Pitani ku nkhani yake

Pitani ku mitu ya nkhani

Martin Luther Moyo Wake ndi Zimene Anasiya

Martin Luther Moyo Wake ndi Zimene Anasiya

 Martin Luther Moyo Wake ndi Zimene Anasiya

“AKUTI pali mabuku ambiri onena za [Martin Luther] kuposa onena za wina aliyense m’mbiri, kupatulapo mbuye wake, Yesu Kristu,” inatero magazini ya Time. Zonena ndi zochita za Luther zinathandiza kuyambitsa kusintha kwakukulu kwa zinthu m’tchalitchi cha Katolika, ndipo anthu amati kunali “kusintha kwa zinthu kwakukulu kwambiri m’mbiri ya anthu.” Motero, iye anathandiza kuti anthu a ku Ulaya asinthe kapembedzedwe komanso anathandiza kusinthiratu chikhalidwe cha ku Ulayako m’nthaŵi imeneyo. Luther anayalanso maziko a kalembedwe kamodzi ka chinenero cha Chijeremani. Mosakayikira, Baibulo lomwe iye anamasulira lidakali lotchuka kwambiri pa mabaibulo a Chijeremani.

Kodi Martin Luther anali munthu wotani? Kodi anatani kuti akhale wofunika kwambiri pa zochitika za ku Ulaya?

Luther Akhala Katswiri wa Maphunziro

Martin Luther anabadwira ku Eisleben, m’dziko la Germany, mu November 1483. Ngakhale kuti bambo wake ankagwira ntchito ya m’migodi ya kopa, iwo anayesetsa kupeza ndalama zophunzitsira Martin mokwanira. Mu 1501, Martin anayamba kuphunzira pa yunivesite ya Erfurt. M’chipinda choŵerengera mabuku cha pasukuluyi, iye anaŵerengamo Baibulo kwa nthaŵi yoyamba. Iye anati: “Ndinasangalala nalo koopsa bukulo, ndipo ndinkati tsiku lina ndidzadala n’kadzakhala ndi buku longa limenelo.”

Ali ndi zaka 22, Luther anakayamba kukhala kunyumba ya amonke a Augustine ku Erfurt. Kenako anakaphunzira pa yunivesite ya Wittenberg, n’kupeza digiri ya ukadaulo pa maphunziro a zaumulungu. Luther ankadziona kuti ngosayenera kuyanjidwa ndi Mulungu ndipo nthaŵi zina ankasokonezeka mutu povutika ndi chikumbumtima. Koma kuphunzira Baibulo, kupemphera, ndi kusinkhasinkha zinam’thandiza kumvetsa mmene Mulungu amaonera anthu ochimwa. Luther anazindikira kuti anthu sangagule chiyanjo cha Mulungu, koma kuti mwachisomo chake Iye amayanja anthu achikhulupiriro.​—Aroma 1:16; 3:23, 24, 28.

Kodi Luther anatsimikizira bwanji kuti malingaliro ake atsopanoŵa anali olondola? Kurt Aland, katswiri wa mbiri ya tchalitchi choyambirira ndiponso wa zofufuzafufuza za mabuku a Chipangano Chatsopano, analemba kuti: “Anasinkhasinkha zinthu za m’Baibulo lonse kuti aone ngati zimene anali atangodziŵazo zinali zogwirizana ndi mfundo zina zopezeka m’Baibulo, ndipo anapeza kuti paliponse panali umboni wogwirizana nazo.” Mfundo ya kupulumuka mwa chikhulupiriro, osati ndi ntchito, kapena kudzilanga, inapitiriza kukhala mfundo yaikulu ya ziphunzitso za Luther.

 Ankadana ndi Kukhululukira Machimo kwa Ansembe

Luther anakangana ndi Tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika chifukwa cha maganizo ake a mmene Mulungu amaonera anthu ochimwa. Anthu ambiri panthaŵiyo ankakhulupirira kuti pambuyo pa imfa, anthu ochimwa ankakalangidwa kwa kanthaŵi ndithu. Koma ankati nthaŵi yachilangoyo ingafupikitsidwe mwa kukhululukidwa machimo ndi wansembe, mwa mphamvu za papa ngati munthuyo wapereka ndalama. Anthu ochititsa mwambowu, monga Johann Tetzel, yemwe ankaimira bishopu Albert amene anali mkulu wa mabishopu ku Mainz, anapeza bizinesi yotentha yokhululukira anthu wamba machimo powalipiritsa. Ambiri ankaona ngati kuti mwambowu ngowateteza ku machimo awo a m’tsogolo.

