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Zogayira Chakudya Chathu

Zogayira Chakudya Chathu

 Zogayira Chakudya Chathu

ANTHU amati nsima “ndi chakudya chofunika kwambiri pamoyo,” “chakudya chenicheni chogwira mtima pa zakudya zonse,” “mulerawanthu.” Inde, nsima ndiye chakudya chathu cha tsiku ndi tsiku kuyambira kale. Ndipotu, kupeza chakudya cha tsiku lililonse ndi chimodzi mwa zinthu zofunika kwambiri kwa anthu.

Chofunika kwambiri pophika nsima ndi ufa, umene umapezeka pogaya mbewu monga chimanga. Choncho, kugaya ndi luso lakalekale. Popanda kugwiritsira ntchito makina, ntchito yogaya mbewu iyenera kuti inali chintchito chotopetsa zedi. M’nthaŵi za m’Baibulo, phokoso la mphero linali lozoloŵereka, komanso linkasonyeza kuti anthu ali pamtendere, ndipo kwinakwake kukapanda kumveka phokosoli zinkasonyeza kuti kulibe anthu.​—Yeremiya 25:10, 11.

Kodi m’mbuyo monsemu anthu akhala akugaya bwanji mbewu? Kodi zina mwa njira ndiponso zipangizo zimene ankagwiritsira ntchito n’ziti? Ndipo kodi masiku ano ndi zogayira zotani zimene zikugwiritsidwa ntchito kuti nsima izitha kupezeka?

Kodi N’chifukwa Chiyani Zogayira Zili Zofunika?

Kwa anthu oyambirira, Adamu ndi Hava, Yehova anati: “Taonani, ndakupatsani inu therere lonse lakubala mbewu lili pa dziko lapansi, ndi mitengo yonse mmene muli chipatso cha mtengo wakubala mbewu; chidzakhala chakudya cha inu.” (Genesis 1:29) Pagulu la zakudya zimene Yehova Mulungu anapatsa anthu panali zakudya zochokera ku mbewu zimene zimakhala ndi mapesi, monga chimanga. Zakudya zimenezi zinali zofunika kuti anthu akhale ndi moyo, popeza mbewu zonse monga chimanga, mapira, mpunga, mawere, tirigu, ndi balere zili ndi zinthu zopatsa mphamvu.

Komabe, anthufe sizitikhalira bwino kudya mbewu zimenezi zosaphika, koma akazigaya n’kuziphika sizitivuta kudya. Njira zosavuta zosandutsira mbewuzi kukhala ufa ndi monga kuzisinja mu mtondo, kuzipera pamiyala, kapena kugwiritsa ntchito njira ziŵiri zonsezi.

Mphero Zodalira Mphamvu za Anthu

Tiziboliboli topezeka m’manda akale a ku Igupto timasonyeza kuti anthu ankagwiritsa ntchito mphero zosemedwa ngati chishalo chanjinga. Pamphero imeneyi pankakhala mwala waung’ono. Munthu wofuna kugaya mbewu, amene nthaŵi zambiri ankakhala mzimayi, ankagwada kumbuyo kwa mpheroyo n’kunyamula mwala waung’onowo manja aŵiri. Ndiyeno ankapera mbewu zili pampheropo pomayendetsa mwala waung’onowo mobwerezabwereza pamwamba pa mbewuzo ndi mphamvu zake zonse. Chinali chipangizo chosavuta kupanga koma chogwira ntchito bwino zedi.

Komabe, kugwada kwa nthaŵi yaitali kunali kopweteketsa thupi. Kuyendetsa mwalawo mobwerezabwereza kunali kupweteketsa msana, mikono, ntchafu, mawondo, ndi zala zakumwendo za munthu amene akuperayo. Popenda mafupa amene anali ndi mavuto a ku Suriya wakale, akatswiri ofufuza za moyo wa anthu akale ananena kuti kugwiritsa ntchito mphero zamtundu umenewu kunkavulaza atsikana. Mawondo awo anali kuchoka m’chimake, fupa lomaliza la msana linkawonongeka, komanso fupa la chala chachikulu cha kumwendo linali kuperepeseka kwambiri. Kale ku Igupto, ntchito yopera  pamanja ikuoneka kuti inali ntchito ya akapolo aakazi. (Eksodo 11:5) * Akatswiri ena amaganiza kuti Aisrayeli pochoka ku Igupto, anatengako mphero zosemedwa ngati chishalo.

