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“Anapita M’ngalawa ku Kupro”

“Anapita M’ngalawa ku Kupro”

 “Anapita M’ngalawa ku Kupro”

UMU ndi mmene buku la Machitidwe limayambira nkhani yosimba zimene anakumana nazo amishonale achikristu otchedwa Paulo, Barnaba, ndi Yohane Marko, pamene anapita ku chisumbu cha Kupro cha m’chaka cha 47 Kristu Atabwera. (Machitidwe 13:4) Panthaŵiyo, monganso panopa, Kupro anali pamalo omwe anali ofunika kwambiri kum’maŵa kwa nyanja ya Mediterranean.

Aroma ankachisirira kwambiri chisumbuchi, ndipo chinadzakhala m’manja mwawo m’chaka cha 58 Kristu Asanabwere. Aroma asanatenge Kupro, pali zinthu zambiri zochititsa chidwi zimene zinachitika pachisumbuchi. Chisumbuchi chinakhalapo m’manja mwa Afoinike, Agiriki, Asuri, Aperisi, ndi Aigupto. M’zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka m’ma 1500 magulu omenya nkhondo za pakati pa Akristu ndi Asilamu analanda chisumbuchi. Ku chisumbuchi kunafikanso Afulanki ndi Avenetia, ndipo kenako kunadzafika Aotomani. Mu 1914 dziko la Britain linalanda ndi kuyamba kulamulira chisumbuchi mpaka pamene chinalandira ufulu wodzilamulira mu 1960.

Panopa, chuma cha dziko la Kupro chimadalira ntchito zokopa alendo, koma m’masiku a Paulo chisumbuchi chinali ndi zinthu zambiri zachilengedwe, zomwe Aroma ankatenga kukayendetsera chuma chawo ku Roma. Miyala ya mkuwa inayamba kupezeka kale kwambiri pachisumbuchi, ndipo akuti pofika kumapeto kwa ulamuliro wa Aroma, pachisumbuchi n’kuti patakumbidwa miyala ya mkuwa yokwana matani 250,000. Komatu ntchito yoyenga miyalayi inawonongetsa nkhalango zikuluzikulu za pachisumbuchi. Panthaŵi yomwe Paulo ankafikapo n’kuti nkhalango zambiri zitatha.

 Kupro mu Ulamuliro wa Aroma

Malingana ndi buku la Encyclopædia Britannica, poyamba Juliasi Kaisara anapereka Kupro m’manja mwa Aigupto ndipo kenaka Mark Antony anateronso. Komabe, mu ulamuliro wa Augusto, chisumbuchi chinabwereranso m’manja mwa Aroma ndipodi monga ananenera Luka, amene analemba buku la Machitidwe, chisumbuchi ankachiyang’anira ndi kazembe woyang’aniridwa ndi likulu la ku Roma. Sergio Paulo ndiye anali kazembe pamene Paulo analalikira pachisumbuchi.​—Machitidwe 13:7.

Nthaŵi yamtendere wa mayiko yomwe Aroma analimbikitsa, yotchedwa Pax Romana, inathandiza kuti migodi ndiponso mafakitale a ku Kupro akule, motero nkhani zamalonda zinayamba kuyenda bwino. Amene ankabweretsanso ndalama pachisumbuchi anali magulu a asilikali achiroma ndiponso alendo odzapembedza amene ankakhamukirako pokalambira Afrodito, mulungu wamkulu wa chisumbucho. Motero, panakonzedwa misewu yatsopano, madoko, ndiponso nyumba zochititsa kaso zogwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu onse. Chigiriki chinapitirira kukhala chinenero cha pachisumbupo, ndipo kuphatikiza pa kulambira Mfumu ya ku Roma anthu ankalambiranso milungu yotchedwa Afrodito, Apolo ndi Zeu. Anthu a pachisumbupo ankakhala moyo wapamwamba kwambiri ndipo anali ndi zochitika zosiyanasiyana pa moyo wawo ndiponso pa chikhalidwe chawo.

