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‘Akakukakamizani’ Kuchita Zinthu

‘Akakukakamizani’ Kuchita Zinthu

 ‘Akakukakamizani’ Kuchita Zinthu

“IWEE! Siya zimene ukuchitazo mwamsanga, bwera kuno undinyamulire thumbali.” Kodi mukuganiza kuti Myuda wa m’zaka 100 zoyambirira, amene watanganidwa ndi ntchito ina, ankamva bwanji msilikali wachiroma akamuuza zimenezi? Mu Ulaliki wake wa pa Phiri, Yesu analangiza kuti: “Amene akakukakamiza kum’perekeza njira imodzi, upite naye ziwiri.” (Mateyu 5:41) Kodi anthu amene ankamvetsera malangizo a Yesuwa anawamva bwanji malangizowo? Nanga ifeyo tiyenera kuwamva bwanji?

Kuti tipeze mayankho, m’pofunika kuti tidziwe kaye za ntchito yokakamiza yomwe inkachitika m’nthawi zakale. Khalidwe limeneli silinali lachilendo kwa anthu a mu Israyeli m’nthawi ya Yesu.

Ntchito Yokakamiza

Pali umboni wakuti ntchito yokakamiza ku Near East inayambika kale kwambiri m’zaka za m’ma 1700 B.C.E. Zolemba zochokera ku Alalakh, mzinda wakale wa Suriya, zimanena kuti kunali magulu a anthu ogwira ntchito mokakamizidwa, omwe boma linkawatenga kuti azitumikira anthu amaudindo. Ku Ugarit, pa gombe la Suriya, alimi ochita kubwereka minda, ankawagwiritsa ntchito yofananayo, pokhapokha ngati mfumu yakhazikitsa lamulo lowateteza.

N’zosachita kufunsa kuti anthu amene agonjetsedwa, kawirikawiri anali kuwakakamiza kugwira ntchito yathangata. Aigupto omwe anali akapitawo anali kugwiritsa ntchito Aisrayeli mwaukapolo powaumbitsa njerwa mowakakamiza. Patapita nthawi, Aisrayeli anagwiritsa ntchito yaukapolo Akanani omwe anali kukhala m’Dziko Lolonjezedwa, ndipo izi zinapitirira kuchitika mu ulamuliro wa Davide ndi Solomo.​—Eksodo 1:13, 14; 2 Samueli 12:31; 1 Mafumu 9:20, 21.

Aisrayeli atapempha kuti akufuna mfumu, Samueli anawauza zomwe mfumuyo moyenerera idzawalamula kuti aziichitira. Anawauza kuti idzagwiritsa ntchito anthu ake monga oyendetsa magareta ndi apakavalo. Idzawagwiritsa ntchito yolima ndi kukolola, kupanga zida zankhondo ndi zina zotero. (1 Samueli 8:4-17) Koma pomanga kachisi wa Yehova, alendo anali kuwagwiritsa ntchito yathangata monga akapolo, komano “Solomo sanawayesa ana a Israyeli akapolo, koma iwowo anali anthu a nkhondo, ndi anyamata ake, ndi akalonga ake, ndi akazembe ake, ndi oyang’anira magareta ake ndi apakavalo ake.”​—1 Mafumu 9:22.

Ponena za Aisrayeli amene anali kugwira ntchito yomangayo, lemba la 1 Mafumu 5:13, 14 limati: “Mfumu Solomo anasonkhetsa athangata mwa Aisrayeli onse, ndi athangatawo ndiwo anthu zikwi makumi atatu. Ndipo anawatuma ku Lebano mwezi umodzi zikwi khumi kuwasintha, mwezi umodzi iwo anali ku Lebano, miyezi iwiri anali kwawo.” Katswiri wina wophunzira za Baibulo anati: “Sitikukayikira n’komwe kuti mafumu a Israyeli ndi Yuda anagwiritsa ntchito njira yokakamiza anthu kuchita zinthu kuti apeze antchito osalipidwa pa ntchito zawo zomanga komanso za m’minda yawo.”

Zimenezi zinali mtolo wolemetsa mu ulamuliro wa Solomo. Zinali zowawa kwambiri mwakuti Rehabiamu atawopseza kuti adzawonjezera mtolo umenewu, Aisrayeli onse anamuukira ndi kuponya miyala mkulu amene amamuika kuti aziyang’anira ogwira ntchito yathangata. (1 Mafumu 12:12-18)  Komabe sikuti kugwiritsa ntchito anthu thangata kunatha ayi. Asa, mdzukulu wa Rehabiamu, anaitanitsa anthu a mu Yuda kuti akamange mizinda ya Geba ndi Mizipa, ndipo ‘sanatsale ndi mmodzi yense.’​—1 Mafumu 15:22.

