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Maseŵera Akale ndi Kufunika Kopambana

Maseŵera Akale ndi Kufunika Kopambana

 Maseŵera Akale ndi Kufunika Kopambana

“YENSE wakuyesetsana [“wochita nawo mpikisano wa maseŵera,” NW] adzikanizira zonse.” ‘Ngati wina ayesana nawo m’makani a maseŵera, sam’veka korona ngati sanayesana monga adapangana.’​—1 Akorinto 9:25; 2 Timoteo 2:5.

Maseŵera amene mtumwi Paulo anatchula anali mbali yofunika kwambiri kwa Agiriki akale. Kodi mbiri imatiuzanji za mipikisano yoteroyo ndiponso mmene anthu ankaonera mipikisanoyo?

Posachedwapa, m’chinyumba chachikulu cha maseŵera ku Roma munachitika chionetsero cha maseŵera a Agiriki chotchedwa Nike​—Il gioco e la vittoria (“Nike​—Maseŵera ndi Kupambana”). * Zinthu zomwe zinaonetsedwa pa chionetserocho zinapereka mayankho ena a funso limeneli ndipo zikutipangitsa kulingalira bwino mmene Mkristu ayenera kuonera maseŵera.

Maseŵera Anayamba Kale Kwambiri

Sikuti dziko la Greece ndi lomwe linali loyambirira kuchita maseŵera. Ngakhale zili choncho, mwina cha m’ma 700 B.C.E., Mgiriki wina wolemba ndakatulo, dzina lake Homer anafotokoza za anthu otengeka ndi maganizo ofuna kukhala akatswiri ndiponso okonda mzimu wa mpikisano, amene ankalemekeza kwambiri luso la pankhondo komanso  maseŵera. Pachionetserocho anafotokoza kuti maseŵera oyambirira a Agiriki anayamba monga zochitika zachipembedzo n’cholinga cholemekeza milungu pamaliro a akatswiri. Mwachitsanzo, buku lomwe Homer analemba lotchedwa Iliad limene ndi buku lakale kwambiri pa mabuku achigiriki amene alipo mpaka pano, limafotokoza mmene asilikali otchuka, anzake a Achilles, anatulira pansi zida zawo pa mwambo wa maliro a Patroclus n’kuchita maseŵera oti asonyeze mphamvu zawo pa maseŵera a nkhonya, ogwetserana pansi, oponya chimbale chathabwa ndi nthungo, ndiponso othamangitsa magareta.

Maseŵera ena ngati amenewo anayamba kumachitika m’dziko lonse la Greece. Buku lofotokoza za chionetserocho linati: “Maseŵerawo ankapereka mwayi woti Agiriki, polemekeza milungu yawo, apumulireko kukangana kwawo kosatherapo komwe nthaŵi zambiri kunali kwachiwawa, ndipo ankatha kusintha mtima wawo wamasiku onse wokonda mipikisano n’kukhala amtendere ndipo ngakhale kuti mzimu wa mpikisano umakhalapobe koma unali wamaseŵera.”

Mizinda yodzilamulira yokha inayamba kumasonkhana nthaŵi ndi nthaŵi pa malo olambirirapo n’kumalemekeza milungu yawo mwa kupikisana pa maseŵera. Patapita nthaŵi, maseŵera anayi oterowo, a ku Olympia, ndi ku Nemea, amene ankalemekeza Zeu, ndiponso a ku Delphi amene ankalemekeza Apollo ndi ochitikira ku kamtunda kopita ku chilumba cha Korinto, amene ankalemekeza Poseidon, anakula kwambiri mpaka anasanduka zikondwerero za Agiriki onse. Zimenezi zikutanthauza kuti anthu ochokera m’madera onse a Agiriki akanatha kudzapikisana nawo pa maseŵerawo. Pa zikondwererozo pankakhala kupereka nsembe ndi kupemphera ndiponso ankalemekeza milungu yawo mwa kuchita mipikisano yosiyanasiyana.

