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Kodi Sayansi ndi Baibulo Zimatsutsanadi?

Kodi Sayansi ndi Baibulo Zimatsutsanadi?

 Kodi Sayansi ndi Baibulo Zimatsutsanadi?

UDANI umene unali pakati pa Galileo ndi Tchalitchi cha Katolika unayamba kale kwambiri Copernicus ndi Galileo asanabadwe. Agiriki akale ankakhulupirira mfundo yakuti dziko ndilo lili pakati pa chilengedwe chonse ndipo Aristotle (amene anabadwa m’chaka cha 384 n’kumwalira mu 322 B.C.E.) ndiye anatchukitsa mfundoyi. Iye anali katswiri wa maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba. Winanso amene anatchukitsa mfundoyi anali Ptolemy (yemwe anakhalako m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E.), amene anali katswiri wa sayansi ya zakuthambo komanso wokhulupirira nyenyezi. *

Aristotle ankaona chilengedwe motengera mfundo za Pythagoras, Mgiriki yemwe anali katswiri wa masamu (yemwe anakhalako m’zaka za m’ma 500 B.C.E.). Potengera mfundo ya Pythagoras yakuti zinthu zobulungira ngati mpira sizikhala zokhota pena paliponse, Aristotle ankakhulupirira kuti miyamba n’njobulungira ngati mpira ndipo inakutidwa ndi makungu ngati mmene anyezi amakhalira. Iye ankati khungu lililonse ndi lamwala, ndipo ankati dziko lili pakatikati pa mpirawo. Ankatinso nyenyezi zimayenda mozungulira mpirawo, ndipo zimayenda chifukwa chokokedwa ndi khungu lakunja kwa mpirawo, lomwe lili ndi mphamvu zauzimu. Aristotle ankakhulupiriranso kuti dzuwa ndiponso zinthu zina za mumlengalenga n’zangwiro, zilibe nthenya iliyonse ndipo sizisintha.

Mfundo za Aristotle zimenezi zinali mfundo za maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba, osati za sayansi ayi. Iyeyu ankaona kuti n’zosamveka kunena kuti dziko limayenda. Ankatsutsanso zoti dzikoli lili mumlengalenga, chifukwa iye ankakhulupirira kuti ngati dziko litati liyende palokha mumlengalenga, lingathe kungosuntha pang’ono  movutikira kenaka n’kuima. Popeza kuti mfundo ya Aristotle imeneyi inkaoneka kuti n’njomveka malingana ndi zimene asayansi ambiri ankadziwa panthawiyo, anthu ambiri anapitiriza kuikhulupirira kwa zaka pafupifupi 2,000. Ngakhale chaposachedwapa, m’zaka za m’ma 1500, Jean Bodin, Mfalansa wina yemwe anali katswiri wa maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba ananena maganizo otchukawa motere: “Palibe munthu aliyense woganiza bwinobwino, kapena wodziwako sayansi ngakhale pang’ono chabe, amene angaganize kuti chidziko cholemerachi . . . , chimazungulira ngati nguli . . . kwinakunso chikuyenda mozungulira dzuwa; chifukwatu kunena zoona, dzikoli likanakhala kuti limasuntha ngakhale pang’ono chabe, bwenzi tikuona mizinda, malinga, matauni, ndiponso mapiri akulindimuka.”

Tchalitchi Chinayamba Kutsatira Mfundo za Aristotle

Chifukwa china chimene chinayambitsa mkangano wa pakati pa Galileo ndi Tchalitchi cha Katolika chinachitika m’ma 1200 ndipo chinali chokhudzana ndi munthu wina wamkulu m’Chikatolika dzina lake Thomas Aquinas (yemwe anabadwa mu 1225 n’kumwalira mu 1274). Aquinas ankalemekeza kwambiri Aristotle, ndipo ankamutcha kuti katswiri wa akatswiri onse a maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba. Aquinas anayesetsa kwa zaka zisanu kugwirizanitsa mfundo za Aristotle ndi ziphunzitso za Chikatolika. Wade Rowland, m’buku lake lakuti Galileo’s Mistake ananena kuti, panthawi imene Galileo anali ndi moyo, “mfundo za Aquinas zogwirizanitsa mfundo za Aristotle ndi za Tchalitchi cha Katolika zinali zitasanduka maziko a chiphunzitso cha tchalitchicho ku Rome.” Komanso musaiwale kuti masiku amenewo kunalibe akatswiri ongoona za maphunziro a sayansi yokha basi. Tchalitchicho n’chimene makamaka chinkayang’anira maphunziro onse. Nthawi zambiri akuluakulu a tchalitchiwo ndi amenenso ankayang’anira za sayansi.

