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Mfundo Zazikulu za M’buku la Yoswa

Mfundo Zazikulu za M’buku la Yoswa

 Mawu a Yehova Ndi Amoyo

Mfundo Zazikulu za M’buku la Yoswa

AISRAYELI akukhala m’misasa m’Chigwa cha Moabu. Chaka chake ndi 1473 Yesu Asanabwere ndipo mawu otsatirawa ayenera kuti akuwatenga mtima kwambiri: “Mudzikonzeretu kamba, pakuti asanapite masiku atatu mudzaoloka Yordano uyu, kulowa ndi kulandira dziko limene Yehova Mulungu wanu akupatsani, likhale lanulanu.” (Yoswa 1:11) Iwowa akhala m’chipululu zaka 40 ndipo tsopano angotsala pang’ono kuchokamo.

Patatha zaka zopitirira 20 kuchoka panthawiyi, mtsogoleri wawo Yoswa akuima m’dera la pakati pa dziko la Kanani n’kunena mawu otsatirawa kwa amuna amene anali akulu a Israyeli: “Taonani, ndakugawirani mitundu ya anthu iyi yotsala ikhale cholowa cha mafuko anu, kuyambira ku Yordano, ndi mitundu yonse ya anthu ndinaipasula, mpaka ku nyanja yaikulu ku malowero a dzuwa. Ndipo Yehova Mulungu wanu iyeyu adzawapitikitsa pamaso panu, ndi kulanda dziko lawo kuwachotsa pamaso panu, ndipo mudzalandira dziko lawo likhale cholowa chanu; monga Yehova Mulungu wanu ananena ndi inu.”​—Yoswa 23:4, 5.

Yoswa ndiye analemba buku lotchedwa Yoswa m’chaka cha 1450 Yesu Asanabwere ndipo bukuli limalongosola zinthu zimene zinachitika pa zaka 22 zoyambira pa chaka cha 1473 chija. Ifenso tingati tafika pa khomo lolowera m’dziko latsopano limene linalonjezedwa, motero tili ngati ana a Israyeli amene anali atangotsala pang’ono kulowa Dziko Lolonjezedwa. Choncho tiyeni tiganizire mwachidwi mfundo za m’buku la Yoswa.​—Ahebri 4:12.

KUPITA KU ‘ZIDIKHA ZA YERIKO’

(Yoswa 1:1–5:15)

Yehova akum’patsa Yoswa udindo waukulu zedi pomuuza kuti: “Mose mtumiki wanga wafa; tauka tsono, nuoloke Yordano uyu, iwe ndi anthu awa onse, kulowa m’dzikomo ndilikuwapatsa, ndiwo ana a Israyeli.” (Yoswa 1:2) Pamenepa, Yoswa wapatsidwa ntchito yotsogolera mtundu wa anthu okwana mamiliyoni angapo kupita nawo ku Dziko Lolonjezedwa. Pokonzekera ulendowu, iye akutumiza azondi awiri kuti apite mumzinda wa Yeriko, umene ukhale woyamba kuugonjetsa. Mumzindawu mumakhala mkazi wina wachigololo dzina lake Rahabi ndipo mkaziyu wamva kale za mphamvu zimene Yehova anaonetsa pothandiza anthu ake. Motero mkaziyu akuteteza ndi kuthandiza azondiwo ndipo iwo akum’lonjeza kuti sadzamupha.

Azondiwo atabwerako, Yoswa ndi anthuwo akuyambapo ulendo wowoloka mtsinje wa Yordano. Ngakhale kuti mtsinjewu ukusefukira, anthuwa sakuvutika kuuwoloka, chifukwa Yehova akuchititsa madzi a kumtunda kwa mtsinjewo kuti aime n’kungounjikana ndipo akuchititsanso kuti madzi onse amene anali kumunsi kwa mtsinjewo amalizike kuthira mu Nyanja Yakufa. Aisrayeliwa akuwoloka mtsinje wa Yordano, n’kumanga misasa ku Giligala, pafupi ndi Yeriko. Ndiyeno patatha masiku anayi, patsiku la nambala 14 la mwezi wa Abibu, akuchita chikondwerero cha Paskha madzulo m’zidikha za Yeriko. (Yoswa 5:10) Mawa lake, iwo akuyamba kudya zina mwa zokolola za m’dzikoli, ndipo apa m’pamene anasiya kulandira mana. Panthawiyi, Yoswa anawachita mdulidwe amuna onse amene anabadwira m’chipululu.