Chikondwerero chimodzi chimene chinatchuka kwambiri ndiponso chakale kwambiri akuti chinayamba m’chaka cha 776 B.C.E., ndipo chinkachitika zaka zinayi zilizonse polemekeza Zeu ku Olympia. Chikondwerero chotsatira pambuyo pa chimenechi chinali chimene chinkachitikira ku Delphi. Chikondwerero chimenechi chinkachitika pafupi ndi kachisi wotchuka kwambiri wakale wa ku Delphi ndipo pa chikondwereropo pankakhalanso maseŵera. Koma pofuna kulemekeza mulungu wa ndakatulo ndi nyimbo, Apollo, ankalimbikitsa kwambiri kuyimba nyimbo ndi kuvina.

Zimene Zinkachitika

Poyerekezera ndi maseŵera a masiku ano, mitundu ya maseŵera amene ankachitika inali yochepa, ndipo amuna okha ndi amene ankachita nawo. Pa m’ndandanda wa zochitika za maseŵera a ku Olympia akale sipankakhala maseŵera opitirira khumi. Ziboliboli, zithunzi zozokotedwa, ndi zojambula pa miphika yadothi zimene anazisonyeza m’chinyumba chachikulu cha maseŵeracho zinasonyezako pang’ono chabe ena mwa maseŵera amenewo.

Kunkakhala mipikisano yothamanga pa mitunda itatu yosiyana​—wa mamita 200, wa mamita 400, ndi wa mamita 4,500. Othamanga ankathamanga ndi kuchita maseŵerawo ali mbulanda. Anthu ena ankachita mipikisano isanu: kuthamanga, kudumpha, kuponya chimbale chathabwa, kuponya nthungo, ndi kugwetserana pansi. Pa mipikisano ina pankakhala maseŵera a nkhonya ndi maseŵera ena ophatikiza nkhonya ndi kugwetserana pansi, amene anafotokozedwa kuti anali “maseŵera ankhanza amene ankamenyana nkhonya osavala kalikonse m’manja ndi kugwetserana pansi.” Ndiye panalinso mipikisano yothamangitsa magareta pa mtunda wopitirira mamita 1,600. Anali kugwiritsa ntchito magareta opepuka opanda chitseko kumbuyo oyendera magudumu aang’onoang’ono. Magaleteŵa ankakokedwa ndi mahatchi aang’ono kapena aakulu aŵiri kapena anayi.

Maseŵera a nkhonya anali achiwawa kwambiri ndipo nthaŵi zina anthu ankafapo. Ochita maseŵerawo ankaveka nkhonya zawo zikopa zolimba zokhomedwa misomali. Mungathe kumvetsa chifukwa chake wochita nawo maseŵera a nkhonya wina dzina lake Stratofonte sanathe kudzizindikira yekha atadziyang’ana pa galasi atatha kumenya nkhonya kwa maola anayi. Ziboliboli ndiponso zinthu zozokotedwa zakale zimasonyeza kuti anthu ochita maseŵera a nkhonya ankapunduka kwambiri.

 Pa maseŵera ogwetserana pansi, malamulo ake ankati azigwirana kumtunda kwa thupi kokha, ndipo munthu wopambana ankakhala amene anali woyamba kugwetsa mdani wake pansi katatu. Mosiyana ndi zimenezi, pa maseŵera ophatikiza nkhonya ndi kugwetserana pansi, sankaletsa kugwira paliponse. Ochita maseŵerawo ankatha kuponya mateche, kumenya ndi nkhonya, ndi kupotokola mfundo za ziwalo za munthu winayo. Ankangoletsa kuchotsa maso, kukanda, ndi kuluma ndi mano basi. Cholinga chake chinali kugwetsa mdani wakoyo pansi ndi kumuchititsa kugonja. Ena ankaona kuti ameneŵa ndiye anali “maseŵera abwino kuposa onse ku Olympia.”

Maseŵera akale ophatikiza nkhonya ndi kugwetserana pansi amene anatchuka kuposa ena alionse akuti anachitika ku Olympia mu ndime yomaliza ya maseŵerawo m’chaka cha 564 B.C.E. Arrhachion, amene mdani wake anali kumukanyanga pakhosi, anatha kuthyola chala chakuphazi cha mdani wakeyo. Mdani wakeyo atamva ululu woopsa anagonja nthaŵi imene Arrhachion ankamwalira. Ogamula za amene wapambana pa maseŵerawo ananena kuti mtembo wa Arrhachion ndi umene unapambana!

