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Munthu Wolimba Mtima Amene “Anayendayenda Kufalitsa Uthenga Wabwino”

Munthu Wolimba Mtima Amene “Anayendayenda Kufalitsa Uthenga Wabwino”

 Munthu Wolimba Mtima Amene “Anayendayenda Kufalitsa Uthenga Wabwino”

AKUTI mmene George Borrow ankakwanitsa zaka 18 n’kuti akudziŵa zinenero 12. Patatha zaka ziŵiri ankatha kumasulira zinenero 20 “mosavuta ndiponso momveka bwino.”

M’chaka cha 1833 munthu waluso losaonekaonekayu anaitanidwa ndi bungwe loona zofalitsa Baibulo lotchedwa British and Foreign Bible Society mumzinda wa London, ku England kuti akayesedwe ngati ali woyenerera kumulemba ntchito. Munthu wa zaka 30 ameneyu anangoti likawomba wotheratu moti ngakhale kuti analibe ndalama zoyendera ulendowu iye anayenda wapansi mtunda wa makilomita 180 kuchoka kumudzi kwawo ku Norwich, ndipo anayenda ulendowu maola 28 okha.

Pomuyesa, bungwe loona zofalitsa Baibulo lija linamuuza kuti ikamatha miyezi isanu ndi umodzi akhale ataphunzira chinenero cha Chimanchu, cholankhulidwa m’madera ena a dziko la China. Iye anapempha bungwelo kuti limupatse buku la malamulo a chinenerochi, koma linangomupatsa buku la Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyu la m’chinenerochi ndiponso buku lotanthauzira mawu a Chimanchu mu Chifalansa. Koma patangotha milungu 19 yokha iye analemba kalata ku bungweli yonena kuti, “Ndachidziŵa chinenero cha Chimanchu,” ndipo anati wadziŵa chinenerochi, “mothandizidwa ndi Mulungu.” Izi zinali zodabwitsa kwambiri makamakanso chifukwa chakuti panthaŵi yomweyi, akuti iyeyu analinso kukonza zolakwika zina mu Uthenga Wabwino wa Luka wa m’chinenero chotchedwa Nahuatl, cha anthu a ku Mexico.

Baibulo la Chinenero cha Chimanchu

M’ma 1600, Chimanchu chinayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi boma la China pamene chinayamba kulembedwa kwa nthaŵi yoyamba ndipo ankachilemba pogwiritsira ntchito zilembo za chinenero cha ku Mongolia chotchedwa Uighur. Ngakhale kuti patapita nthaŵi anthu anasiya kuchigwiritsa ntchito kwambiri, a bungwe la British and Foreign Bible Society anali ofunitsitsa kusindikiza ndiponso kugaŵira mabaibulo m’chinenero cha Chimanchu. Pofika chaka cha 1822 anali atalipira ndalama zoti apangire mabaibulo 550 ongokhala ndi Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyu, womwe unamasuliridwa ndi Stepan V. Lipoftsoff. Iyeyu ankagwira ntchito mu unduna woona nkhani zakunja ku Russia ndipo anali atakhalapo ku China kwa zaka 20. Baibuloli analisindikiza ku St. Petersburg, koma atangogaŵira mabaibulo ochepa chabe otereŵa, ena onsewo anawonongeka ndi madzi osefukira.

Posachedwa anatulutsa Baibulo la mabuku onse a Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu. M’chaka cha 1834, atatulukira mpukutu wolembedwa pamanja wa mabuku ochuluka a Malemba Achihebri anthu anayamba kuchita chidwi kwambiri ndi Baibulo. Kodi ndani akanayang’anira ntchito yokonzanso Baibulo la Chimanchu limene linalipo n’kumaliza kumasulira mabuku otsalawo? Bungwe la British and Foreign Bible Society linatumiza George Borrow kuti akagwire ntchito imeneyi.

