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Pangano la Mtendere la ku Westphalia Linasintha Zinthu ku Ulaya

Pangano la Mtendere la ku Westphalia Linasintha Zinthu ku Ulaya

 Pangano la Mtendere la ku Westphalia Linasintha Zinthu ku Ulaya

“N’ZOSOŴA kwambiri kuti atsogoleri a mayiko ambiri a ku Ulaya kuno asonkhane pamodzi ngati mmene tachitira leromu.” Mawu ameneŵa ananena ndi Roman Herzog, amene anali pulezidenti wa dziko la Federal Republic of Germany, ndipo ananena mawu ameneŵa mu October 1998. Pamene ankanena mawuŵa, panali mafumu anayi, mfumukazi zinayi, akalonga aŵiri, mfumu yayikulu imodzi ndi mapulezidenti angapo. Msonkhano umenewu umene anachititsa ndi a bungwe la Council of Europe, unali wofunika kambiri m’mbiri ya zaka 50 ya dziko la Germany lamakono. Kodi unali msonkhano wanji?

Mu October 1998 Pangano la Mtendere la ku Westphalia linakwanitsa zaka 350 kuchokera pamene analisaina. Nthaŵi zambiri pa mapangano a mtendere ndi pamene amasankha mfundo zofunika kwambiri zimene zimakhudza mbiri, ndipo poganizira zimenezi tinganene kuti Pangano la Mtendere la ku Westphalia linali lapadera kwambiri. Kusainirana pangano limeneli mu 1648 kunachititsa kuti nkhondo ya zaka makumi atatu ithe, ndipo ndi pamene panayambira kuti ku Ulaya kukhale mayiko odzilamulira paokha.

Kayendetsedwe ka Zinthu Kakale Kanasokonezedwa

M’zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka m’ma 1500, Tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika ndi Ufumu Wopatulika wa Roma ndi amene anali ndi mphamvu kwambiri ku Ulaya. Ufumu umenewu unapangidwa ndi zigawo zambirimbiri zazikulu ndi zazing’ono ndipo zinaphatikizapo dera lomwe tsopano kuli mayiko a Austria, Czech Republic, kum’maŵa kwa France, Germany, Switzerland, dera lomwe tsopano kuli mayiko a Belgium, Luxembourg, ndi Netherlands ndiponso mbali zina za dziko la Italy. Ufumuwo unayamba kudziŵika kuti Ufumu Wopatulika wa Roma wa Dziko la Germany popeza kuti mbali yake yaikulu inali zigawo za dziko la Germany. Chigawo chilichonse chinkalamuliridwa ndi kalonga amene amayang’aniridwa ndi mfumu yaikulu. Mfumuyo inali Mkatolika wa m’banja la Habsburg la ku Austria. Choncho, pamene apapa ndiponso ufumuwo anali kulamulira, Ulaya anali kulamuliridwa ndi tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika.

Komabe, m’zaka za m’ma 1500 ndi m’ma 1600, kayendetsedwe ka zinthu kameneka kanasokonezedwa. Anthu ambiri a ku Ulaya sankasangalala ndi khalidwe lotayirira la Tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika. Anthu monga Martin Luther ndi John Calvin omwe ankafuna kuti zinthu zisinthe m’chipembedzo ankalankhulapo za kufunika koyambiranso kugwiritsa ntchito mfundo za Baibulo. Anthu ambiri anakhalira kumbuyo Luther ndi Calvin, ndipo zimenezi zinachititsa kusintha kwakukulu m’tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika ndiponso kuti pakhale zipembedzo zachipulotesitanti. Kusinthaku kunagaŵa ufumuwo m’zipembedzo zitatu, chipembedzo cha Katolika, cha Lutheran, ndi cha Calvinist.

Akatolika ankakayikira Apulotesitanti, ndipo Apulotesitanti sankalemekeza Akatolika. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti papangidwe mabungwe a Mgwirizano wa Apulotesitanti ndi Mgwirizano wa Akatolika kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m’ma 1600. Akalonga ena mu ufumuwo analoŵa Mgwirizano wa Apulotesitanti, pamene ena analoŵa wa Akatolika. Mu Ulaya, ndipo makamaka mu Ufumu Wopatulika wa Romawo, munali kukayikirana kwambiri moti kamkangano kang’onong’ono kakanatha kuyambitsa nkhondo. Ndiye mkangano wotero unabukadi, ndipo utatero unayambitsa nkhondo imene inatenga zaka 30.

