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Ugariti Mzinda Wakale Kumene Kunali Kuchimake Kolambira Baala

Ugariti Mzinda Wakale Kumene Kunali Kuchimake Kolambira Baala

 Ugariti Mzinda Wakale Kumene Kunali Kuchimake Kolambira Baala

M’CHAKA cha 1928, mlimi wina wa ku Syria anatema ndi khasu lake mwala umene unatsekera manda omwe m’kati mwake munali zoumbaumba zakale. Sanadziŵe kuti zimene anatulukirazo zinali zofunika kwambiri. Litamva za kutulukira kosayembekezeka kumeneku, gulu la akatswiri ofukula za m’mabwinja la ku France limene Claude Schaeffer analitsogolera, linapita ku malowo m’chaka chotsatira.

Patangopita nthaŵi yochepa, anafukula zolemba zimene zinathandiza gululo kudziŵa dzina la bwinja limene anali kulifukulalo. Bwinjalo linali mzinda wa Ugariti, “umodzi mwa mizinda yakale yofunika kwambiri ya ku Near  East.” Wolemba wina, Barry Hoberman, mpaka ananena kuti: “Palibe chilichonse chimene tapeza pofukula, ngakhale Mipukutu ya ku Nyanja Yakufa, chimene chatithandiza kwambiri kulimvetsa Baibulo ngati zolemba zimenezi.”​—Inatero magazini yotchedwa The Atlantic Monthly.

Unali Pamphambano

Mzinda wa Ugariti unali pa chimtumbira chotchedwa Ras Shamra, m’mbali mwa nyanja ya Mediterranean, kumene pakalipano ndi kumpoto kwa dziko la Syria. Unali mzinda wotukuka kumene kunali kufika anthu a m’madera osiyanasiyana ndipo unaliko zaka zoposa 3,000 zapitazo. Gawo lake linali la makilomita 60 kuchokera ku phiri la Casius kumpoto kukafika ku Tell Sukas kumwera, ndiponso makilomita oyambira 30 kufika 50 kuchokera ku nyanja ya Mediterranean kumadzulo kukafika ku chigwa cha Orontes kummawa.

Nyengo yabwino ya ku Ugariti inachititsa kuti kukhale ziweto zambiri. Chigawochi chinkatulutsanso zokolola, mafuta a azitona, vinyo, ndi matabwa, omwe anali osowa kwambiri ku Mesopotamiya ndi ku Igupto. Ndiponso, popeza mzindawu unali pamphambano ya njira zamalonda zochita bwino kwambiri, unali limodzi mwa madoko aakulu amene anali oyamba kukhala madoko amene anthu a m’madera osiyanasiyana anali kukumanirako. Ku Ugariti, anthu amalonda ochokera ku Ejani, Anatoliya, Babulo, Igupto ndi madera ena a ku Middle East anali kugulitsana zitsulo, zinthu zakumunda, ndi zinthu zambiri zimene anali kuzipanga m’derali.

Ngakhale kuti mzinda wa Ugariti unali wolemera, nthaŵi zonse unali ufumu womwe unali m’manja mwa ufumu wina. Mzindawu unali malo amalonda a kumpoto kwenikweni kwa ufumu wa Igupto mpaka pamene unakhala m’manja mwa ufumu wa Ahiti m’zaka za m’ma 1300 B.C.E. Ufumu wa Ugariti unkayenera kupereka mtulo ndi kutumiza asilikali kwa mfumu imene inali kuuyang’anira. Pamene “Anthu Akunyanja” * amene anali kulanda malo anayamba kusakaza mzinda wa Anatoliya (chigawo chapakati ku Turkey) ndi kumpoto kwa Syria, Ahiti anaitanitsa asilikali ndi zombo za ku Ugariti. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, mzinda wa Ugariti unalibe chitetezo ndipo anauwonongeratu cha m’ma 1200 B.C.E.

Kubwezeretsa Zakale

Mzinda wa Ugariti utawonongedwa panatsala mtumbira waukulu wokwera mamita pafupifupi 20 ndipo unatenga malo oposa mahekitala 25. Mbali yochepa chabe ya malowa, gawo limodzi mwa magawo asanu ndi limodzi, ndi imene aifukula. Pabwinjalo, akatswiri ofukula za m’mabwinja apeza zotsalira za nyumba ya mfumu yaikulu kwambiri imene inali ndi zipinda pafupifupi 100 ndi mabwalo ndipo inatenga malo okwana masikweya mita pafupifupi 10,000. Nyumbayi inali ndi mapaipi a madzi, zimbudzi, ndi mapaipi otayira zonyansa. Zinthu monga matebulo, mipando ndi zina zotero anali kuzikongoletsa ndi golide, miyala ina ya mtengo wapatali, ndi minyanga ya njovu. Ofukulawo apeza zidutswa za minyanga ya njovu yosemedwa mwaluso kwambiri. Munalinso munda umene unali ndi linga ndi kadamu ndipo zimenezi zinakongoletsa nyumba yachifumuyo.