Kuyankha Mafunso a M’Malemba:

2:4, 5—N’chifukwa chiyani Rahabi akusocheretsa anthu a mfumu amene akusakasaka azondi aja? Rahabi akuika moyo wake pachiswe poteteza azondiwo chifukwa chakuti iye wayamba kukhulupirira Yehova. Motero palibe chifukwa choti Rahabi aululire kumene kuli azondiwo kwa anthu ofuna kupha anthu a Mulunguwa. (Mateyu 7:6; 21:23-27; Yohane 7:3-10) Ndipotu Rahabi ‘anayesedwa wolungama chifukwa cha ntchito’ zake, kuphatikizapo ntchito yosocheretsa nthumwi za mfumuzi.​—Yakobo 2:24-26.

5:14, 15—Kodi ndani amene ali “kazembe wa ankhondo a Yehova”? Kazembe amene akumulimbikitsa Yoswa pachiyambi polanda Dziko Lolonjezedwa n’zachiwonekere kuti ndi “Mawu,” kapena kuti Yesu Kristu asanabadwe monga munthu. (Yohane 1:1; Danieli 10:13) N’zolimbikitsa kwambiri kudziwa kuti ngakhale panopo Yesu Kristu, amene tsopano anapatsidwa ulemerero, amakhala nawo anthu a Mulungu pankhondo yawo yauzimu.

Zimene Tikuphunzirapo:

1:7-9. Kuti zinthu zitiyendere bwino mwauzimu m’pofunika kuwerenga Baibulo tsiku ndi tsiku, kukhala ndi chizolowezi chosinkhasinkha zimene Baibulo limanena, ndiponso kutsatira zimene timaphunzira.

1:11. Yoswa akupempha anthuwo kuti akonzeke potenga chakudya ndi zinthu zina zofunikira ndipo kuti asangokhala manja lende n’kumadikira kuti Mulungu awapatsa zinthuzo. Mawu a Yesu otilimbikitsa kuti tisamade nkhawa kwambiri poganizira zinthu zofunikira pa moyo wathu, komanso lonjezo lake lakuti “zonse zimenezo zidzawonjezedwa kwa inu,” satanthauza kuti tisamachite chilichonse choti chitithandize.​—Mateyu 6:25, 33.

2:4-13. Pomva za zodabwitsa zimene Yehova anachita ndiponso pozindikira kuti dzikolo latsala pang’ono kuwonongedwa, Rahabi anaganiza zokhala m’gulu la olambira Yehova. Ngati inuyo mwakhala mukuphunzira Baibulo kwa nthawi yaitali ndithu ndipo mukudziwa kuti masiku ano ndi “masiku otsiriza,” kodi nanunso simuyenera kuganiza zoyamba kutumikira Mulungu?​—2 Timoteo 3:1.

3:15. Popeza kuti azondi amene anatumidwa ku Yeriko abweretsa uthenga wabwino, Yoswa sakuzengereza n’kuyamba wadikira kuti madzi a mumtsinje wa Yordano akamuke kaye iyeyo asanachitepo kanthu. Moteronso pa zinthu zokhudza kulambira koona ifeyo tisamazengereze podikira kuti zinthu zonse zichite kukhala bwinobwino. Tiyenera kungolimba mtima basi n’kuchita zofunikirazo.

4:4-8, 20-24. Miyala khumi ndi iwiri yotengedwa mumtsinje wa Yordano ntchito yake n’njakuti ikhale zikumbutso kwa Aisrayeli. Masiku anonso Yehova akamapulumutsa anthu ake kwa adani awo amakhala akuwakumbutsa kuti iyeyo ali nawo.