 Mkangano Waung’ono Unabutsa Nkhondo Yoopsa ku Ulaya

Olamulira Achipulotesitanti anayesetsa kulimbikitsa banja la Habsburg lomwe linali lachikatolika kuti lipereke ufulu wochuluka wa kulambira. Koma banja lachifumuli linkachita monyinyirika zinthu zimene ankagwirizanazo, ndipo mu 1617 mpaka mu 1618, matchalitchi aŵiri a Lutheran ku Bohemia (ku Czech Republic) anatsekedwa mokakamiza. Zimenezi zinakhumudwitsa akuluakulu a Apulotesitanti, amene anakaloŵa m’nyumba yachifumu ku Prague, ndipo anagwira akuluakulu atatu a Akatolika n’kuwaponyera panja kudzera pawindo la nyumba yosanja. Zimenezi n’zimene zinayambitsa nkhondo yoopsa ku Ulaya.

Anthu amene anali m’zipembedzo zotsutsanazi anayamba kuchita nkhondo ngakhale kuti ankati amatsatira Kalonga Wamtendere, Yesu Kristu. (Yesaya 9:6) Pankhondo imene inachitika ku phiri la White, Mgwirizano wa Akatolika unakhaulitsa Mgwirizano wa Apulotesitanti ndipo anausokoneza kwambiri. Apulotesitanti otchuka anaphedwa pa msika ku Prague. M’dera lonse la Bohemia, katundu wa Apulotesitanti amene anakana kusiya chikhulupiriro chawo analandidwa ndipo Akatolika anagaŵana katunduyo. Buku lakuti 1648​—Krieg und Frieden in Europa (1648​—Nkhondo ndi Mtendere ku Ulaya) limafotokoza kulanda katundu kumeneku kuti “ndi kulanda zinthu kwakukulu kumene sikunachitikeponso m’chigawo chapakati ku Ulaya.”

Zimene zinayamba ngati mkangano wachipembedzo ku Bohemia zinakula n’kukhala mkangano wa mayiko wolimbirana ulamuliro. M’kati mwa zaka 30 zotsatira, mayiko a Denmark, France, Netherlands, Spain, ndi Sweden analoŵa nawo mu nkhondoyo. Nthaŵi zambiri chifukwa chadyera ndiponso kufuna ulamuliro, olamulira Achikatolika ndi Achipulotesitanti ankafuna kukhala amphamvu pa zandale ndiponso pa zamalonda. Nkhondo ya zaka makumi atatuyi yagaŵidwa m’zigawo, ndipo chigawo chilichonse anachipatsa dzina potengera dzina la gulu kapena magulu akuluakulu olimbana ndi mfumuyo. Mabuku osiyanasiyana amatchula zigawo zina zinayi izi: Nkhondo ya Bohemia ndi Palatine, Nkhondo ya Denmark ndi Lower Saxony, Nkhondo ya Sweden, ndi Nkhondo ya France ndi Sweden. Kumenyana kwakukulu kunkachitikira ku dera la Ufumu Wopatulika wa Roma.

Zida zimene ankagwiritsa ntchito nthaŵi imeneyo ndi monga mfuti za mthumba, mabazuka, ndi mizinga, ndipo dziko la Sweden ndi limene linkapanga ndi kugulitsa kwambiri zida za nkhondo. Akatolika ndi Apulotesitanti anali pankhondo yadzaoneni. Popita ku nkhondo asilikali ankakuwa kuti “Mariya Woyera” kapena “Mulungu ali nafe.” Pankhondoyi asilikali ankachita nkhanza podutsa zigawo za Germany, ndipo otsutsana nawo ndiponso anthu wamba ankawachitira zinthu ngati zinyama. Nkhondoyo inali yankhanza zosasimbika. Zinalitu zosiyana kwambiri ndi ulosi wa Baibulo wakuti: “[Mtundu] sudzasamulira mtundu unzake lupanga, kapena kuphunziranso nkhondo”!​—Mika 4:3.

Mbadwo wa anthu a dziko la Germany unakulira mu nkhondo, ndipo anthuwo omwe anatopa nayo nkhondoyo ankafunafuna mtendere. Mwachionekere mtendere ukanatha kupezeka zikanakhala kuti olamulira sankasiyana maganizo pa zandale. Pang’ono ndi pang’ono nkhondoyi inayamba kuonekera kwambiri kuti ndi ya ndale pamene kumenyana chifukwa chosiyana zipembedzo kunayamba kuchepa m’malo mwake n’kumamenyana pa zifukwa zina osati zachipembedzo. Chodabwitsa  n’chakuti, munthu wina amene ankalimbikitsa kusintha kumeneku anali munthu waudindo m’Tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika.