Pamene Ankalamulidwa ndi Aroma

Ulaliki wa pa Phiri umasonyeza kuti Ayuda a m’zaka 100 zoyambirira ankadziwa kuti n’zotheka ‘kukakamizidwa’ kuchita zinthu. Mawu akuti ‘kukakamiza’ akumasulira liwu lachigiriki lakuti ag·ga·reuʹo, lomwe poyambirira linkatanthauza zimene amtengatenga a ku Perisiya anali kuchita. Anali ndi mphamvu zokakamiza anthu, akavalo, sitima zapamadzi, kapena china chilichonse chomwe chingathandize kuti ntchito ya boma igwirike mofulumira.

M’masiku a Yesu, Israyeli anali kulamulidwa ndi Aroma, omwe anali atatengera khalidwe limeneli. Kuwonjezera pa misonkho yamasiku onse, anthu a m’zigawo za Kum’mawa mu ufumu wa Roma, ankaumirizidwa kukagwira ntchito nthawi zonse kapena mwa kamodzikamodzi. Ntchito zotere anthu sizinkawasangalatsa ngakhale pang’ono. Komanso, kulanda anthu zoweta, kutenga mokakamiza oyendetsa magareta, kapena kulanda ngolo kuti zikagwire ntchito zaboma kunali kofala kwambiri. Wolemba mbiri wina, Michael Rostovtzeff anati, akuluakulu a boma “anayesetsa kukhazikitsa malamulo oyendetsera [ntchito zokakamiza] ndiponso anayesa kukhazikitsa dongosolo labwino la ntchitozi, koma zimenezi sizinaphule kanthu chifukwa chakuti khalidwelo sanaliletseretu, motero linapitirirabe kudzetsa mavuto osaneneka. Nthawi ndi nthawi akuluakulu anali kukhazikitsa malamulo. Iwowa ankayesetsa moona mtima kuti athetse khalidwe logwiritsa ntchito mphamvu mwankhanza ndi kupondereza anthu kumene kunkachitika akamakakamiza anthu kugwira ntchito . . . Koma anthu anapitirizabe kuponderezedwa.”

Mgiriki wina wamaphunziro apamwamba anati: “Aliyense ankatha kukakamizidwa kunyamula katundu wa asilikali kwa mtunda winawake, ndipo aliyense ankatha kukakamizidwa kugwira ntchito iliyonse imene Aroma omwe ankalamulira dzikolo amupatsa.” Zoterezi zinachitikirapo Simoni wa ku Kurene, amene asilikali achiroma ‘anam’kakamiza’ kunyamula mtengo wokazunzirapo Yesu.​—Mateyu 27:32.

Mabuku achirabi nawonso amanena za chizolowezi chimenechi, chomwe anthu anali kudana nacho kwambiri. Mwachitsanzo, rabi wina anagwidwa  kuti akanyamule mitengo inayake yonunkhira ndi kukaisiya kunyumba ya mfumu. Antchito a munthu wina ankathanso kuwatenga ndi kuwapatsa ntchito zina, koma wowalemba ntchito uja ankayenera kuwalipirabe. Ziweto zonyamula matumba, kapena ng’ombe anali kungozitenga. Ndipo mwamwayi akakubwezera, zimakhala zoti sizingathenso kudzagwira ntchito. Motero mungathe kuona chifukwa chake anthu ankaona kuti kukulanda chinthu kuti akangogwiritsa ntchito kwa masiku owerengeka kunali kofanana ndi kungotengeratu chinthucho. Mpake kuti mwambi wina wachiyuda umati: “Kukakamizidwa kuchita zinthu n’chimodzimodzi ndi imfa.” Wolemba mbiri wina anati: “Mudzi ungasanduke bwinja mwa kulanda anthu ng’ombe zawo zolima mmalo mowalanda ziweto zonyamula katundu.”

Mungathenso kuona nokha mmene anthu ankadanirana ndi kugwiritsidwa ntchito kotereku, makamaka chifukwa chakuti nthawi zonse ankachita kuwakakamiza mwachipongwe ndi mopanda chilungamo. Popeza kuti ankadana kale ndi Akunja amene ankawalamulirawo, Ayuda zinkawapweteka kwambiri akamawakakamiza mochititsa manyazi kugwira ntchito yathangata. Palibe lamulo lachindunji losonyeza kuti anthu amene anali nzika m’dziko ankakakamizidwa kunyamula katundu mpaka pati. N’zodziwikiratu kuti anthu ambiri sankalola kuchita zoposa pa zimene lamulo limafuna.