Patapita nthaŵi, zipangizo zogayira zinayamba kusintha ndipo mphero zina pamodzi ndi miyala yake yomwe anayamba kuzigoba timizere kuti zizigwira ntchito bwino. Kenako anayambanso kuboola bowo pa mwala wapamwamba, limene linkakhala lalikulu pamwamba koma laling’ono pansi, zimene zinathandiza kuti wopera azithiramo mbewu, ndipo akamapera mbewuzo zizigwera zokha pampheroyo. M’zaka za m’ma 500 kapena 600 Kristu Asanabwere, ku Girisi anapanga chipangizo chosavuta kupanga chogayira zinthu. Ankazika mtengo pansi ndiye pamwamba pamtengopo ankamangirirapo mtengo wina mopingasa. Mbali ina ya mtengo wopingasawo ankamangirirako mwala woboola pakati pomwe anali kuthirapo mbewu zofunika kugayidwazo. Mwala umenewu pansi pake pankakhala mphero. Ndiyeno akagwira mbali ya mtengo kumene kulibe mwalako, n’kumauyendetsa pang’onopang’ono uku ndi uku, mwala uli ku mtengo uja unkakhulana ndi mphero ili pansi ija n’kumapera mbewuzo.

Mphero zonse zimene zatchulidwazi zinali ndi mavuto ake. Zinkafunika kuti miyala yake izikankhidwa uku ndi uku, ndipotu ntchito imeneyi zinyama sizingathe kuichita. Choncho, mphero zimenezi zinali kudalira mphamvu za anthu zokha. Ndiyeno patapita nthaŵi panabwera umisiri watsopano, mphero za gudumu. Tsopano akanatha kugwiritsa ntchito zinyama.

Mphero za Gudumu Zinapangitsa Ntchitoyo Kukhala Yosavuta

Zikuoneka kuti mphero zimenezi zinayamba kupangidwa ku mayiko ozungulira nyanja ya Mediterranean cha m’zaka za m’ma 100 Kristu Asanabwere. Pofika m’zaka 100 zoyambirira Kristu Atabwera, Ayuda a ku Palestina anali kuzidziŵa bwino mphero zimenezi, popeza Yesu anatchula za “mwala waukulu wamphero [yoyendetsedwa ndi bulu, NW].”​—Marko 9:42.

Mphero zoyendetsedwa ndi zinyama zinali kugwiritsidwa ntchito ku Roma ndiponso m’madera ambiri mu ufumu wonse wa Roma. Zambiri za mphero zimenezi zikupezekabe ku Pompeii. Zili ndi mwala wa bowo pomwe amathirapo mbewu. Mwalawu umakhala wochepa kumunsi ndipo umakhala pamwamba pamphero yosemedwa ngati nguli. Ndiye akamazunguliza mwalawo mbewuzo zimagwera pampheroyo n’kumagayika. Miyala imene ilipo ya mtundu umenewu ndi yaikulu masentimita 45 mpaka 90 m’mimba mwake. Zina mwa mphero zimenezi zinali zazitali masentimita 180.

Sizikudziŵika bwinobwino kuti chinachokera ku chinzake n’chiyani pakati pa mphero za gudumu zapamanja ndi mphero zoyendetsedwa ndi zinyama. Mulimonse mmene zinalili, mphero ya gudumu yapamanja inali yabwino chifukwa inali yosavuta kunyamula ndiponso yosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito. Mpheroyi inali miyala iŵiri yozungulira yaikulu mwina masentimita 30 mpaka 60 m’mimba mwake. Mwala wina unkakhala pansi ndipo unali wotundumuka ndipo pakati pake ankasomekapo mtengo kuti uzigwira mwala unzake womwe ankausanjika pamwamba pake. Mwala unzakewu unkakhala woloŵa m’kati kunsi kwake kuti uzitha kuvindikirana bwinobwino ndi unzakewo. Ndiye mwala wapamwamba uja anali kuuzunguza pogwiritsa ntchito chogwirira chake chomwe chinkakhala chamtengo. Chinkachitika n’chakuti, azimayi aŵiri anali kukhala moyang’anizana. Mzimayi aliyense ankagwira chogwirira ndi dzanja limodzi n’kumayendetsa mwala wapamwambawo. (Luka 17:35) Ndiye pogwiritsa ntchito dzanja linalo, mayi winayo anali kuthira mbewu pang’onopang’ono pabowo la mwala wapamwambawo, ndipo mayi winayo anali kulandirira ufa ukamagwa m’lichero kapena pansalu imene ankayiyala pansi pampheropo. Mphero yamtundu umenewu ndi imene ankagwiritsa ntchito asilikali, anthu oyenda panyanja, ndiponso mabanja ang’onoang’ono  amene anali kukhala kutali ndi mphero zikuluzikulu.