Mumzindamo ndiponso m’chigwa chimene chinali m’mbali mwa mzindawu munadzala akachisi a Baala ndi Dagani. * Akachisi ameneŵa amene  ayenera kuti anali otalika mamita 20, anali ndi balaza yaing’ono imene patsogolo pake panali chipinda chimene munali fano la mulunguyo. Panali masitepe opita ku bwalo limene mfumu inali kutsogolera zochitika zosiyanasiyana. Usiku kapena kukakhala namondwe, ankayatsa moto pamwamba pa akachisiwo kulondolera zombo kuti zifike bwino padoko. Oyendetsa zombo omwe ankati akafika bwino kumtunda amati mulungu wa namondwe, Baala-Hadadi wawathandiza, ndi amene mosakayika anapereka nsembe zoyamikira za anangula a miyala okwana 17 amene apezeka m’kachisi wa mulungu ameneyu.

Anapeza Zolemba Zofunika

Mapale ambirimbiri awafukula pa mabwinja a ku Ugariti. Ofukulawo apeza zolemba zokhudza nkhani zachuma, zamalamulo, za mgwirizano wa mayiko, ndiponso zokhudza kayendetsedwe ka boma zimene anazilemba m’nkhani zisanu, m’zinenero zisanu ndi zitatu. Gulu la Schaeffer linapeza zolemba zina m’chinenero chimene sichinali kudziŵika mpaka kudzafika panthaŵiyi, chomwe anangochitcha Chiugariti. Chinenerochi chimagwiritsa ntchito zizindikiro zokwana 30, ndipo alifabeti yake ndi imodzi mwa maalifabeti akale kwambiri amene apezeka.

Kuwonjezera pa kufotokoza nkhani wamba, zolemba za Chiugariti zili ndi nthano zimene zathandiza kumvetsa miyambo ndi zikhulupiriro za chipembedzo za nthaŵi imeneyo. Chipembedzo cha ku Ugariti chikuoneka kuti chinali chofanana kwambiri ndi cha ku Kanani, dziko limene anachita nalo malire. Malinga ndi zimene Roland de Vaux ananena, zolemba zimenezi “zikusonyeza bwino kwambiri mmene anthu anali kukhalira ku Kanani Aisrayeli atangotsala pang’ono kulanda dzikolo.”

Kapembedzedwe ka Mumzinda wa Baala

Zolemba za ku Ras Shamra zimatchula milungu yaimuna ndi yaikazi yoposa 200. Mulungu wamkulu anali El, amene anali kutchedwa atate wa milungu ndi wa anthu. Ndipo mulungu wa namondwe, Baala-Hadadi anali “woyendetsa mitambo” ndiponso “mbuye wa dziko lapansi.” El anamusonyeza monga munthu wanzeru, wa ndevu zoyera, wosiyana kwambiri ndi anthu. Koma Baala anali mulungu wamphamvu, wofuna kutenga ulamuliro amene ankafuna kulamulira milungu ndi anthu.

Malemba amene awapezawo ayenera kuti anthu anali kuwalankhula pamtima pa zikondwerero zachipembezo, monga pokondwerera chaka chatsopano kapena kukondwerera zokolola. Komabe, tanthauzo lenileni la malembawo silikudziŵika bwinobwino. M’ndakatulo ina imene ikusimba zokanganira ulamuliro, Baala anagonjetsa mwana wa El amene anali kumukonda kwambiri, dzina lake Yamu, yemwe anali mulungu wa panyanja. Kupambana kumeneku kuyenera kuti kunawachititsa oyendetsa zombo a ku Ugariti kulimba mtima kuti Baala adzawateteza panyanja. Pankhondo imene anamenyana ndi Moti, Baala anagonjetsedwa ndipo anapita kudziko la akufa. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, kunabwera chilala, ndipo ntchito za anthu zinaima. Mkazi wa Baala yemwenso anali mlongo wake, dzina lake, Anati, mulungu wa chikondi ndi nkhondo, anapha Moti ndi kuukitsa Baala. Baala kenako anapha ana a mkazi wa El, Athirati (Asera), ndipo  anatenga mpando wachifumu. Koma Moti anauka patapita zaka zisanu ndi ziŵiri.