Luther ankadana ndi mwambo wolipiritsa kuti munthu am’khululukire machimo. Ankadziŵa kuti anthu sangachite malonda ndi Mulungu. Cham’katikati mwa chilimwe mu 1517, iye analemba mfundo zake 95 zotchuka, zodzudzula tchalitchichi chifukwa chosagwiritsa bwino ntchito ndalama, kupotoza ziphunzitso, ndi kusokoneza chipembedzo. Pofuna kulimbikitsa kusintha zinthu, osati kugalukira, Luther anatumiza mfundozo kwa bishopu Albert amene anali mkulu wa mabishopu ku Mainz, ndi kwa akatswiri angapo a zamaphunziro. Akatswiri ambiri a zamakedzana amatchula chaka cha 1517 kapena chapompo kukhala chiyambi cha kusintha kwakukulu kwa zinthu m’tchalitchi cha Katolika.

Sikuti ndi Luther yekha amene anadandaula ndi zolakwa za tchalitchichi. Zaka 100 m’mbuyo mwake, Jan Hus wa ku Czechoslovakia, yemwe anathandiza kusintha chipembedzo, anali atadzudzulapo malonda okhululukira machimo. Ngakhalenso m’mbuyo mwa Hus, John Wycliffe wa ku England anali atafotokozapo kuti miyambo ina ya tchalitchi cha Katolika sinali ya m’Malemba. Erasmus wa ku Rotterdam ndi Tyndale wa ku England a m’nthaŵi ya Luther ankafunanso kuti zinthu zisinthe m’tchalitchichi. Koma chifukwa cha makina osindikizira omwe Johannes Gutenberg anapanga ku Germany, uthenga wa Luther unali ndi mphamvu komanso unafika patali kusiyana ndi mawu a anzake omwe ankafunanso kuti zinthu zisinthe.

Mu 1455 n’kuti makina a Gutenberg ku Mainz akugwira ntchito. Pofika m’ma 1500, makinaŵa anali m’matauni 60 a ku Germany ndi m’mayiko ena 12 a ku Ulaya. Kwa nthaŵi yoyamba m’mbiri, anthu ankatha kudziŵitsidwa mwamsanga nkhani zomwe zikuwakhudza. N’kutheka kuti mfundo 95 za Luther anazisindikiza n’kumazigaŵa kwa anthu, popanda chilolezo cha mwiniwakeyo. Nkhani yoti tchalitchi chifunika kusintha sinalinso ya m’dera lakwawo lokha ayi. Inakhala mkangano wofala kwambiri ndipo mwadzidzidzi Martin Luther anakhala munthu wotchuka kwambiri m’dziko la Germany.

“Dzuŵa ndi Mwezi” Zichitapo Kanthu

Kwa zaka mazana ambiri, Ulaya anali m’manja mwa magulu aŵiri amphamvu kwambiri. Maguluŵa anali Ufumu Wopatulika wa Aroma ndi Tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika. “Mfumu ndi papa anali amodzi ngati dzuŵa ndi mwezi,” anatero Hanns Lilje, pulezidenti wakale wa bungwe lapadziko lonse la matchalitchi a Lutheran. Komabe kunali kovuta kwambiri kutsimikizira kuti ndani anali dzuŵa, nanga ndani anali mwezi. Pofika kumayambiriro kwa m’ma 1500, n’kuti magulu aŵiriŵa atayamba kuchepa mphamvu. Zinthu zinali zitangotsala pang’onong’ono kuti zisinthe.

Pankhani ya mfundo 95 zija, Papa Leo Wachikhumi anachitapo kanthu mwa kuopseza Luther kuti am’chotsa mu mpingo ngati sazisintha. Luther anakanitsitsa, n’kutentha pagulu kalata ya papayo yomwe munali zomuwopsezazo ndipo analemba mfundo zinanso zolimbikitsa zigawo zomwe zinali  m’manja mwa akalonga kuti zisinthe kayendetsedwe ka tchalitchi ngakhale popanda chilolezo cha papa. Mu 1521, Papa Leo Wachikhumi anamuchotsa Luther mu mpingo. Luther atakana zimenezi n’kunena kuti wapatsidwa chilango mopanda chilungamo, Mfumu Charles Yachisanu inamulamula kuti akaonekere kwa akalonga a mfumu ku Worms. Ulendo wa masiku 15 wa Luther wochoka ku Wittenberg kupita ku Worms mu April 1521 unali ngati ligubo la anthu okondwerera kupambana kwawo. Anthu anali pambuyo pake, ndipo anthu kulikonseko ankafuna kumuona.

Ku Worms, Luther anakaima pamaso pa mfumu, akalonga, ndi nthumwi yaikulu ya papa. Izi n’zomwe zinachitikiranso Jan Hus ku Constance mu 1415 ndipo anam’tentha pamtengo. Apa, maso a akuluakulu a tchalitchi ndi a ufumu ali pa Luther, iye anakana kusintha maganizo ndipo anati angatero pokhapokha om’tsutsawo atam’tsimikizira kuchokera m’Baibulo kuti walakwa. Koma panalibe amene anafanana naye pankhani yokumbukira Malemba. Chikalata chotchedwa Edict of Worms chinafotokoza zotsatira za msonkhanowu. Chinalengeza kuti Luther ndi munthu woswa malamulo ndipo chinaletsa mabuku ake. Poti anali atachotsedwa mu mpingo ndi papa ndipo mfumu inali italengeza kuti iye ndi woswa malamulo, moyo wake unali pangozi tsopano.