KUPITIRIZA KUGONJETSA ADANI

(Yoswa 6:1–12:24)

Mzinda wa Yeriko “anatseka pazipata . . . panalibe wotuluka, panalibenso wolowa.” (Yoswa 6:1) Kodi mzindawo akanaulanda motani? Yehova akuuza Yoswa njira youlandira. Posakhalitsa makoma onse a mzindawu akugwa ndipo mzindawo akuuwononga. Rahabi yekha ndi anthu a m’banja lake ndiwo akupulumuka.

Kenaka Aisrayeli akupita kukalanda mzinda wachifumu wa Ai. Azondi amene akutumidwa kumeneko akubwera ndi uthenga wakuti mzindawo uli ndi anthu ochepa, motero sipakufunika anthu ambirimbiri kuti akauwononge. Komano, asilikali pafupifupi 3,000 amene akutumizidwa kukalanda mzindawu akuchokako chothawa pothamangitsidwa ndi amuna a ku Ai. Kodi zatani?  Yehova sali nawo Aisrayeli panthawiyi. Akani, yemwe ndi wa fuko la Yuda, anachimwa pamene ankagonjetsa mzinda wa Yeriko. Nkhani ya Akaniyu atathana nayo, Yoswa analimbana nawo mzinda wa Ai. Mfumu ya mzinda wa Ai n’njokonzeka kumenyana ndi Aisrayeli chifukwa inali itatha mantha, pakuti inali itawagonjetsapo kale. Koma Yoswa akutengerapo mwayi pa kutha mantha kwa amuna a ku Ai motero akugwiritsira ntchito nzeru inayake n’kulanda mzindawo.

‘Gibeoni ndi mudzi waukulu, woposa Ai kukula kwake, ndipo amuna ake onse ndi amphamvu.’ (Yoswa 10:2) Komabe amuna a ku Gibeoni atamva za mmene Aisrayeli anagonjetsera Yeriko ndi Ai, iwo akumunyenga Yoswa n’kumuchititsa kupangana nawo zamtendere. Mgwirizano umenewu ukuchititsa mayiko ozungulira deralo kukhala ndi mantha. Motero mafumu awo asanu akugwirizana n’kuchita nkhondo ndi Gibeoni. Koma Aisrayeli akulanditsa Agibeoniwo n’kugonjetseratu  adani onsewo. Motsogoleredwa ndi Yoswa, Aisrayeli anagonjetsanso mizinda ina ya kummwera ndi kumadzulo, komanso mafumu a kumpoto amene anapanga upo. Mafumu onse amene anagonjetsedwa kumadzulo kwa mtsinje wa Yordano anakwana 31.

Kuyankha Mafunso a M’Malemba:

10:13—Kodi zodabwitsa zoterezi zinatheka motani? “Kodi chilipo chinthu chom’laka Yehova,” yemwe ali Mlengi wa kumwamba ndi dziko lapansi? (Genesis 18:14) Atafuna, Yehova angathe kusintha kayendedwe ka dzikoli moti munthu amene ali padziko pano angaone ngati kuti dzuwa ndi mwezi sizikuyenda. Kapenanso angathe kuchititsa kuti dziko ndi mwezi zisasunthe kenako n’kuchititsa kuti kuwala kwa dzuwa ndiponso mwezi kusasiye kuoneka padziko pano. Zilibe kanthu kuti anachita bwanji zimenezi koma mfundo n’njakuti, ‘sipanakhalekonso tsiku lina lotere’ m’mbiri yonse ya anthu.​—Yoswa 10:14.

10:13—Kodi buku la Yasari ndi buku lanji? Bukuli limatchulidwanso pa 2 Samueli 1:18 pankhani ya ndakatulo inayake yotchedwa “Uta,” yomwe kwenikweni ili nyimbo yolira imfa ya Mfumu Sauli ya Israyeli ndiponso mwana wake Jonatani. Bukuli n’kutheka kuti linali buku la nyimbo ndi ndakatulo zosiyanasiyana za zochitika zotchuka za kale ndipo liyenera kuti linali lodziwika bwino pakati pa Ahebri.