Ena amati ndakatulo imeneyi ikuimira nyengo zosiyanasiyana pachaka pamene mvula, yomwe imameretsa zinthu, imaloŵedwa m’malo ndi kutentha kwa m’chilimwe ndiyeno imabweranso m’dzinja. Ena akuganiza kuti nyengo ya zaka zisanu ndi ziŵiri imene inali kubwerezabwereza ikusonyeza kuopa njala ndi chilala. Mulimonse mmene zinalili, kupambana kwa Baala ankakuona kuti kunali kofunika kwambiri kuti anthu ziwayendere bwino. Katswiri wina, Peter Craigie, anati: “Cholinga chopembedza Baala chinali choti iye akhalabe wolamulira. Anthu amene anali kumulambirawo anali kukhulupirira kuti mbewu ndi ng’ombe zimene zinali zofunika kwambiri pa moyo wa anthu zingakhalepobe ngati Baala akhala wolamulira.”

Kutetezedwa ku Chikunja

Zolemba zimene azipezazo zikusonyeza bwino kuti chipembedzo cha ku Ugariti chinali choipa kwambiri. Buku lakuti The Illustrated Bible Dictionary linati: “Zolembazo zikusonyeza zinthu zoipa zimene zinali kuchitika chifukwa cholambira milungu imeneyi. Milunguyi inali kulimbikitsa kwambiri nkhondo, uhule wochita chifukwa cholambira, chikondi chongofuna kugonana, ndi kuipa kwa kakhalidwe ka anthu chifukwa cha zimenezi.” De Vaux anati: “Munthu akaŵerenga ndakatulo zimenezi, amatha kumvetsa kuipidwa kumene okhulupirira Yahweh enieni ndi aneneri otchuka anali nako pa kulambira kumeneku.” Chilamulo chimene Mulungu anapereka ku mtundu wakale wa Israyeli chinawateteza ku chipembedzo chonyenga chimenecho.

Kukhulupirira milungu, nyenyezi, ndi matsenga kunali paliponse ku Ugariti. Anthu ankakonda kuombeza pogwiritsa ntchito zinthu zakumwamba komanso miluza ndi ziwalo zazikulu za mkati mwa nyama imene aipha. Wolemba mbiri wina, Jacqueline Gachet anati: “Anthu anali kukhulupirira kuti mulungu amene am’patsa nsembe ya nyama ankaloŵa mwa nyamayo ndipo mzimu wa mulunguyo unali kuloŵana ndi mzimu wa nyamayo. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, mwa kuŵerenga zizindikiro zimene zinali kuonekera pa ziwalo zimenezi, ankatha kudziŵa zimene mzimu wa mulunguyo unali kufuna umene unkatha kupereka yankho labwino kapena loipa pa funso lokhudza za m’tsogolo kapena zoti achite pankhani inayake.” (Le pays d’Ougarit autour de 1200 av.J.C.) Mosiyana ndi zimenezi, Aisrayeli anayenera kupeŵa kutero.​—Deuteronomo 18:9-14.

Chilamulo cha Mose chinaletsa mosapita m’mbali kugonana ndi nyama. (Levitiko 18:23) Kodi khalidwe limeneli anali kuliona bwanji ku Ugariti? M’malemba amene awapeza, Baala anali kugonana ndi mwana wa ng’ombe. Katswiri wina wofukula za m’mabwinja, Cyrus Gordon, anati: “Ngati anthu anganene kuti Baala ankasintha n’kukhala ng’ombe yamphongo kuti achite zimenezi, sanganene kuti ansembe ake, omwe ankachita zomwe ankakhulupirira kuti mulungu wawoyo anali kuchita, ankasinthanso.”

Aisrayeli anawalamula kuti: “Musamadzicheka matupi anu chifukwa cha akufa.” (Levitiko 19:28) Koma atafa Baala, El “anacheka khungu lake ndi mpeni, kudzitema ndi leza ndiponso anatema masaya ndi chibwano chake.” Mwachionekere, olambira Baala ankachitanso mwambo womadzitematema.​—1 Mafumu 18:28.

 Ndakatulo ina ya ku Ugariti ikusonyeza kuti kuphika mwana wambuzi woyamwa inali mbali ya mwambo wawo wolambira mphamvu zobereka umene anthu ankachita m’chipembedzo cha ku Kanani. Koma m’Chilamulo cha Mose, Aisrayeli anawalamula kuti: “Usaphike mwana wa mbuzi mu mkaka wa make.”​—Eksodo 23:19.

