuveka Adamu ndi Hava kumene Mulungu anachita ndi phiphiritso lofuna kuganiza mozama kuti munthu alimvetse.

Taonaninso lemba la Genesis 2:10-14, limene limafotokoza gwero la madzi m’munda wa Edene, imene ndi mitsinje inayi yomwe inali kuyenda m’mundamo. Filo anafuna kupeza tanthauzo lophiphiritsa la mawu ofotokoza munda wa Edene. Atanena za malowa, anati: “Mwina vesili lilinso ndi tanthauzo lophiphiritsa pakuti mitsinje inayi ndi zizindikiro za makhalidwe anayi.” Iye anaganiza kuti mtsinje wa Pisoni unaimira nzeru, mtsinje wa Gihoni unaimira kuganiza bwino, wa Tigirisi unaimira kulimba mtima ndipo wa Firate unaimira chilungamo. Choncho mawu otanthauza malo enieni anawasandutsa kukhala maphiphiritso.

Filo anagwiritsa ntchito kumasulira koona zolembedwa kukhala maphiphiritso popenda nkhani zachilengedwe, monga nkhani yofotokoza mmene Kaini anaphera Abele, Chigumula cha m’nthawi ya Nowa, kusokonezeka kwa zilankhulo pa Babele ndi mfundo zambiri za Chilamulo cha Mose. Monga momwe chitsanzo m’ndime yapitayi chasonyezera, iye nthawi zambiri ankadziwa tanthauzo lenileni la vesi la m’Baibulo. Ndiyeno ankayamba mwakugwiritsa ntchito  mawu ake ophiphiritsa mwa kunena kuti: “Mwina tifunika kuona zinthu izi monga ngati zinalankhulidwa mogwiritsa ntchito mawu ophiphiritsa.” M’zolemba za Filo, mawu ofotokoza maphiphiritso amaonekera kwambiri, koma n’zomvetsa chisoni kuti matanthauzo a Malemba oonekeratu azimiririka.

Kodi Mulungu Ndani?

Filo anachirikiza mfundo yoti Mulungu aliko mwa kugwiritsa ntchito chitsanzo chogwira mtima kwambiri. Atafotokoza nthaka, mitsinje, mapulaneti ndi nyenyezi, iye anati: “Pa zolengedwa zonse, dziko linapangidwa mwaluso kwambiri. Limaoneka kuti linapangidwa ndi winawake amene anali wotha kuchita chilichonse ndiponso wodziwa bwino kwambiri. Ndipo mwa njira imeneyi tafika podziwa kuti Mulungu aliko.” Kumeneku kunali kuganiza kwabwino.​—Aroma 1:20.

Koma pamene Filo anafotokoza mmene Mulungu Wamphamvuyonse alili, anasemphana kotheratu ndi choonadi. Iye ananena kuti Mulungu “alibe makhalidwe enieni” ndiponso Mulungu “sitingamumvetse.” Filo anali kufooketsa amene anafuna kudziwa Mulungu mwa kunena kuti, “n’kupandiratu nzeru kufuna kufufuza mmene Mulungu alili kapena kufufuza makhalidwe ake enieni.” Malingaliro amenewa sanachokere m’Baibulo koma kwa Plato amene anali wakunja wafilosofi.

Filo anati, Mulungu sitingathe kumumvetsa ngakhale pang’ono, moti kudziwa dzina lake n’kosatheka. Iye anatinso: “N’chifukwa chake kunali kwanzeru kuti palibe dzina limene likanakhala loyenera kupatsidwa kwa iye amene kwenikweni ali Mulungu wamoyo.” Zimenezi n’zosemphana kotheratu ndi choonadi!

Baibulo limafotokoza bwino kuti Mulungu ali ndi dzina lakelake. Lemba la Salmo 83:18 limati: “Inu nokha, dzina lanu ndinu Yehova, ndinu Wam’mwambamwamba pa dziko lonse lapansi.” Lemba la Yesaya 42:8 limagwira mawu Mulungu kuti: “Ine ndine Yehova; dzina langa ndi lomweli.” Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani Filo amene anali Myuda wodziwa malemba amenewa a m’Baibulo anaphunzitsa kuti Mulungu alibe dzina? Chifukwa choti sanali kufotokoza Mulungu wa m’Baibulo, koma mulungu wosadziwika wafilosofi yachigiriki.