Mipikisano yothamangitsa magareta ndi imene inali yapamwamba kwambiri ndiponso anthu olamulira ankaikonda kwambiri, chifukwa wopambana samakhala woyendetsayo koma mwiniwake wa gareta ndi mahatchiwo. Nthaŵi yovuta kwambiri pa mipikisanoyo inali kumayambiriro kwake pamene oyendetsa magaretawo ankafunika kukhala pamzere umene ankayambira, ndiponso makamaka akamatembenuka kuzungulira mtengo umene umakhala kumayambiriro ndi kumapeto kwa malo ochitira mipikisanoyo. Kulakwitsa kapena kuphwanya malamulo kunkatha kuchititsa ngozi zimene zinkapangitsa kuti maseŵera otchukaŵa akhale osangalatsa kwambiri kwa oonerera.

Mphoto Yake

“Iwo akuchita makani a liŵiro, athamangadi onse, koma mmodzi alandira mfupo,” anatero mtumwi Paulo. (1 Akorinto 9:24) Kupambana n’kumene kunali chinthu chofunika kwambiri. Sipankakhala mphoto yachiŵiri kapena yachitatu. “Kupambana, kapena kuti ‘Nike’ n’kumene kunali cholinga chachikulu cha wochita mpikisano,” anafotokoza choncho pa chionetseropo. “Kupambana n’kumene ankafuna, chifukwa ndi kupambana kokha kumene kunkasonyeza mmene iye alili, mphamvu zake ndi khalidwe lake, ndipo n’zimene anthu a m’tauni yakwawo ankanyadira.” Chiganizo china cha m’buku la Homer chinafotokoza mtima umenewu mwachidule, kuti: “Ndaphunzira kupambana nthaŵi zonse.”

Mphoto imene munthu wopambana ankapatsidwa pa maseŵera achigiriki inali nkhata ya masamba, imene inali yophiphiritsira. Paulo anaitcha “korona wakuvunda.” (1 Akorinto 9:25) Komabe, mphotoyo inkakhala ndi tanthauzo lalikulu. Inkaimira mphamvu ya m’chilengedwe imene inachititsa munthuyo kupambana mpikisanowo. Kupambana chifukwa choika mtima wake wonse pamaseŵerapo kumatanthauza kuti milungu yamuyanja munthu wopambanayo. Zina mwa zinthu zimene zinasonyezedwa pa chionetserocho zinasonyeza mmene anthu osema ziboliboli ndi ojambula zithunzi akale ankayerekezera Nike, mulungu wachigiriki wamkazi wa kupambana amene anali ndi mapiko, akupereka nkhata kwa munthu wopambanayo. Wochita maseŵera aliyense akapambana ku Olympia ndiye kuti wafika pachimake pa ntchito yake.

Nkhata za pa maseŵera a ku Olympia zinkapangidwa ndi masamba a azitona wakuthengo. Nkhata za pa maseŵera a ku kamtunda kopita ku chilumba cha Korinto zinkakhala masamba a mkungudza, za ku Delphi zinkakhala za mlombwa, ndipo za ku Nemea zinkakhala za udzu winawake. Kumadera ena, okonza maseŵera ankapereka mphoto za ndalama kapena mphoto zina kuti akope anthu apamwamba kwambiri  ochita maseŵera. Miphika ingapo imene inaonetsedwa pa chionetserocho inali mphoto zoperekedwa pa maseŵera amene anthu onse a ku Atene ankatha kuchita nawo ndipo ankachitikira ku Atene polemekeza mulungu wamkazi Athena. Miphika imeneyi poyambirira munkakhala mafuta amtengo wapatali ochokera ku chigawo cha Attica. Zokongoletsa za mbali imodzi ya mphika wina zikusonyeza mulunguyo ndipo analembapo kuti “mphoto yoperekedwa pa mipikisano ya Athena.” Mbali inayo anajambulapo maseŵera enaake, mwina amene wochita maseŵerayo anapambana.