Komatu Yesu ankanena za ntchito yotereyi mmene anati: “Akakukakamiza kum’perekeza njira imodzi, upite naye ziwiri.” (Mateyu 5:41) Mwina ena atamva zimenezi anamuona ngati wopanda chilungamo. Koma kodi iye ankatanthauzanji?

Mmene Akristu Ayenera Kuchitira

Kunena mosapita m’mbali, Yesu anali kuuza omvera akewo kuti ngati munthu waulamuliro akuwakakamiza kum’chitira zinazake zovomerezeka, ayenera kuchita ndi mtima wofunitsitsa komanso popanda kuwinyawinya. Anafunika kupereka “zake za Kaisara kwa Kaisara” koma osanyalanyaza udindo wawo wopereka “zake za Mulungu kwa Mulungu.”​—Marko 12:17. *

Kuwonjezera apo, mtumwi Paulo analimbikitsa Akristu kuti: “Anthu onse amvere maulamuliro a akulu; pakuti palibe ulamuliro wina koma wochokera kwa Mulungu; ndipo iwo amene alipo aikidwa ndi Mulungu. Kotero kuti iye amene atsutsana nawo ulamuliro, akaniza choikika ndi Mulungu . . . Koma ngati uchita choipa, opatu, pakuti iye sagwira lupanga kwachabe.”​—Aroma 13:1-4.

Chotero Yesu ndi Paulo anavomereza kuti mfumu kapena boma lili ndi ufulu wopereka chilango kwa amene sakuchita zimene iwo akufuna. Chilango chake chotani? Epictetus, Mgiriki wina yemwe anali katswiri wa maphunziro ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba, wa m’zaka 200 zoyambirira kuchokera pemene Yesu anabadwa, anapereka yankho limodzi. Anati: “Ngati mosayembekezeka waulamuliro akufuna kuti um’chitire kanthu, kapena msilikali akutenga bulu wako wamng’ono, mleke atenge. Usamukanize, usanyinyirike, ukatero iyeyo angathe kukumenya ndiponso kukutengera buluyo.”

Koma nthawi zina, kalelo ngakhalenso masiku ano, Akristu amakana kuchita zimene boma  likufuna chifukwa cha chikumbumtima chawo. Nthawi zina zimenezi zimaika Akristuwa pa mavuto adzaoneni. Akristu ena aweruzidwa kuti aphedwe. Ena akhala m’ndende kwa zaka zambiri chifukwa chokana kuchita nawo zinthu zimene amaona kuti n’zowalowetsa m’ndale. (Yesaya 2:4; Yohane 17:16; 18:36) Nthawi zinanso, Akristu aona kuti angathe kuchita zimene auzidwazo. Mwachitsanzo, Akristu ena amaona kuti angathe kugwira bwinobwino ntchito zina zofunikira kwa anthu, zomwe sizikukhudzana ndi usilikali. Ntchito zake zingakhale monga kuthandiza okalamba kapena olumala, kuzimitsa moto, kusamalira m’mphepete mwa nyanja, kugwira ntchito m’malo osungira nyama, ku nkhalango zaboma, kapena m’nyumba zosungira mabuku, ndi zina zotero.

Kawirikawiri, zochitika m’dziko lililonse zimasiyana ndi zochitika m’mayiko ena. Choncho, pofuna kusankha ngati angachite zimene walamulidwa kapena ayi, Mkristu aliyense ayenera kutsatira chikumbumtima chake malinga ndi zimene anaphunzira m’Baibulo.

Kuwonjezera pa Zimene Tauzidwa Kuchita

Mfundo imene Yesu anaphunzitsa ija, yokhala wofunitsitsa kuchita zimene tauzidwa ngati zili zololeka, simagwira ntchito pa zofuna zaboma zokha komanso pa zimene timachita ndi anthu anzathu tsiku ndi tsiku. Mwachitsanzo, mwina munthu amene ali ndi udindo wokuyang’anirani akukupemphani kuti muchite chinachake chimene panokha simukanakonda kuchita, koma sichosemphana ndi malamulo a Mulungu. Kodi mungatani? Mwina mungaone ngati akukupemphani kugwiritsa ntchito nthawi ndi mphamvu zanu pa zinthu zosayenera, ndipo motero mungakwiye. Zotsatira zake zingakhale udani. Komanso ngati mutachita zomwe wapemphazo monyinyirika, mungasowe mtendere mumtima. Ndiyeno mungatani pamenepa? Ingochitani zimene Yesu analamula zija, zowonjezera pa zimene tauzidwa kuchitazo. Musangochita zimene wapemphazo, koma chitani zoposa zimene mwapemphedwazo. Zichiteni ndi mtima wofunitsitsa. Ndi maganizo amenewo, simudzaona ngati akukuponderezani, koma mudzaona kuti mukuchita zinthu mwa kufuna kwanu.