Zimenezi n’zimene zinayala maziko a mkangano wa pakati pa tchalitchicho ndi Galileo. Ngakhale Galileo asanayambe kuchita sayansi ya zakuthambo, anali atalemba nkhani yofotokoza mmene zinthu zakuthambo zimayendera. M’nkhaniyo iye anatsutsa mfundo zambiri zosatsimikizika zomwe anayambitsa Aristotle, yemwe anthu ankamupatsa ulemu kwambiri. Komabe m’chaka cha 1633, Galileo anazengedwa mlandu ndi khoti la kafukufuku la Akatolika chifukwa cholimbikitsa mfundo yoti dzuwa ndilo lili pakati pa chigawo cha mumlengalenga chimene muli dziko lapansili ndi mayiko anzake ena eyiti komanso chifukwa cholimbikira kwambiri kuti mfundoyi n’njogwirizana ndi Malemba.

Pamlanduwo, Galileo ananenetsa kuti amakhulupirira kuti Baibulo ndi Mawu ouziridwa a Mulungu. Ndipo ananenanso kuti Malemba analembedwera anthu wamba motero Baibulo likamanena za dzuwa mokhala ngati kuti limayenda sikuti limatanthauza kuti dzuwalo ndilo limayendadi ayi. Komabe mfundo zake sizinaphule kanthu. Galileo anamupatsa chilango chifukwa choti sanagwirizane ndi kumasulira Malemba motengera mfundo za Agiriki ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba. Posachedwapa, mu 1992 m’pamene Tchalitchi cha Katolika chinavomereza kuti chinalakwitsa kumuweruza motero Galileo.

Tiyenera Kuphunzirapo Kanthu

Kodi zimenezi zikutiphunzitsa chiyani? Choyamba n’chakuti Galileo sankakayikira Baibulo. M’malo mwake iye anakayikira zimene tchalitchicho chinkaphunzitsa. Munthu wina wolemba nkhani zachipembedzo anati: “Zikuoneka kuti zimene tingaphunzirepo pa nkhani ya Galileo n’zakuti tchalitchicho sikuti chinaumirira choonadi cha m’Baibulo monyanyira; koma kuti sichinayesetse kutsatira choonadi cha m’Baibulo.” Polola kuti maganizo a Agiriki ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba akhale mbali ya ziphunzitso za tchalitchi, tchalitchicho chinatsata miyambo ya anthu m’malo mwa ziphunzitso za Baibulo.

Zonsezi zimatikumbutsa zimene Baibulo linachenjeza zakuti: “Penyani kuti pasakhale wina wakulanda inu ngati chuma, mwa kukonda nzeru kwake, ndi chinyengo chopanda pake, potsata mwambo wa anthu, potsata zoyamba za dziko lapansi, osati potsata Kristu.”​—Akolose 2:8.

Ngakhale panopo, anthu ambiri a Matchalitchi Achikristu amakhulupirirabe mfundo ndiponso maganizo otsutsana ndi Baibulo. Chitsanzo chabwino ndicho chiphunzitso cha Darwin chakuti  zamoyo zinachita kusanduka kuchokera ku zinthu zopanda moyo. Matchalitchiwa amakhulupirira chiphunzitsochi m’malo mokhulupirira zimene buku la Genesis limanena. Potero, matchalitchiwa kwenikweni achititsa kuti Darwin akhale ngati Aristotle wa masiku ano ndipo chiphunzitso chakechi chasanduka chikhulupiriro. *

Sayansi Yoona Imagwirizana ndi Baibulo

Mfundo tatchulazi siziyenera kutichititsa kuti tisakhalenso ndi chidwi ndi sayansi. Kunena zoona, Baibulo lenilenilo limatilimbikitsa kuti tiziphunzirapo kanthu pa chilengedwe cha Mulungu ndiponso kuti m’chilengedwe tizionamo makhalidwe Ake osangalatsa. (Yesaya 40:26; Aroma 1:20) Komabe sikuti Baibulolo limanena kuti ilo ndi buku lophunzitsa sayansi. M’malo mwake, Baibulo limatiphunzitsa zimene Mulungu amafuna, makhalidwe ake amene sitingathe kuphunzira m’chilengedwe pachokha, komanso limatiphunzitsa za cholinga chake polenga anthu. (Salmo 19:7-11; 2 Timoteo 3:16) Komabe, Baibulo likamanena zinthu zokhudza chilengedwe, nthawi zonse limanena zinthu zolondola. Ngakhale Galileo ananenapo kuti: “Malemba Oyera ndiponso chilengedwe, zonse zinachokera kwa Mulungu . . . zinthu ziwiri, zomwe zili zoona sizingakhale zotsutsana.” Taonani zitsanzo zotsatirazi.