Anthu a m’mizinda yachigiriki ankasangalala munthu wakwawoko akapambana, ndipo opambanawo ankasanduka ngwazi za mizinda yakwawoko nthaŵi yomweyo. Opambanawo akamabwerera kwawo anthu ankawachingamira akuguba posangalala ndi kupambanako. Ankasema ziboliboli za wopambanayo n’kuziimika monga nsembe zoyamikira milungu yawo, ulemu umene nthaŵi zambiri sankaupereka kwa munthu, ndipo olemba ndakatulo ankalakatula ndakatulo zowayamikira. Kuyambira pamenepo opambanawo ankapatsidwa malo apamwamba kwambiri pa zochitika zilizonse zaboma ndipo ankalandira ndalama kuchokera ku boma zoperekedwa ndi anthu m’dzikolo.

Nyumba Zochitiramo Maseŵera ndi Ochita Maseŵerawo

Kuchita nawo maseŵera kunkaonedwa kuti ndi chinthu chofunika kwambiri kwa munthu amene akumuphunzitsa kuti adzakhale msilikali. Mizinda yonse yachigiriki inali ndi nyumba zawo zochitiramo maseŵera, kumene ankaphunzitsirako anyamata kuchita maseŵera olimbitsa thupi komanso ankawaphunzitsa zinthu zofuna kuganiza ndi zauzimu. Nyumba zochitiramo maseŵerazi ankazimanga mozungulira malo opanda kanthu aakulu pamene ankachitirapo maseŵera olimbitsa thupi, ndipo kuzungulira malo ameneŵa pamakhala zipinda zimene ankazigwiritsa ntchito ngati malaibulale ndi makalasi. Ku malo oterowo kunkapita makamaka anyamata ochokera ku mabanja olemera amene ankakhala ndi nthaŵi yophunzira m’malo mogwira ntchito. Kumeneko ochita maseŵera ankathera nthaŵi yaitali akukonzekera maseŵera mothandizidwa ndi aphunzitsi awo, amenenso ankawauza zinthu zoti azidya ndi kuwaletsa kugona ndi akazi.

Chionetsero chimene chinachitika m’chinyumba chachikulu cha maseŵera chimenechi chinapatsa anthu mwayi woti aone ochita maseŵera akale, amene anasemedwa m’nthaŵi ya ulamuliro wa Aroma kuchokera ku ziboliboli zoyambirira zachigiriki. M’zikhulupiriro zachigiriki zakale kukhala ndi thupi labwino kwambiri kunkatanthauza kuti munthu ali ndi khalidwe labwino kwambiri ndipo ndi anthu olamulira okha amene ankakhala ndi khalidwe loterolo. Motero, matupi oumbidwa bwino a ochita maseŵera opambana ameneŵa ankaimira nzeru zimene anthu ankazitsatira. Aroma anazilemekeza zibolibolizo monga zinthu zokonzedwa mwaluso kwambiri zimene ankakongoletsera mabwalo amaseŵera, malo osambirako, nyumba zikuluzikulu, ndi nyumba zachifumu.

Aroma ankakonda kwambiri maseŵera achiwawa, choncho pa maseŵera onse achigiriki amene ankachitika ku Roma, maseŵera amene anatchuka kwambiri anali a nkhonya, ogwetserana pansi ndiponso ophatikiza nkhonya ndi kugwetserana pansi. Aroma ankaona maseŵera oterowo, osati monga mpikisano wochitika pakati pa anthu aŵiri ofanana mphamvu kuti aone kuti woposa mnzake ndi uti, koma monga zongosangalatsa chabe. Aroma sankachita maseŵera monga chinthu chimene ochita maseŵera aluso kwambiri ankachita ngati mbali yamaphunziro awo ausilikali, monga mmene zinalili poyamba. M’malo mwake, Aroma ankaona maseŵera achigiriki monga  maseŵera abwino olimbitsa thupi munthu asanasambe ku malo osambirako, kapena maseŵera oti anthu azionerera n’kumasangalala nawo ochitidwa ndi anthu aluso ochokera ku gulu lotsikirapo la anthu, monga momwenso inalili mipikisano yomenyana.

M’mene Akristu Ankaonera Maseŵeraŵa

Chifukwa chimodzi chimene chinachititsa Akristu oyambirira kupeŵa maseŵerawo chinali chakuti anali okhudzana ndi chipembedzo, chifukwa “chiphatikizo chake n’chanji ndi kachisi wa Mulungu ndi wa mafano?” (2 Akorinto 6:14, 16) Nanga bwanji maseŵera a masiku ano?