Paulo anapeza zoterezi paulendo wake woyendayenda pa chisumbu cha Kupro pophunzitsa anthu za Kristu. Komabe, Chikristu chinafika ku Kupro Paulo asanafikeko. Nkhani ya m’buku la Machitidwe imatiuza kuti atafa munthu woyamba kuphedwa chifukwa cha Chikristu, dzina lake Stefano, Akristu ena oyambirira anathaŵira ku Kupro. (Machitidwe 11:19) Barnaba, amene ankayenda ndi Paulo, kwawo kunali ku Kupro, ndipo poti ankachidziŵa bwino chisumbuchi, n’zosakayikitsa kuti anam’thandiza kwambiri Paulo paulendo wake wolalikirawu.​—Machitidwe 4:36; 13:2.

Kutsata Mmene Anaponda Paulo

M’povuta kutsata bwinobwino monse mmene Paulo anaponda m’maulendo ake oyendayenda pa chisumbu cha Kupro. Komabe akatswiri ofufuza za mbiri yakale pofukula m’mabwinja akudziŵa zambiri ndithu zokhudza misewu yambambande yomwe inalipo nthaŵi ya Aroma. Malingana ndi mmene malo a pachisumbuchi alili, ngakhale misewu ya masiku ano nthaŵi zambiri imatsata njira zomwezo zimene amishonale akale ayenera kuti ankatsata.

Paulo, Barnaba, ndi Yohane Marko anayenda pangalawa kuchokera ku Selukeya mpaka kukafika ku doko la Salami. Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani anapita ku Salami, pamene likulu la chisumbuchi ndiponso doko lake lalikulu kwambiri linali Pafo? Chifukwa chimodzi chinali chakuti mzinda wa Salami unali cha kugombe la kum’maŵa pa mtunda wa makilomita 200 okha kuchokera ku Selukeya, kumtunda kwa chisumbucho. Ngakhale kuti mu ulamuliro wa Aroma likulu analisamutsa kuchoka ku Salami kupita nalo ku Pafo, mzinda wa Salami unapitirira kukhala likulu la zachikhalidwe, maphunziro, ndiponso zamalonda pa chisumbucho. Mzinda wa Salami unali ndi Ayuda ochuluka ndithu, ndipo amishonalewo anayamba ‘kulalikira mawu a Mulungu m’masunagoge a Ayuda.’​—Machitidwe 13:5.

Masiku ano, ku Salami kunangotsala mabwinja okhaokha. Komabe zimene akatswiri a mbiri yakale afukula zimasonyeza kuti mzindawu unali wotchuka ndiponso wolemera kwambiri. Msika wake, womwe unali chimake cha zandale ndiponso zachipembedzo,  umadziŵika kuti mwina ndi msika wakale waukulu kwambiri wa Aroma umene unafukulidwapo m’chigawo cha Mediterranean. Mabwinja a zinthu zimene zinalipo m’nthaŵi ya Augusto Kaisara , amasonyeza kuti kunali nyumba zokhala ndi pansi pokongoletsedwa mochititsa kaso, kunali nyumba zochitirako maseŵera olimbitsa thupi, malo osiyanasiyana osambirako ochititsa chidwi, bwalo la zamaseŵera ndiponso la zisudzo, manda okongola, ndiponso chinyumba chachikulu cha zamaseŵera chokwanira kuloŵamo anthu 15,000! Chapafupi pang’ono pali mabwinja a chikachisi chadzaoneni cha mulungu wotchedwa Zeu.

Koma Zeu sanateteze mzindawu kuti usawonongedwe ndi zivomezi. M’chaka cha 15 Kristu Asanabwere, chivomezi chachikulu chinawonongeratu mbali yaikulu ya Salami, ngakhale kuti pambuyo pake Augusto anaumanganso mzindawu. Chivomezi chinanso chitauwononga m’chaka cha 77 Kristu Atabwera mzindawu anaumanganso. M’zaka za m’ma 300, mzinda wa Salami unawonongedwa ndi zivomezi zotsatanatsatana, ndipo zitatero sunadzabwererenso mwakale. Pofika zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka m’ma 1500 padoko lake panali patadzazana mchenga ndipo anali atasiya kugwiritsirapo ntchito.