Kenako zinthu zinasintha mwadzidzidzi komanso mochititsa chidwi kwambiri. Pobwerera ku Wittenberg, anthu anaba Luther mwachiphamaso. Izi anakonza ndi mkulu wina wamtima wabwino kwambiri wa ku Saxony, dzina lake Frederick. Zimenezi zinapangitsa kuti Luther asapezedwe ndi adani ake. Anazemba naye n’kukamubisa m’nyumba ina yapayokha ya Wartburg, komwe anasunga ndevu n’kumadziŵika monga munthu wina, wa dzina la anthu apamwamba loti Junker Jörg.

Baibulo la September Lifunika Kwambiri

Miyezi khumi yotsatira, Luther ankakhala ku Wartburg, kubisalira mfumu ndi papa. Buku lakuti Welterbe Wartburg limati, “nthaŵi yomwe iye anali ku Wartburg ndi ina mwa nthaŵi zothandiza ndi zopindulitsa kwambiri m’moyo wake.” Kumeneko n’komwe anamalizira imodzi mwa ntchito zake zikuluzikulu, ntchito yomasulira m’Chijeremani buku la Malemba Achigiriki la Erasmus. Bukulo, lomwe analisindikiza mu September 1522 popanda kusonyeza kuti Luther ndi amene analimasulira, linkadziŵika ndi dzina loti Baibulo la September. Ankaligulitsa giluda imodzi ndi theka​—mtengo wofanana ndi malipiro apachaka a munthu wogwira ntchito zapakhomo. Ngakhale kuti zinali choncho, anthu ambiri ankalifuna Baibuloli. M’miyezi 12 yokha, analisindikiza maulendo aŵiri mabuku 6,000, ndipo m’zaka 12 zotsatira analisindikiza maulendo 69.

Mu 1525, Martin Luther anakwatira Katharina von Bora, yemwe poyamba anali sisitere. Katharina anali wodziŵa kugwira ntchito zapakhomo ndipo ankayenerana ndi kuwoloŵa manja kwa mwamuna wake. Kuphatikiza pa mkazi ndi ana ake asanu ndi mmodzi, m’banja mwa Luther munalinso anzake, akatswiri a maphunziro, ndi anthu othaŵa kwawo. Chakumapeto kwa moyo wake Luther anagwirapo ntchito yapamwamba ya mlangizi moti akatswiri a maphunziro okacheza kunyumba kwake ankakhala ndi cholembera ndi pepala n’kumalemba mfundo zimene anali kunena. Zomwe ankalembazo anaziphatikiza n’kupanga buku lakuti Luthers Tischreden (Macheza a Patebulo a Luther). Panthaŵi ina, bukuli linali lofala kwambiri pa mabuku a Chijeremani ndipo linali lachiŵiri kwa Baibulo.

 Anali Womasulira Waluso Ndipo Analemba Zinthu Zambiri

Pofika mu 1534, Luther anali atamaliza kumasulira Malemba Achihebri. Anayesetsa kuwalemba bwino ndiponso kupeza mawu abwino ogwiritsa ntchito. Izi zinapangitsa kuti likhale Baibulo lomwe anthu wamba ankatha kulimva. Pothirira ndemanga pa kamasuliridwe kake, Luther analemba kuti: “Tizilankhula ndi mayi panyumba pake, ana mumsewu ndi anthu wamba pamsika, n’kutchera khutu mmene akulankhulira ndiyeno n’kumasulira mogwirizana ndi zimenezo.” Baibulo la Luther linathandiza kuyala maziko a kalembedwe kamodzi ka chinenero komwe kanadzavomerezedwa m’dziko lonse la Germany.

Luso la Luther pomasulira nkhani linangopezana ndi ukatswiri wake pa zolembalemba. Akuti moyo wake wonse atayamba kugwira ntchito iye ankalemba ndemanga milungu iŵiri iliyonse. Zina mwa ndemangazi zinkautsa mikangano monga momwenso analili mwiniwakeyo. Zinthu zimene Luther analemba koyambirira zinali zosanyengerera munthu, ndipo zimene anadzalemba paukalamba wake sizinasinthe, komanso zinali zoposa zoyambirirazo. Malinga ndi buku lina la zachipembedzo lakuti Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, zolemba za Luther zimasonyeza “kukula kwa ukali wake” ndiponso “kusadzichepetsa ndi kupanda kwake chikondi,” komanso kuti anali “nkhakamira.”