Mphero Zoyendera Madzi Kapena Mphepo

Pafupifupi zaka 27 Kristu Asanabwere, Vitruvius m’misiri wa zopangapanga wachiroma, anafotokoza mmene mphero yoyendera madzi m’masiku amenewo inkapangidwira. Madzi oyenda ankawomba gudumu lokhala ndi mano, limene linali pachitsulo chomwe chinagona mopingasa madzi oyenda, zimene zimachititsa kuti gudumuli lizizungulira. Zimenezi zinkazunguzanso chitsulo china choimirira chimene chinalumikizidwa ku gudumu lija. Kuzungulira kwa chitsulochi kunkachititsa kuti chimwala chachikulu chapamphero chomwe ankachimangirira pamwamba pake chizizunguliranso.

Kodi mphero zoyendera madzi zinkagaya zinthu zochuluka bwanji poyerekezera ndi mphero zina? Mphero zapamanja akuti zimatha kugaya pafupifupi makilogalamu 10 a ufa pa ola lililonse, ndipo mphero zina zoyendetsedwa ndi zinyama zomwe zinali kugwira ntchito bwino zedi, zimatha kugaya makilogalamu 50. Koma mphero yoyendera madzi imene anafotokoza Vitruvius inkatha kugaya pafupifupi makilogalamu 150 mpaka 200 pa ola limodzi. Ngakhale kuti kapangidwe ka mphero kanasintha, zimene ananena Vitruvius zokhudza kapangidwe ka mphero zinapitiriza kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi opanga mphero kwa zaka mazana ambiri.

Si madzi oyenda okha amene anali kuyendetsera mphero. Ngakhalenso mphepo ankatha kuyendetsera mphero. Mphero zoyendera mphepo zinali kugwiritsidwa ntchito ku Ulaya mwina cha m’zaka za m’ma 1100 Kristu Atabwera, ndipo zinali mphero zofala ku Belgium, Germany, Holland, ndi m’malo ena. Zinali kugwira ntchito mpaka pamene zigayo zoyendera mphamvu za malasha ndi mphamvu zina zinapangitsa kuti anthu aleke kugwiritsa ntchito mphero zonse zimene zinkayendera zinthu zimene tazitchula zija.

“Chakudya Chathu Chalero”

Ngakhale kuti zinthu zapita patsogolo, njira zosiyanasiyana zimene kale anali kugwiritsa ntchito pogaya mbewu zikadalipo m’mayiko ena padziko lapansi. Mtondo ndi munsi zikadagwirabe ntchito m’madera ena a ku Africa kuno ndi m’zilumba zina zapanyanja ya Pacific. Ku Mexico ndi ku Central America, mphero zosemedwa ngati chishalo zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pogaya chimanga chophikira mikate. Ndipo mphero zingapo zoyendera madzi ndiponso mphero zoyendera mphepo zikugwirabe ntchito m’malo ena ndi ena.

Komabe, ufa wochuluka umene umagwiritsidwa ntchito m’dziko lotukuka lamakonoli umagayidwa m’zigayo zapamwamba kwambiri zimene zimayendera injini zotsogola ndiponso zamagetsi. Mbewu zikamadutsa m’zitsulo za mano osiyanasiyana zimene zimazungulira paliŵiro losiyanasiyananso zimagayika pang’onopang’ono mpaka kusanduka ufa. Zimenezi zimapangitsa kuti ufa ugayike mosiyanasiyana pamtengo wotchipa, wina wosalala kwambiri wina wamisere.

Kupeza ufa wophikira nsima mosakayikira si chintchito cholemetsa monga zinalili kale. Komabe, tizithokoza Mlengi wathu potipatsa mbewu ndiponso nzeru zoti tizitha kusandutsa mbewuzo kukhala “chakudya chathu chalero.”​—Mateyu 6:11.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 10 M’nthaŵi za m’Baibulo, adani amene anagwidwa, monga Samsoni ndi Aisrayeli ena, anali kuwagwiritsa ntchito yopera mbewu. (Oweruza 16:21; Maliro 5:13) Azimayi ena ankapera mbewu za pabanja pawo ngakhale kuti sanali akapolo.​—Yobu 31:10.

[Chithunzi patsamba 23]

Mphero yosemedwa ngati chishalo ya ku Igupto

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Soprintendenza Archeologica per la Toscana, Firenze

[Chithunzi patsamba 23]

M’mphero yoyendetsedwa ndi nyama, amayengeramo mafuta kuchokera ku zipatso za azitona

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 22]

From the Self-Pronouncing Edition of the Holy Bible, containing the King James and the Revised versions