Mzimu wa Munthu

Filo anaphunzitsa kuti mzimu ndi wosiyana ndi thupi. Iye ananena kuti munthu “ali ndi thupi ndiponso mzimu.” Kodi mzimu ungafe? Taonani kufotokoza kwa Filo, iye anati: “Pamene tili amoyo, timakhala amoyo ngakhale kuti mzimu wathu umakhala wakufa ndipo wokwiriridwa m’thupi lathu, monga ngati uli m’manda. Koma likafa [thupi] mzimu wathu umakhala ndi moyo wake moyenerera, chifukwa umachoka m’thupi lochimwa ndi lakufa mmene unali wotsekeredwa.” Kwa Filo kufa kwa mzimu kunali kophiphiritsa. Kwenikweni mzimu siungafe. Chifukwa ndi wosakhoza kufa.

Koma kodi Baibulo limaphunzitsa chiyani za mzimu? Baibulo limaphunzitsa kuti, munthu akafa, amaferatu ndipo samakakhala wamoyo kwina kulikonse. (Mlaliki 9:5, 10) Palibe mzimu umene umakhalabe ndi moyo kosatha. Lemba la Yobu 34:14, 15 limati: “Akadzikumbukila yekha mumtima mwake, akadzisonkhanitsira yekha mzimu wake ndi mpweya wake, zamoyo zonse zidzatsirizika pamodzi, ndi munthu adzabwerera kufumbi.” Mzimu wa munthu si chinthu chimene chimakhalabe chamoyo thupi likafa. Chotero, munthu akafa, amaferatu. *

Filo atamwalira, Ayuda analibenso naye chidwi. Koma Matchalitchi Achikristu anam’lemekeza. Eusebius ndi atsogoleri azipembedzo ena anakhulupirira kuti Filo anatembenuka n’kukhala Mkristu. Jerome anamuika pa mndandanda wa anthu omwe ankati Abambo a Tchalitchi. M’malo mwa Ayuda, Akristu ampatuko ndi amene anasunga zolemba za Filo.

Zolemba za Filo zinachititsa kuukira chipembedzo. Zinapangitsa anthu odzitcha Akristu kuvomereza chiphunzitso chosemphana ndi malemba chakuti mzimu sufa. Ndipo  chiphunzitso cha Filo chonena za Logosi (kapena kuti Mawu) chinachititsa kuti chiphunzitso cha Utatu chiyambe. Chiphunzitso chimenechi si cha m’Baibulo, koma ndi cha Chikristu champatuko.

Musasocheretsedwe

Pa kuphunzira kwake Malemba Achihebri, Filo anaonetsetsa kuti “sanali kusiya mawu alionse amene anaona kuti anali ndi matanthauzo ophiphiritsa amene mwina akanabisika m’chilankhulo cha masiku onse.” Koma, monga momwe timawerengera pa Deuteronomo 4:2, ponena za Chilamulo cha Mulungu, Mose anati: “Musamawonjeza pa mawu amene ndikuuzani, kapena kuchotsapo, kuti musunge malamulo a Yehova Mulungu wanu, amene ndikuuzani.” Ngakhale kuti Filo anali ndi zolinga zonse zabwino, anawonjezera malingaliro aumunthu, amene mofanana ndi mtambo wochindikala, anaphimba malangizo omveka bwino a Mawu ouziridwa a Mulungu.

Mtumwi Petro anati: “Sitinatsata miyambi yachabe, pamene tinakudziwitsani mphamvu ndi maonekedwe a Ambuye wathu Yesu Kristu.” (2 Petro 1:16) Mosiyana ndi zolemba za Filo, langizo la Petro ku mpingo wachikristu woyambirira linazikidwa pa choonadi ndiponso pa chitsogozo cha mzimu wa Mulungu, “mzimu wa choonadi,” umene unawatsogolera pa choonadi chonse.​—Yohane 16:13.