Mfundo yofunika kwambiri kuposa kayendedwe ka nyenyezi ndiponso mapulaneti n’njakuti zinthu zonse m’chilengedwe zimayenda motsatira malamulo, monga lamulo la mphamvu yokoka. Kupatulapo pa zimene zili m’Baibulo, mfundo zakale kwambiri zotchula malamulo a m’chilengedwe zinali za Pythagoras, amene ankakhulupirira kuti n’zotheka kufotokoza mmene zinthu za m’chilengedwe chonse zimayendera pogwiritsira ntchito masamu. Patatha zaka 2,000, Galileo, Kepler, ndi Newton anapereka mfundo zotsimikizira kuti zinthu za m’chilengedwe zimayenderadi malamulo otsatirika bwino.

Nkhani yakale kwambiri ya m’Baibulo yofotokoza za malamulo a m’chilengedwe ili m’buku la Yobu. Pafupifupi m’chaka cha 1600 B.C.E. Mulungu anafunsa Yobu kuti: ‘Kodi udziwa malemba [kapena kuti malamulo] a kuthambo?’ (Yobu 38:33) Buku la Yeremiya linalembedwa m’zaka za m’ma 600 B.C.E. ndipo limanena kuti Yehova ndi Mlengi wa ‘malemba  a mwezi ndi a nyenyezi’ ndiponso ‘malemba a kumwamba ndi dziko lapansi.’ (Yeremiya 31:35; 33:25) Ponenapo za mawu amenewa, G. Rawlinson, yemwe ndi katswiri wofotokozera mawu a m’Baibulo anati: “Mofanana ndi asayansi a masiku ano, olemba Baibulo nawonso anagogomezera kwambiri kuti chilengedwechi chimayendera malamulo.”

Mmene Pythagoras ankalemba mfundo zake za malamulo okhudza kayendedwe ka zinthu m’chilengedwe n’kuti Yobu atanenapo kale zimenezi zaka 1,000 m’mbuyo mwake. Komabe, musaiwale kuti cholinga cha Baibulo sikungotchula mfundo zimene sitidziwa za m’chilengedwe koma cholinga chake kwenikweni ndicho kutitsimikizira kuti Yehova ndiye Mlengi wa zinthu zonse, amene angathe kulenga malamulo a m’chilengedwe.​—Yobu 38:4, 12; 42:1, 2.

Chitsanzo china chimene tingaganizire n’chakuti madzi a padziko pano amayenda mozungulira. Mwachidule, tinganene kuti madzi a m’nyanja amasanduka nthunzi n’kupita mumlengalenga. Akatero amakasanduka mitambo, kenaka amagwa ngati mvula n’kuyenderera kukafikanso kunyanja kuja. Kupatulapo pa zimene zili m’Baibulo, mfundo zakale kwambiri zotchula kuzungulira kwa madzi kumeneku zinalembedwa m’ma 300 B.C.E. Komabe, Baibulo linanena zimenezi kale kwambiri kuposa pamenepa. Mwachitsanzo, m’ma 1000 B.C.E., Mfumu Solomo ya ku Israyeli inalemba kuti: “Mitsinje yonse ithira m’nyanja, koma nyanja yosadzala; komwe imukira mitsinjeyo, komweko ibweranso.”​—Mlaliki 1:7.

Mofanana ndi mfundo imeneyi, cha m’ma 800 B.C.E. mneneri Amosi, amene anali mbusa wamba ndiponso mlimi, analemba kuti Yehova ndiye “wakuitana madzi a m’nyanja, nawatsanulira pa dziko lapansi.” (Amosi 5:8) Pamenepa, Solomo ndi Amosi analongosola mosavuta koma momveka bwino za mmene madzi amazungulilira, ndipo aliyense analongosola nkhaniyi m’njira yosiyanako pang’ono ndi mnzake.