Sizikudziŵika kuti anthu a ku Salami anachitapo chiyani atamva ulaliki wa Paulo. Koma Paulo anakalalikira m’madera enanso. Atachoka ku Salami, amishonaleŵa anali ndi njira zitatu zimene akanatha kudzerako: njira yoloŵera ku gombe la kumpoto yodutsa m’mapiri a Kyrenia; kapena njira ina yoloŵera kumadzulo yodutsa m’chigwa cha Mesaoria kudzera m’kati mwenimweni mwa chisumbuchi; ndipo njira yachitatu inali yoloŵera ku gombe la kum’mwera.

Malingana ndi zimene ambiri akhala akukhulupirira, Paulo anadzera njira yachitatuyi. Imadutsa m’dera lokhala ndi minda ya chonde yokhala ndi dothi lofiirira. Pamtunda wa makilomita 50 kum’mwera chakumadzulo, njirayi imaloŵera ku mzinda wa Larnaca isanakhotere chakumpoto n’kuloŵera chapakati.

“Chisumbu Chonse”

Kuchokera pamenepa, njirayo sichedwa kufika mumzinda wakale wa Ledra. Pamalo ameneŵa masiku ano pali mzinda wa Nicosia, womwe uli likulu la dzikoli. Tsopano, palibiretu umboni uliwonse wosonyeza kuti panopo kale panali mzinda womwenso unali ufumu. Koma m’kati mwa mpanda umene unazungulira dera la pakati pa mzinda wa Nicosia womangidwa ndi Avenetia m’zaka za m’ma 1500, muli kamsewu kogwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri kotchedwa Ledra. Sitikudziŵa ngati Paulo anakafika ku Ledra. Baibulo limangotiuza kuti iwo ‘anapita chisumbu chonse.’ (Machitidwe 13:6) Buku lakuti The Wycliffe Historical Geography of Bible Lands limati “mwina mawuŵa amatanthauza kuti anayenda pafupifupi m’madera onse amene munali Ayuda ku Kupro.”

Mosakayikira, Paulo ankafuna kulankhula ndi  anthu onse amene akanatha kulankhula nawo ku Kupro. Motero, n’kutheka kuti analoŵera chakum’mwera kuchokera ku Ledra n’kudutsa mu mizinda ya Amathus ndi Kourion, yomwe inali mizinda yaikulu kwambiri yokhala ndi anthu ambiri komanso amafuko osiyanasiyana.

Mzinda wa Kourion unali pamalo okwera kwambiri amene anali ndi chiphedi chothera m’gombe la nyanja. Mzinda wokongolawu, womwe unamangidwa ndi Agiriki komanso Aroma, unawonongedwa ndi chivomezi chomwe chija chimene chinawononga mzinda wa Salami, m’chaka cha 77 Kristu Atabwera. Pali mabwinja a kachisi wa m’chaka cha 100 Kristu Atabwera yemwe ankalambiriramo mulungu wotchedwa Apolo. M’bwalo lamaseŵera la mumzindawu munkatha kuloŵa anthu 6,000. Moyo wapamwamba umene anthu ambiri a mu mzinda wa Kourion ankakhala umaonekera ngakhale mmene anthu paokha ankakongoletsera pansi panyumba zawo.

Ulendo wa ku Pafo

Kuchokera ku Kourion njira yodutsa m’malo okongolayi imapitirira poloŵera chakumadzulo kudzera m’dera lopanga vinyo, ndipo imayenda mokwera pang’onopang’ono mpaka pamene njirayo inayamba kutsetsereka ndi kuyenda mokhotakhota kudutsa m’ziphedi kuloŵera ku magombe a mchenga ukuluukulu. Malingana ndi nthano za Agiriki, aŵa ndiwo malo amene mulungu wamkazi wotchedwa Afrodito anaonekera atabadwa kumene kuchokera m’nyanja.