Zimene Tikuphunzirapo:

6:26; 9:22, 23. Temberero limene Yoswa ananena pamene Yeriko ankawonongedwa linakwaniritsidwa patatha zaka 500. (1 Mafumu 16:34) Temberero limene Nowa ananena kwa mdzukulu wake Kanani linakwaniritsidwa pamene Agibeoni anasanduka antchito. (Genesis 9:25, 26) Nthawi zonse mawu a Yehova amakwaniritsidwa.

7:20-25. Anthu ena anganene kuti sikuti kuba kwa Akani kunali tchimo lalikulu kwenikweni, ndipo mwina angatero chifukwa choganiza kuti kubako sikunaike munthu aliyense pavuto. Anthu otere mwina angaganizenso chimodzimodzi pa nkhani ya kuba m’njira zing’onozing’ono ndiponso kuchita machimo ena ang’onoang’ono ophwanya malamulo a m’Baibulo. Koma ifeyo tikhale ngati Yoswa pokhala ofunitsitsa kulimbana ndi chilichonse chomwe chingatichititse kuswa lamulo la boma kapena kuchita khalidwe linalake loipa.

9:15, 26, 27. Sitiyenera kuona malonjezo athu mwachibwana ndipo tiyenera kusunga malonjezowo.

YOSWA AKUGWIRA NTCHITO YOTSIRIZA YOFUNIKA KWAMBIRI

(Yoswa 13:1–24:33)

Tsopano Yoswa wakalamba, wangotsala pang’ono kukwanitsa zaka 90 ndipo akuyambapo ntchito yogawa dzikolo. Ichitu n’chintchito chachikulu zedi. Mafuko a Rubeni ndi Gadi ndiponso fuko la Manase logawika pakati, alandira kale cholowa chawo kummawa kwa mtsinje wa Yordano. Tsopano mafuko otsalawo akupatsidwa cholowa chawo chomwe chili chakumadzulo ndipo akutero pochita maere.

Kenaka akumanga chihema ku Shilo m’dera la Efraimu. Kalebi akupatsidwa mzinda wa Hebroni, ndipo Yoswa akupatsidwa Timinati-sera. Alevi akupatsidwa mizinda 48, kuphatikizapo midzi 6 yopulumukirako. Pobwerera ku magawo amene anapatsidwa monga cholowa chawo kummawa kwa Yordano, ankhondo a mafuko a Rubeni, Gadi ndi fuko la Manase logawika pakati akupanga guwa lansembe “lalikulu maonekedwe ake.” (Yoswa 22:10) Mafuko a kumadzulo kwa Yordano akuona ngati kuti kumeneku n’kupanduka, ndipo pang’onong’ono zimenezi zikanayambitsa nkhondo pakati pawo, komano nkhondoyi ikupewedwa chifukwa chokambirana bwinobwino.

Yoswa atakhala ku Timinati-sera kwa nthawi ndithu, akuitana amuna akuluakulu onse, oweruza, ndi akazembe a Israyeli ndipo akuwalimbikitsa kuti alimbe mtima ndiponso kuti apitirizebe kukhala okhulupirika kwa Yehova. Kenaka Yoswa akusonkhanitsa mafuko onse a Israyeli ku Sekemu. Kumeneku iye akulongosola zinthu zonse zimene Yehova anachita kuyambira panthawi ya Abrahamu, ndipo akuwalimbikitsanso kachiwiri kuti ‘aope Yehova ndi kum’tumikira ndi mtima wangwiro ndi wowona.’ Anthu onsewo akuvomereza kuti: “Tidzam’tumikira Yehova Mulungu wathu ndi kumvera mawu ake.” (Yoswa 24:14, 15, 24) Pambuyo pa zimenezi Yoswa akufa ali ndi zaka 110.