Kadinala Richelieu Anakula Mphamvu

Dzina laulemu la Armand-Jean du Plessis linali Kadinala de Richelieu. Analinso nduna yaikulu ya dziko la France kuyambira mu 1624 mpaka mu 1642. Richelieu anali ndi cholinga choti dziko la France likhale dziko lamphamvu kwambiri ku Ulaya. Kuti achite zimenezi, anayesetsa kuchepetsa mphamvu za Akatolika anzake, a banja lolamulira la Habsburg. Kodi anachita bwanji zimenezi? Ankathandiza ndi ndalama asilikali Achipulotesitanti a m’zigawo za Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, ndi Sweden , ndipo Apulotesitanti onsewo ankamenyana ndi banja lolamulira la Habsburg.

Mu 1635, Richelieu anatumiza ku nkhondo asilikali a ku France kwa nthaŵi yoyamba. Buku lakuti vivat pax​—Es lebe der Friede! (Mtendere Ukhalitse!) limafotokoza kuti pamene imafika chakumapeto, “nkhondo ya zaka makumi atatuyo siinakhalenso mkangano wa magulu achipembedzo. . . . Nkhondoyo inakhala yolimbirana ulamuliro pandale ku Ulaya.” Zimene zinayamba ngati mkangano wa chipembedzo pakati pa Akatolika ndi Apulotesitanti pomalizira pake Akatolika ndi Apulotesitanti anayamba kumenyera nkhondo limodzi kulimbana ndi Akatolika ena. Mgwirizano wa Akatolika, umene unali utachepa kale mphamvu kumayambiriro kwa m’ma 1630, unatha mu 1635.

Msonkhano Wokambirana za Mtendere Uchitika ku Westphalia

Ulaya anasakazidwa ndi kuwononga zinthu, kuphana, kugwiririra, ndi matenda. Pang’ono ndi pang’ono maganizo ofuna mtendere anayamba kukula anthu atazindikira kuti pankhondo imeneyi sipakanapezeka wopambana. Buku lakuti vivat pax​—Es lebe der Friede! linanena kuti, “pamapeto pake, chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1630, akalonga olamulira anazindikira kuti nkhondo siwathandizanso kukwaniritsa zolinga zawo.” Komano, ngati aliyense ankafuna mtendere, akanaupeza bwanji?

Mfumu Ferdinand III ya Ufumu Wopatulika wa Roma, Mfumu Louis XIII ya ku France, ndi Mfumukazi Christina ya ku Sweden anagwirizana zoti pachitike msonkhano pamene magulu onse amene ankachita nkhondoyo akanakumana ndi kukambirana mfundo za mtendere. Anasankha malo aŵiri oti kukachitikire zokambiranazo, m’tauni ya Osnabrück ndi Münster m’chigawo cha Germany cha Westphalia. Matauni ameneŵa anasankhidwa chifukwa anali pakati kuchokera ku malikulu a mayiko a Sweden ndi France. Kuyambira m’chaka cha 1643, magulu pafupifupi 150 a nthumwi za ku msonkhanowo, ena okhala ndi magulu akuluakulu a alangizi, anafika m’matauni aŵiri aja. Nthumwi za Akatolika zinasonkhana ku Münster, pamene nthumwi za Apulotesitanti zinasonkhana ku Osnabrück.

Poyamba, anakonza mmene zinthu zikanayendera pofuna kudziŵa maudindo a nthumwi, mmene nthumwizo zikanakhalira pamsonkhanowo, ndiponso kayendetsedwe ka zokambiranazo. Kenako zokambirana za mtenderezo zinayamba, pamene nthumwizo zinayamba kutulutsa malingaliro awo kudzera mwa amkhalapakati. Patapita zaka pafupifupi zisanu, nkhondoyo ikupitirirabe, anagwirizana mfundo zokhazikitsira mtendere. Pa Pangano la Mtendere la ku Westphalia panali zikalata zingapo. Chikalata chimodzi anachisaina pakati pa Mfumu Ferdinand III ndi dziko la Sweden, china anachisaina ku Münster pakati pa mfumuyi ndi dziko la France.

Pamene mbiri ya panganolo inafala, panayamba kuchitika mapwando. M’mizinda yosiyanasiyana munaphulitsidwa makombola. Mabelu a ku tchalitchi anamveka kulira, anaphulitsa mizinga pofuna kusonyeza kugwirizana ndi panganolo, ndipo anthu ankayimba m’misewu. Kodi tsopano Ulaya akanayembekezera mtendere wokhalitsa?

Kodi Zingatheke Kupeza Mtendere Wokhalitsa?