Wolemba mabuku wina anati: “Anthu ambiri amangokhalira kuchita zinthu mokakamizika m’moyo wawo wonse. Oterewa moyo suwasangalatsa, ndipo amakhala otopa nthawi zonse. Koma ena amachita zoposa zimene akuyenera kuchita ndipo amadzipereka kuthandiza ena.” Choncho, m’zochitika zambiri munthu ali ndi ufulu wosankha kuchita zomwe wauzidwazo mokakamizika, kapena kuwonjezera pa zimene wauzidwa kuchita. Munthu akamachita zinthu zimene wangouzidwa zokhazo amatero molimbalimba posonyeza kuti nayenso ali ndi ufulu. Komano munthu akawonjezera pa zimene wauzidwa kuchita amasangalala kwambiri ndi ntchitoyo. Kodi inuyo ndinu munthu wotani? Mosakayikira, mudzakhala wosangalala ndipo mudzapindula kwambiri ngati mutamaona zimene mumachita, osati ngati ntchito wamba kapena zinthu zimene muyenera kuchita basi, koma ngati zinthu zimene mukufunadi kuchita.

Nanga bwanji ngati ndinu munthu waudindo? Mwachionekere, zingakhale zosemphana ndi chikondi kapena Chikristu ngati mutamagwiritsa ntchito udindo wanu kukakamiza ena kuti achite zinthu zimene sangazichite ndi mtima wofunitsitsa. Yesu anati: “Mafumu a anthu amadziyesa okha ambuye awo, ndipo akulu awo amachita ufumu pa iwo.” Komatu Mkristu sayenera kuchita zimenezo. (Mateyu 20:25, 26) N’zoona kuti anthu angachitebe zinthu ngakhale moponderezedwa komatu kuti anthu azigwirizana bwinobwino pamafunika kuwauza zinthu mwaulemu chifukwa potero anthuwo amachita ntchitoyo moilemekeza ndiponso mofunitsitsa. Inde, kukhala wofunitsitsa kuwonjezera pa zimene mwauzidwa kuchita kungakufewetsereni moyo wanu kwabasi.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 18 Kuti mumve nkhani yonse ya mmene Akristu ‘amaperekera zake za Kaisara kwa Kaisara, ndi zake za Mulungu kwa Mulungu,’ onani Nsanja ya Olonda, ya May 1, 1996, masamba 15-20.

[Bokosi patsamba 25]

MMENE KALE ANKAGWIRITSIRA NTCHITO THANGATA MOPONDEREZA

Kawirikawiri anthu anali kukakamizidwa kuchita zinthu pofuna kuti ntchito inayake itheke. Zimenezi zadziwika poona malamulo omwe ankaletsa kuponderezana kotereku. M’chaka cha 118 B.C.E., Ptolemy Euergetes Wachiwiri wa ku Igupto analamula akuluakulu ake aboma kuti “asamakakamize nzika iliyonse ya m’dzikomo kuwagwirira ntchito zawo, kapena kuilanda ng’ombe m’dzina la boma kuti akazigwiritse ntchito pa zofuna zawo.” Kuwonjezera apo anati: “Pasapezeke aliyense waudindo . . . wopeza chifukwa china chilichonse chonamizira choti alande mabwato kuti akatengere zinthu zake.” M’chikalata cha m’chaka cha 49 C.E, cha m’Kachisi wa Oasis Wamkulu, ku Igupto, mkulu wina waboma wachiroma, Vergilius Capito, anavomereza kuti asilikali anali kugwiritsa ntchito udindo wawo molakwika mwa kutenga zinthu za anthu m’dzina la boma. Ndipo analamula kuti “pasapezeke munthu wotenga kapena kulamula anthu m’dzina la boma kuti . . . apereke china chilichonse, pokhapokha ngati ine ndamulembera chilolezo chochita zimenezo.”

[Chithunzi patsamba 24]

Simoni wa ku Kurene anachita zinthu mokakamizidwa

[Chithunzi patsamba 26]

Mboni zambiri zalowapo m’ndende chifukwa chosafuna kuchita zinthu zosemphana ndi Chikristu