Kuyankha Mafunso a M’Malemba:

13:1—Kodi lembali silikutsutsana ndi zimene zinanenedwa pa Yoswa 11:23? Ayi, chifukwa chakuti kulandidwa kwa Dziko Lolonjezedwa kunachitika m’mbali ziwiri: mbali yoyamba inali yoti mtundu wonse unamenya nkhondo pogonjetsa mafumu 31 a dziko la Kanani n’kuthetsa mphamvu zonse za Akanani, ndipo mbali yachiwiri inali yoti mafuko ndiponso anthu pawokhapawokha anatenga zigawo zosiyanasiyana za dzikolo kukhala zawozawo. (Yoswa 17:14-18; 18:3) Ngakhale kuti ana a Israyeli analephera kuthamangitsa Akanani onse kuti asapezekenso pakati pawo, Akanani amene anatsalawo sanali woti angasokoneze zinthu pakati pa Aisrayeli. (Yoswa 16:10; 17:12) Yoswa 21:44 amati: “Yehova anawapatsa mpumulo pozungulira ponse.”

24:2—Kodi Tera, yemwe anali atate wake wa Abrahamu ankalambira mafano? Poyamba, Tera sankalambira Yehova Mulungu. N’kutheka kuti ankalambira Sin, yemwe anali mulungu wotchuka wamwezi ku Uri. Malingana ndi zimene Ayuda amakhulupirira, n’kuthekanso kuti Tera anali munthu wopanga mafano. Koma Abrahamu atachoka ku Uri pomvera lamulo la Mulungu, Tera anapita naye limodzi ku Harana.​—Genesis 11:31.

Zimene Tikuphunzirapo:

14:10-13. Ngakhale kuti ali ndi zaka 85, Kalebi akupempha kuti apatsidwe ntchito yovuta yothamangitsa anthu m’chigawo cha Hebroni. M’derali mukukhala a Anakimu, omwe ndi anthu aakuluakulu kwambiri. Mothandizidwa ndi Yehova, munthu wodziwa nkhondoyu akugonjetsa adaniwa ndipo mzinda wa Hebroni ukusanduka mudzi wopulumukirako. (Yoswa 15:13-19; 21:11-13) Chitsanzo cha Kalebi chimatilimbikitsa kuti tisamazembe ntchito zovuta zokhudza kutumikira Mulungu.

22:9-12, 21-33. Tiyenera kusamala ndi kamtima kokonda kuganizira anzathu zoipa pa zinazake zimene akuchita.

‘Palibe Ngakhale Mawu Amodzi Amene Anagwa Padera’

Yoswa atakalamba, akuuza amuna a ku Israyeli kuti: “Pa mawu okoma onse Yehova Mulungu wanu anawanena za inu sanagwa padera mawu amodzi; onse anachitikira inu.” (Yoswa 23:14) Mbiri imene ili m’buku la Yoswa imasonyeza moonekeratu kuti mawuwa n’ngoonadi.

Mtumwi Paulo analemba kuti: “Zonse zinalembedwa kale zinalembedwa kutilangiza, kuti mwa chipiriro ndi chitonthozo cha malembo, tikhale ndi chiyembekezo.” (Aroma 15:4) Ndithu tisakayike kuti zimene Mulungu amatilonjeza zidzachitikadi. Palibe lonjezo lililonse limene lidzalephereke; onse adzakwaniritsidwa.

[Mapu patsamba 10]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Dziko limene linalandidwa motsogozedwa ndi Yoswa

BASANA

GILEADI

ARABA

NEGEBU

Mtsinje wa Yordano

Mtsinje wa Yaboki

Mtsinje wa Arinoni

Njanja ya Mchere

Hazori

Madoni

Lasaroni

Simroni

Yokineamu

Dori

Megido

Kedesi

Taanaki

Heferi

Tiriza

Apeka

Tapuwa

Beteli

Ai

Giligala

Yeriko

Gezere

Yerusalemu

Makeda

Yarimutu

Adulamu

Libina

Lakisi

Egiloni

Hebroni

Debir

Aradi

 [Chithunzi patsamba 9]

Kodi mumadziwa chifukwa chimene mkazi wachigololo Rahabi anayesedwera wolungama?

[Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Yoswa analimbikitsa Aisrayeli kuti ‘aope Yehova ndi kum’tumikira’

 [Chithunzi patsamba 12]

Kuba kwa Akani sikunali tchimo laling’ono, kunadzetsa mavuto aakulu kwambiri

[Chithunzi patsamba 12]

“Ndi chikhulupiriro malinga a Yeriko adagwa.”​—Ahebri 11:30