Anthu wamba atayambitsa nkhondo yolimbana ndi olamulira ndipo miyoyo ikupululuka m’zigawo za akalonga, Luther anapemphedwa kufotokozapo maganizo ake pa zochitikazi. Kodi anthu wambawo anali ndi zifukwa zomveka zolimbanirana ndi owalamulira? Luther sanafune kukopa anthu mwa kupereka yankho lokomera ambiri. Ankakhulupirira kuti atumiki a Mulungu ayenera kumvera owalamulira. (Aroma 13:1) Mosapita m’mbali, Luther anati m’pofunika kuthetsa kuukirako mopanda kunyengerera munthu. Iye anati: “Aliyense amene angathe kubaya, abaye. Amene angathe kumenya, amenye. Ndipo amene angathe kupha, aphe.” Hanns Lilje anati yankho limeneli linathetsa “kutchuka kwake konse.” Komanso, nkhani zina zomwe Luther anadzalemba pambuyo pake zokhudza Ayuda okana kutembenuka kukhala Akristu, makamaka nkhani yakuti On the Jews and Their Lies, zapangitsa ambiri kuona kuti mlembi wakeyo ankadana ndi Ayuda.

Zomwe Luther Anasiya

Kusintha kwa zinthu m’tchalitchi cha Katolika, komwe analimbikitsa ndi anthu monga Luther, Calvin, ndi Zwingli, kunabala chipembedzo chotchedwa Chipulotesitanti. Chiphunzitso chake chachikulu chakuti anthu angapulumuke mwa chikhulupiriro basi, ndiye chinthu chachikulu chomwe Luther anasiyira Apulotesitanti. Chigawo chilichonse chomwe chinali m’manja mwa kalonga ku Germany chinakhala ku Chipulotesitanti kapena ku Chikatolika. Chipulotesitanti chinafalikira n’kuyamba kutchuka ku Scandinavia, Switzerland, England, ndi ku Netherlands. Lero chili ndi anthu mamiliyoni mazanamazana.

Ambiri amene sakhulupirira nawo zonse zomwe Luther ankakhulupirira amamulemekezabe kwambiri. Boma lakale la demokalase ku Germany, lomwe ena mwa madera ake  anali Eisleben, Erfurt, Wittenberg, ndi Wartburg, mu 1983 linachita mwambo wokondwerera kuti patha zaka 500 kuchokera pamene Luther anabadwa. Bomali linaona kuti iye ndi munthu wofunika kwambiri m’mbiri ndiponso chikhalidwe cha ku Germany. Komanso, Mkatolika wina wamaphunziro apamwamba a zaumulungu m’ma 1980, anafotokoza mwachidule mmene zochita za Luther zinakhudzira anthu, n’kunena kuti: “Palibenso wobadwa m’mbuyo mwa Luther amene anafanana naye.” Pulofesa Aland analemba kuti: “Chaka ndi chaka pamatuluka mabuku oposa 500 ofotokoza za Martin Luther ndi kusintha kwakukulu kwa zinthu m’tchalitchi cha Katolika, ndipo mabukuŵa amatuluka pafupifupi m’zinenero zonse zikuluzikulu za padziko lonse.”

Martin Luther anali wanzeru kwambiri, anali katswiri pokumbukira zinthu, anali katswiri pa mawu, ndipo anali wakhama pantchito. Komanso anali wosaugwira mtima ndi wosapsatira mawu polankhula, ndipo anadzipereka kwambiri potsutsana ndi zimene iye anaona kuti ndi chinyengo. Luther ali gone pabedi pomwe anamwalirira ku Eisleben mu February 1546, anzake anam’funsa ngati sanasinthe m’pang’ono pomwe zinthu zomwe ankazikhulupirira ndi kuphunzitsa ena. Anayankha kuti: “Inde, sindinasinthe.” Luther anamwalira, koma ambiri ali nganganga pa zimene iye ankakhulupirirazo.

[Chithunzi patsamba 27]

Luther anatsutsa malonda ogulitsa mwambo wokhululukira machimo

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Mit freundlicher Genehmigung: Wartburg-Stiftung

[Chithunzi patsamba 28]

Luther anakana kusintha maganizo ndipo anati angatero pokhapokha om’tsutsawo atam’tsimikizira kuchokera m’Baibulo kuti walakwa

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

From the book The Story of Liberty, 1878

[Zithunzi patsamba 29]

Chipinda cha Luther ku Wartburg Castle momwe anamasuliriramo Baibulo

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Both images: Mit freundlicher Genehmigung: Wartburg-Stiftung

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 26]

From the book Martin Luther The Reformer, 3rd Edition, published by Toronto Willard Tract Depository, Toronto, Ontario

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 30]

From the book The History of Protestantism (Vol. I)