Ngati mukufuna kulambira Mulungu wa Baibulo, mufunika kutsogoleredwa ndi choonadi osati kumasulira kozikidwa pa malingaliro aumunthu. Mufunika chidziwitso cholondola cha Yehova ndi kudziwanso chifuniro chake, ndiponso muyenera kudzichepetsa kuti mukhale wophunzira weniweni. Ngati muphunzira Baibulo ndi maganizo abwino amenewa, mudzadziwa ‘malembo opatulika, okhoza kukupatsani nzeru kufikira chipulumutso, mwa chikhulupiriro cha mwa Kristu Yesu.’ Mudzaona kuti Mawu a Mulungu angakuchititseni kukhala “woyenera, wokonzeka kuchita ntchito iliyonse yabwino.”​—2 Timoteo. 3:15-17.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 17 Buku lakuti The Jewish Encyclopedia la chaka cha 1910 linati: “Chikhulupiriro chakuti mzimu umapitiriza kukhalako thupi likafa, changokhala nzeru zaumunthu kapena malingaliro achipembedzo. Chimenechi si chiphunzitso chofunika, ndipo palibe paliponse m’Malemba Oyera pamene chimapezeka.

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 10]

MZINDA UMENE FILO ANALI KUKHALA

Filo anali kukhala ndi kugwira ntchito mu mzinda wa Alexandria ku Igupto. Kwa zaka zambiri, mzinda umenewu unali kuchimake kwa mabuku ndi maphunziro apamwamba padziko lonse.

Ophunzira anaphunzitsidwa ndi akatswiri otchuka amene ankaphunzitsa m’sukulu za mu mzindawu. Malaibulale a ku Alexandria anatchuka kwambiri padziko lonse. Mabuku ake anachuluka kwambiri chifukwa oyang’anira mabuku anafuna kukhala ndi mtundu wa mabuku onse amene analembedwapo.

Patapita nthawi, kutchuka kwa mzinda wa Alexandria ndiponso mabuku ake padziko lonse kunatha pang’onopang’ono. Mafumu ku Rome anaona mzinda wawo kukhala wofunika ndipo likulu la chikhalidwe chawo linasamutsidwira ku Ulaya. Kutchuka kwa mzinda wa Alexandria kunatheratu m’zaka za m’ma 600 Yesu atabwera pamene adani anaugonjetsa. Mpaka lero, akatswiri ena a mbiri yakale amadandaula za kutha kwa malaibulale otchukawo ndipo ena amanena kuti chitukuko anachichedwetsa ndi zaka 1000.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

L. Chapons/​Illustrirte Familien-Bibel nach der deutschen Uebersetzung Dr. Martin Luthers

[Bokosi patsamba 12]

KUMASULIRA KOONA ZOLEMBEDWA KUKHALA MAPHIPHIRITSO MASIKU ANO

Kumasulira mophiphiritsa kumachitika pamene womasulirayo aona zolembedwa kukhala maphiphiritso. Nkhani zokhala ndi mawu ophiphiritsa akuti, mawu akewo amaimira zinthu zofunika kwambiri zomwe zili zobisika. Mofanana ndi Filo wa ku Alexandria, aphunzitsi ena achipembedzo masiku ano amagwiritsa ntchito kumasulira koona zolembedwa kukhala maphiphiritso pofotokoza Baibulo.

Taonani machaputala 1 mpaka 11 a Genesis. Pamenepa pamapezeka mbiri ya anthu kuchokera pa kulengedwa mpaka pa kubalalika kwa anthu pa nsanja ya Babele. Baibulo la Akatolika la The New America Bible, ponena za mbali imeneyi ya Baibulo limati: “Kuti choonadi chomwe chili m’machaputala amenewa chikhale chomveka bwino kwa Aisrayeli amene anafunika kuchisunga, chinafunika kufotokozedwa m’mawu odziwika bwino kwa anthu panthawiyo. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, kuti munthu amvetse choonadi chenicheni chifunika kuti chivumbulidwe m’maphiphiritso omwe anachiphimbawo.” Zimenezi zinatanthauza kuti machaputala 1 mpaka 11 a Genesis sanayenera kumvedwa monga mmene alili. Koma monga momwe chovala chimaphimbira thupi, chotero mawu amaphimba matanthauzo akuya kwambiri.

Koma Yesu anaphunzitsa kuti machaputala oyambirira a Genesis anali oona momwe alili. (Mateyu 19:4-6; 24:37-39) Mtumwi Paulo ndi Mtumwi Petro iwonso anaphunzitsa chimodzimodzi. (Machitidwe 17:24-26; 2 Pet. 2:5; 3:6, 7) Ophunzira Baibulo enieni savomereza kutanthauzira kulikonse kosagwirizana ndi Mawu onse a Mulungu.

[Chithunzi patsamba 9]

Nsanja yaikulu ya amalinyero ya ku Alexandria

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Archives Charmet/​Bridgeman Art Library