Mwachidziŵikire, maseŵera a masiku ano salemekeza milungu yachikunja. Komabe, kodi si zoona kuti anthu amakonda maseŵera ena ngati chipembedzo, mofanana ndi mmene zinthu zinkakhalira kalero? Kuwonjezera apo, monga momwe malipoti m’zaka zingapo zapitazi asonyezera, kuti apambane, ochita maseŵera ena alolera kumwa mankhwala opatsa mphamvu oletsedwa amene amaika thanzi ndiponso ngakhale moyo wawo pangozi.

Kwa Akristu, kupambana pa maseŵera sikwaphindu kwenikweni. Makhalidwe auzimu a “munthu wobisika wamtima” ndi amene amatichititsa kukhala wokongola pamaso pa Mulungu. (1 Petro 3:3, 4) Tikudziŵa kuti si onse amene amachita nawo maseŵera masiku ano amene ali ndi mtima wofuna kupambana zivute zitani, koma ambiri ali ndi mtima umenewu. Kodi kuyanjana ndi anthu oterowo kudzatithandiza kutsatira langizo la m’Malemba loti ‘tisachite kanthu monga mwa chotetana, kapena monga mwa ulemerero wopanda pake, koma ndi kudzichepetsa mtima?’ Kapena kodi mayanjano oterowo sadzachititsa “madano, ndewu, kaduka, zopsa mtima, zotetana, magaŵano”?​—Afilipi 2:3; Agalatiya 5:19-21.

Maseŵera ambiri a masiku ano amene anthu amatha kukhudzana, akhodza kuyambitsa chiwawa. Aliyense wokonda maseŵera oterowo ayenera kukumbukira mawu amene ali pa Salmo 11:5 akuti: “Yehova ayesa wolungama mtima: koma moyo wake umuda woipa ndi iye wakukonda chiwawa.”

Kuchita maseŵera olimbitsa thupi kungakhale kosangalatsa ngati kwaikidwa pa malo oyenera, ndipo mtumwi Paulo ananenapo kuti “chizoloŵezi cha thupi chipindula pang’ono.” (1 Timoteo 4:7-10) Koma pamene ankalankhula za maseŵera achigiriki, Paulo anawatchula pongofuna kuti achitire chitsanzo kufunika kwakuti Akristu akhale ndi makhalidwe monga kudziletsa ndi kupirira. Cholinga chimene Paulo ankayesetsa kuchikwaniritsa, koposa china chilichonse, chinali kudzalandira “korona” woperekedwa ndi Mulungu, moyo wosatha. (1 Akorinto 9:24-27; 1 Timoteo 6:12) Mwa kuchita zimenezi, anatipatsa chitsanzo choti titsatire.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 4 Nike ndi mawu achigiriki otanthauza kuti “kupambana.”

[Bokosi/​Zithunzi patsamba 31]

Katswiri wa Nkhonya Akupuma

Chiboliboli chachitsulo cha m’zaka za m’ma 300 B.C.E. chimenechi chimasonyeza mmene maseŵera a nkhonya akale analili oipa. Pa maseŵera ameneŵa, malinga ndi zimene buku lofotokoza za chionetsero cha ku Roma linanena, “kulimbikira kwa womenya nkhonya . . . amene ankamenya nkhonya zotopetsa, pamene pankakhala ‘bala kulipa bala,’ kunkaonedwa ngati chitsanzo chabwino kwambiri.” “Mabala a nkhonya imene yangotha kumene ankawonjezera pa zipsera za nkhonya za m’mbuyomo,” amatero mawu ofotokozera chithunzicho.

[Chithunzi patsamba 29]

Mipikisano yothamangitsa magareta ndi imene ankaiona kuti inali yapamwamba kwambiri pa mipikisano yakale

[Chithunzi patsamba 30]

Osema ziboliboli ndi ojambula zithunzi akale ankayerekezera Nike, mulungu wamkazi wa kupambana amene anali ndi mapiko, akupereka nkhata kwa munthu wopambanayo