Anapita ku Russia

Atafika ku St. Petersburg, Borrow anachita khama kwambiri pophunzira Chimanchu kuti akwanitse kukonza zina ndi zina m’Baibulolo. Komabe,  ntchito yakeyi inali yovuta kwambiri, motero patsiku ankagwira ntchito maola 13 yothandiza kukonza tizikombole tosindikizira Baibulo la The New Testament, limene pambuyo pake ena anati “ndi Baibulo la chinenero cha kum’maŵa lomasuliridwa mwaluso kwambiri.” M’chaka cha 1835 anasindikiza mabaibulo 1,000 otereŵa. Koma Borrow anasokonezedwa cholinga chake chopititsa mabaibuloŵa ku China n’kukagaŵira anthu. Boma la Russia linaopa kuti kufalitsa Baibuloli kusokoneza ubale wake ndi dziko loyandikana nalo la China poganiza kuti dzikolo lingayese kuti iwoŵa akufuna kuloŵetsa Chikristu m’dziko mwawo, motero linakana kumupatsa Borrow chilolezo chopitira ku malire a dziko la China ngati atatenga ngakhale “Baibulo limodzi lokha la Chimanchu.”

Komabe mabaibulo angapo otereŵa anagaŵidwa patatha zaka teni ndipo mu 1859 anatulutsa mabaibulo ongokhala ndi Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyu ndi Marko. Patsamba lililonse la mabaibuloŵa, mbali ina inali ya Chimanchu ndipo inayo inali ya Chitchaina. Komabe, pofika nthaŵi imeneyi, anthu ambiri amene ankatha kuŵerenga Chimanchu ankakonda kuŵerenga Chitchaina, motero zomasulira Baibulo lonse mu Chimanchu zinayamba kukayikitsa. Kwenikweni, Chimanchu chinayamba kutha, ndipo posapita nthaŵi Chitchaina n’chimene chinadzaloŵa m’malo mwake. Izi zinatsimikizika mu 1912 pamene dziko la China linalandira ufulu wodzilamula.

Ku Portugal ndi Spain

George Borrow anabwerera ku London atalimbikitsidwa ndi zimene anakumana nazo. Mu 1835 anamutumiza ku Portugal ndi ku Spain, ndipo pambuyo pake iye ananena kuti anamutumiza kumeneku “kuti akaone kuti anthu ndi okonzeka motani kulandira choonadi chachikristu.” Panthaŵi imeneyi n’kuti bungwe la British and Foreign Bible Society lisanayambe kuchita ntchito yake m’madera ambiri a mayiko aŵiriŵa chifukwa cha mikangano ya zandale ndiponso kusagwirizana pakati pa anthu. Borrow ankakonda kukambirana ndi anthu za Baibulo m’midzi ya ku Portugal, koma chifukwa choti anthu ambiri kumeneku sankakonda Mawu a Mulungu, pasanathe nthaŵi yaitali iye anasamukira ku Spain.

Ku Spain anakumana ndi vuto linanso, makamaka linali lokhudza anthu amtundu wotchedwa Gypsy amene iyeyu anakondana nawo kwambiri chifukwa ankatha kulankhula chinenero chawo. Patatha nthaŵi yochepa chifikireni kumeneku, iye anayamba kumasulira “Chipangano Chatsopano” m’chinenero cha a Gypsy a ku Spain chotchedwa Gitano. Motero anapempha azimayi enaake aŵiri a chi Gypsy kuti amuthandize mbali ina ya ntchito imeneyi. Iyeyu ankawaŵerengera Malemba a Chisipanya kenaka n’kuwapempha kuti amasulire. Potero, iye anaphunzira miyambi ya a Gypsy bwinobwino. Chifukwa cha khama limeneli, chakumayambiriro kwa mu 1838 Uthenga Wabwino wa Luka unafalitsidwa, motero bishopu wina ananena kuti: “Uyu atembenuza dziko lonse la Spain pogwiritsira ntchito chinenero cha a Gypsy.”

George Borrow analolezedwa kupeza “munthu amene angathedi kumasulira bwino Malemba m’chinenero chotchedwa Basque.” Ntchito imeneyi anaipereka kwa Dr. Oteiza. Borrow analemba kuti dokotalayu anali “wodziŵa bwino chinenerochi, chimenenso ineyo ndikuchidziŵako ndithu.” Mu 1838, Uthenga Wabwino wa Luka unali buku loyamba la m’Baibulo kukhala m’chinenero chotchedwa Basque cha ku Spain.