Afrodito ndiye anali mulungu wotchuka kwambiri wa Agiriki ku Kupro ndipo anthu ankamulambira modzipereka mpaka m’zaka za m’ma 100 Kristu Atabwera. Likulu lolambirirako mulunguyu linali ku Pafo. M’chilimwe chilichonse, kumeneku ankachitirako chikondwerero chachikulu kwambiri polemekeza mulunguyu. Alendo odzapembedza ochokera ku Asiyamina, Aigupto, Girisi, ndiponso ngakhale madera akutali monga Perisiya ankabwera ku Pafo kudzachita nawo chikondwererochi. Pamene chisumbu cha Kupro chinali kulamulidwa ndi mafumu a ku Aigupto otchedwa Tolemi, anthu a ku Kupro anaphunzitsidwa kulambira Farao.

Mzinda wa Pafo unali likulu la Aroma la chisumbu cha Kupro ndiponso n’kumene kunkakhala kazembe, komanso mzindawu ndiwo unapatsidwa ulamuliro wopanga ndalama za chitsulo cha mkuwa. Nawonso mzindawu unawonongedwa ndi chivomezi m’chaka cha 15 Kristu Asanabwere, ndipo monganso anachitira ku mzinda wa Salami, Augusto anapereka ndalama zomangiranso mzindawu. Zinthu zimene zafukulidwa, monga misewu yaikulu yodutsa mumzindawu, nyumba za anthu zokongoletsedwa mwadzaoneni, sukulu zophunzitsa zoimbaimba, nyumba zochitirako maseŵera olimbitsa thupi, ndiponso bwalo lazisudzo, zimasonyeza kuti m’zaka 100 zoyambirira Kristu Atabwera, anthu olemera a mumzinda wa Pafo ankakhala moyo wapamwamba kwambiri.

Uwu ndiwo unali mzinda wa Pafo kumene kunapita Paulo, Barnaba, ndiponso Yohane Marko, ndiponso n’kumene kazembe Sergio Paulo “munthu wanzeru” ‘anafunitsitsa kumva mawu a Mulungu’ ngakhale kuti wamatsenga wotchedwa Elima anamukaniza kwambiri kutero. Kazembeyo ‘anadabwa nacho chiphunzitso cha Ambuye.’​—Machitidwe 13:6-12.

Atamaliza bwino ulendo wawo wolalikira ku Kupro amishonalewo anapitiriza ntchito yawo ku Asiyamina. Ulendo woyamba waumishonale umene Paulo anayendawu unathandiza kwambiri kuti Chikristu chifale. Buku lakuti St. Paul’s Journeys in the Greek Orient limati ulendowu “unali chiyambi chenicheni cha ntchito yachikristu ndiponso cha . . . ntchito yaumishonale ya Paulo.” Ndipo limawonjezera kuti: “Pakuti chisumbu cha Kupro chinali m’chigawo chimene chinali nkhumano ya njira za panyanja zopita ku Suriya, Asiyamina, ndi Girisi, chisumbuchi chinkaoneka kuti ndicho chinali malo abwino kuyambirapo ntchito yaumishonale.” Koma apa panali pongoyambira chabe. Tsopano patha zaka pafupifupi 2000 ndipo ntchito yaumishonale ikupitirirabe, ndipotu tinganene ndi mtima wonse kuti uthenga wabwino wa Ufumu wa Yehova wafikadi ku “malekezero ake a dziko.”​—Machitidwe 1:8.

[Mapu patsamba 20]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

KUPRO

NICOSIA (Ledra)

Salami

Pafo

Kourion

Amathus

Larnaca

MAPIRI A KYRENIA

CHIGWA CHA MESAORIA

MAPIRI A TROODOS

[Chithunzi patsamba 21]

Ali ku Pafo, Paulo anadzazidwa ndi mzimu woyera, n’kuchititsa khungu wamatsenga wotchedwa Elima