Baibulo limanenanso kuti Mulungu ‘alenjeka dziko pachabe,’ kapena malingana ndi Baibulo la Malembo Oyera ‘apendekeza dziko la pansi pamene palibe kanthu.’ (Yobu 26:7) Malingana ndi zimene anthu ankadziwa panthawi imene mawu amenewa amalembedwa cha m’ma 1600 B.C.E., ndi munthu wodabwitsa yekha amene akananena motsindika kuti chinthu cholemera chingathe kulenjekeka m’malere popanda kutsamira penapake. Monga tanena kale, ngakhale Aristotle ankatsutsa mfundo yakuti dziko lili m’malere mopanda kanthu. Komatu iyeyu anakhalako zaka 1,200 mawu a m’Baibulowa atalembedwa kale.

Kodi inuyo simukudabwa kuti Baibulo limanena zinthu molondola chonchi ngakhale kuti pamene linkalembedwa anthu anali ndi maganizo ambiri olakwika, omwe panthawiyo ankaoneka kuti n’ngomveka? Kwa anthu oganiza bwino, umenewu ndi umboni wina wosonyeza kuti Baibulo linauziridwa ndi Mulungu. Motero n’chinthu chanzeru kusatengeka maganizo ndi ziphunzitso zilizonse zotsutsana ndi Mawu a Mulungu. Monga mmene zitsanzo zambirimbiri za m’mbiri ya anthu zaonetsera, nzeru za anthu, ngakhale anthu ophunzira kwambiri, sizikhalitsa, koma “Mawu a Mulungu akhala chikhalire.”​—1 Petro 1:25.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 2 M’zaka za m’ma 200 B.C.E., Mgiriki wina dzina lake Aristarchus wa ku Samos anayambitsa mfundo yakuti dzuwa ndilo lili pakati pa chilengedwe chonse, koma anthu anatsutsa zimenezi n’kutsatira mfundo ya Aristotle.

^ ndime 12 Kuti mumve tsatanetsatane wa nkhaniyi, onani tsamba 99 mpaka 104 m’buku la Kukambitsirana za m’Malemba, lofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova.

[Bokosi/​Zithunzi patsamba 6]

Mmene Matchalitchi Ochoka M’chikatolika Ankaonera Nkhaniyi

Atsogoleri a zipembedzo za matchalitchi ochoka m’Chikatolika nawonso ankatsutsa kwambiri mfundo yakuti dzuwa ndi limene lili pakati pa chigawo cha mumlengalenga chimene muli dziko lathuli ndi mayiko anzake eyiti. Ena mwa atsogoleri amenewa ndi monga Martin Luther (yemwe anabadwa m’chaka cha 1483 n’kumwalira mu 1546), Philipp Melanchthon (yemwe anabadwa m’chaka cha 1497 n’kumwalira mu 1560), ndi John Calvin (yemwe anabadwa m’chaka cha 1509 n’kumwalira mu 1564). Luther anam’nena Copernicus motere: “Chitsiru chimenechi chikufuna kusintha sayansi yonse ya zakuthambo.”

Atsogoleriwa ankalimbikira mfundo zawozo pomva molakwa malemba enaake, monga nkhani yopezeka pa Yoswa chaputala 10, imene imanena kuti dzuwa ndiponso mwezi ‘zinalinda,’ kapena kuti zinaima. * Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani atsogoleriwa ankalimbikira mfundo zimenezi? Buku lakuti Galileo’s Mistake linalongosola kuti ngakhale kuti zipembedzozi zinali zitachokamo m’Chikatolika, zinalephera “kusiyiratu kuyendera” maganizo a Aristotle ndiponso Thomas Aquinas, anthu omwe maganizo awo “ankavomerezedwa ndi Akatolika komanso anthu ochoka m’Chikatolikacho.”

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 28 Pa sayansi, n’kulakwitsa kunena kuti dzuwa “limatuluka” ndiponso “limalowa.” Koma sikulakwa kunena choncho polankhulana tsiku ndi tsiku, chifukwa ndi mmene dzuwa limaonekera tikakhala padziko pano. Moteronso, Yoswa sikuti anali kunena za sayansi ya zakuthambo, koma ankangosimba zimene zinachitikazo mogwirizana ndi mmene iyeyo anazionera.

[Zithunzi]

Luther

Calvin

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

From the book Servetus and Calvin, 1877

[Chithunzi patsamba 4]

Aristotle

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

From the book A General History for Colleges and High Schools, 1900

[Chithunzi patsamba 5]

Thomas Aquinas

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

From the book Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1855

[Chithunzi patsamba 6]

Isaac Newton

[Chithunzi patsamba 7]

Zaka zopitirira 3,000 zapitazo, Baibulo linalongosola mmene madzi amazungulilira padziko pano