Chifukwa chofunitsitsa kwambiri kuphunzitsa anthu wamba, Borrow ankayenda maulendo aatali,  omwe kaŵirikaŵiri ankakhala oopsa, pogaŵira mabuku ofotokoza Baibulo pakati pa anthu osauka a kumidzi. Iye ankafuna kuti awadziŵitse anthuŵa Mawu a Mulungu ndiponso kuwamasula ku zikhulupiriro zabodza. Posonyeza kuti n’zopanda ntchito kupereka ndalama kwa ansembe kuti akhululukire munthu machimo ake iye mwachitsanzo ankati: “Kodi Mulungu, amene ali wabwino, angavomereze zoti machimo azichita kugulitsa?” Komano bungwe la Bible Society linaopa kuti kutsutsa motero ziphunzitso zotchuka kungachititse kuti ntchito yawo iletsedwe, motero linamuuza kuti asiye zimenezo koma m’malo mwake azingogaŵira mabaibulo basi.

Borrow anavomerezedwa mwapakamwa kuti asindikize Baibulo la El Nuevo Testamento, lomwe linali Baibulo la New Testament koma lomasuliridwa m’Chisipanya, komanso anachotsamo mawu ofotokoza ziphunzitso zachikatolika. Anachita zimenezi ngakhale kuti poyamba nduna yaikulu ya dzikoli inaletsa kutero. Iye anati Baibulo la Chisipanyali n’loopsa ndiponso kuti ndi “buku losayenera.” Pambuyo pake Borrow anakhazikitsa malo ena ku Madrid, ogulitsirapo Baibulo lake la Chisipanya la New Testament, zimene zinachititsa kuti atsogoleri a chipembedzo ndiponso aboma alimbane naye. Motero anam’manga kwa masiku 12. Atadandaula kuti akumulakwira anamuuza kuti achoke m’dzikomo mwakachetechete. Iye ankadziŵa bwinobwino kuti anam’manga popanda chifukwa chilichonse chogwirizana ndi malamulo, motero anapereka chitsanzo cha mtumwi Paulo n’kunena kuti akhalabe m’ndendemo mpaka adzamuuze bwinobwino kuti sanali wolakwa ndipo anatero pofuna kuti dzina lake lisaipitsidwe m’njira iliyonse.​—Machitidwe 16:37.

Panthaŵi imene nthumwi yawo yakhamayi imachoka ku Spain mu 1840, a bungwe la Bible Society anafika ponena kuti: “Pa zaka zisanu zokha zapitazi mabaibulo 14,000 agaŵidwa ku Spain.” Poti anachita nawo mbali yaikulu ya ntchitoyi, Borrow ananena mwachidule za nthaŵi imene anali ku Spain kuti ndiyo inali “nthaŵi yosangalatsa kwambiri pa moyo wanga wonse.”

Buku lotchedwa The Bible in Spain, lomwe linafalitsidwa koyamba mu 1842, ndipo likufalitsidwabe panopo, ndi buku limene George Borrow analemba yekha ndipo limafotokoza mwatsatanetsatane maulendo ake ndi zinthu zosiyanasiyana zosaiŵalika zimene anakumana nazo. M’buku limeneli, lomwe linatchuka kwambiri kuchokera pamene linangoti latuluka, ananena kuti iye ndi munthu amene “anayendayenda kufalitsa Uthenga Wabwino.” M’bukumo analembamo kuti: “Ndikufuna kuyendera malo obisika ndiponso akutali kwambiri a m’mapiri ovuta kufikako, ndiponso ndikufuna kulankhula ndi anthu a Kristu m’njira yonseyo.”

Pogaŵira ndiponso kumasulira Malemba mwakhama chonchi, George Borrow anakhazikitsa maziko kwa anthu ena ochita ntchito imeneyi ndipotu anawasiyira chinthu chamtengo wapatali kwambiri.

[Mapu patsamba 29]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Ntchito ya George Borrow yomasulira ndi kugaŵira Baibulo inamuyendetsa kuchoka ku (1) England kupita ku (2) Russia, (3) Portugal, ndiponso (4) Spain

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Mountain High Maps® Copyright © 1997 Digital Wisdom, Inc.

[Chithunzi patsamba 28]

Mawu oyamba a Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane mu Chimanchu, osindikizidwa mu 1835, kuŵerenga kwake n’komachoka kumtunda kupita kumunsi kumaloŵera kudzanja lamanja

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

From the book The Bible of Every Land, 1860

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 27]

From the book The Life of George Borrow by Clement K. Shorter, 1919