Pangano la Mtendere la ku Westphalia linavomereza mfundo za ufulu wodzilamulira. Zimenezi zinatanthauza kuti gulu lililonse la m’panganolo linavomereza kulemekeza ufulu wakuti gulu lina lililonse lingakhale ndi chigawo chake ndiponso osaloŵererana pa nkhani za m’zigawozo. Apa m’pamene panayambira Ulaya watsopano monga kontinenti yokhala ndi mayiko odzilamulira okha. Mwa mayiko amenewo, ena anapindula kwambiri ndi panganolo kuposa ena.

 Dziko la France analipatsa mphamvu zambiri, ndipo mayiko a Netherlands ndi Switzerland anakhala oima pawokha. M’zigawo za Germany, zimene zambiri zinali zitawonongeka ndi nkhondo, panganoli linali ndi zovuta zake. Kumbali ina tsogolo la dziko la Germany linali m’manja mwa mayiko ena. Buku lotchedwa The New Encyclopædia Britannica linati: “Kwa akalonga a ku Germany, kuti zinthu ziwayendere bwino kapena zisawayendere bwino zinadalira mayiko akuluakulu olamulira omwe anali France, Sweden, ndi Austria.” Mmalo moti agwirizane n’kupanga dziko limodzi, zigawo za dziko la Germany zinagaŵikana ngati mmene zinalili kale. Kuwonjezeranso apo, zigawo zina za Germany zinaperekedwa m’manja mwa olamulira akunja, monga mmene zinalili ndi zigawo za mitsinje ikuluikulu ya ku Germany yomwe ndi Rhine, Elbe, ndi Oder.

Zipembedzo za Chikatolika, Lutheran, ndi Calvinist, zonse zinakhala zovomerezeka. Si aliyense amene anasangalala ndi zimenezi. Papa Innocent X anatsutsa kwambiri pangano limenelo, n’kunena kuti ndi lopanda ntchito. Ngakhale zinali choncho, malire omwe zipembedzo anaziikira sanasinthe kwenikweni kwa zaka mazana atatu. Ngakhale kuti munthu aliyense payekha sanapatsidwe ufulu wachipembedzo, anatsala pang’ono kuti akhazikitse ufulu woterowo.

Panganolo linathetsa nkhondo ya zaka makumi atatu, ndipo chifukwa cha panganoli maudani ambiri anatha. Imeneyi inali nkhondo yaikulu yomaliza yachipembedzo ku Ulaya. Nkhondo sizinathe, kungoti zochititsa zake zinakhala zandale ndi zamalonda osatinso zachipembedzo. Zimenezi sizikutanthauza kuti chipembedzo sichinayambitsenso maudani ku Ulaya. Pa nkhondo za padziko lonse, yoyamba ndi yachiŵiri, asilikali a dziko la Germany ankavala malamba okhala ndi kachitsulo kolembedwa kuti: “Mulungu Ali Nafe.” Panthaŵi ya nkhondo zoopsa kwambiri zimenezo, Akatolika ndi Apulotesitanti anakhalanso mbali imodzi pomenyana ndi Akatolika ndi Apulotesitanti ena amene anali mbali ina.

Kunena zoona, Pangano la Mtendere la ku Westphalia silinabweretse mtendere wokhalitsa. Komabe, posachedwapa anthu omvera adzakhala ndi mtendere umenewo. Yehova Mulungu adzabweretsa mtendere wosatha kwa anthu kudzera mu Ufumu wa Umesiya wa Mwana Wake, Yesu Kristu. M’boma limenelo, chipembedzo chimodzi choona chidzalimbikitsa mgwirizano, osati magaŵano. Palibe amene adzapita ku nkhondo pa chifukwa chilichonse, kaya chachipembedzo kapena ayi. Padzakhalatu mpumulo zedi boma la Ufumu likamadzalamulira kotheratu dziko lapansi ndipo ‘mtendere sudzatha.’​—Yesaya 9:6, 7.

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 21]

Zimene zinayamba ngati mkangano wa Akatolika ndi Apulotesitanti pomalizira pake Akatolika ndi Apulotesitanti anayamba kulimbana ndi Akatolika ena

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 22]

Popita ku nkhondo asilikali ankakuwa kuti “Mariya Woyera” kapena “Mulungu ali nafe”

[Chithunzi patsamba 21]

Kadinala Richelieu

[Chithunzi patsamba 23]

Chithunzi chojambula pamanja cha m’ma 1500 chosonyeza kulimbana kwa Luther, Calvin, ndi papa

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 20]

From the book Spamers Illustrierte Weltgeschichte VI

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 23]

Religious leaders struggling: From the book Wider die Pfaffenherrschaft; map: The Complete Encyclopedia of Illustration/​J. G. Heck