Kuyerekezera ndi Mawu a Baibulo

Malemba a Chiugariti poyambirira anawamasulira mothandizidwa ndi Chihebri cha m’Baibulo. Peter Craigie anati: “Pali mawu ena amene awagwiritsa ntchito m’Malemba Achihebri omwe matanthauzo ake sakudziŵika bwinobwino, ndipo nthaŵi zina sadziŵika n’komwe. Amene anamasulira malembawa zaka za m’ma 1900 zisanafike anangoganiza zimene mawuwo ayenera kuti akutanthauza, pogwiritsa ntchito njira zosiyanasiyana. Koma mawu omwewo akapezeka m’malemba a Chiugariti, n’zotheka kumvetsa tanthauzo lake.”

Mwachitsanzo, liwu la Chihebri limene analigwiritsa ntchito pa Yesaya 3:18, nthaŵi zambiri amalimasulira kuti “zitunga.” Tsinde la liwu la Chiugariti lofanana ndi limeneli limasonyeza dzuŵa ndiponso mulungu wamkazi wa dzuŵa. Motero, akazi a ku Yerusalemu amene awatchula mu ulosi wa Yesaya ayenera kuti anavala zovala pakhosi zosonyeza dzuŵa komanso “mphande” polemekeza milungu yachikanani.

Pa Miyambo 26:23 m’malemba achimasorete, amayerekezera “milomo yofunitsitsa ndi mtima woipa” ndi mbale yadothi imene aimata ndi “mphala ya siliva.” Tsinde la Chiugariti lingachititse kuyerekezera kumeneku kumasuliridwa kuti “ngati zowalitsa zimene azimata pa phale.” Baibulo la New World Translation moyenera linamasulira mwambi umenewu kuti: “Milomo yofunitsitsa ndi mtima woipa zili ngati phale limene alimata ndi zowalitsa za siliva.”

Kodi Baibulo Linatengera Chiugariti?

Kupenda zolemba za ku Ras Shamra kwachititsa akatswiri ena kunena kuti ndime zina za m’Baibulo zinatengera ndakatulo za Chiugariti. André Caquot, wa m’bungwe la French Institute, ananena kuti “chikhalidwe chachikanani chinali maziko a chipembedzo cha Aisrayeli.”

Pofotokoza za Salmo 29, Mitchell Dahood wa m’bungwe lakuti Pontifical Biblical Institute ku Rome anati: “M’salmo limeneli, olambira Yahweh anatengera nyimbo yakale ya Akanani imene ankaimbira mulungu wa namondwe, Baala . . . Pafupifupi liwu lililonse la m’salmoli tsopano lingafanane ndi malemba akale achikanani.” Kodi mfundo zimenezi ndi zoona? Ayi ndithu!

Akatswiri ambiri oganiza bwino amati kufananako akukokomeza kwambiri. Katswiri wina wa maphunziro aumulungu, Garry Brantley, anati: “Palibe lemba la Chiugariti limene likufanana ndendende ndi Salmo 29. . . . Kunena kuti Salmo 29 (kapena malemba ena a m’Baibulo) anatengera nthano zachikunja kulibe umboni wosonyeza kuti n’zoona.”

Kodi kufanana kwa mawu okuluwika, mawu a ndakatulo, ndi kalembedwe ndi umboni wakuti Baibulo linatengera Chiugariti? Ayi, tingayembekezere kufanana koteroko. Buku lakuti The Encyclopedia of Religion limati: “Chikhalidwe n’chimene chachititsa kuti pakhale kufanana kumeneku: ngakhale kuti Ugariti ndi Israyeli anali m’madera osiyana ndiponso maulamuliro awo anali osiyana, onse anali mbali ya chikhalidwe chachikulu chimodzi ndipo mawu amene anali kuwagwiritsa ntchito m’ndakatulo ndi pa nkhani zachipembedzo anali ofanana.” Motero, Garry Brantley anati: “Kuumirira kuti malemba a m’Baibulo anachokera ku chikunja chifukwa chokha chakuti mawu akufanana n’kutanthauzira molakwika.”

Ndiponso, tiyenera kudziŵa kuti ngakhale patakhala kufanana pakati pa malemba a ku Ras Shamra ndi a m’Baibulo, ndi zokhudza kalembedwe ndi mawu basi osati kufanana pankhani zauzimu. Katswiri wina wofukula za m’mabwinja Cyrus Gordon anati: “Malamulo ndi makhalidwe apamwamba a m’Baibulo [sangapezeke] m’Chiugariti.” Inde, kusiyana kumene kulipo n’kwakukulu kuposa kufanana kwina kulikonse.

Mwachionekere, kufufuza zolemba za Chiugariti kudzapitirizabe kuthandiza ophunzira Baibulo kumvetsa chikhalidwe, mbiri ndi chipembedzo cha m’nthaŵi ya olemba Baibulo ndi mtundu wonse wachihebri. Ndiponso, kupenda malemba a ku Ras Shamra kungathandize kumvetsa bwino kwambiri Chihebri chakale. Komabe koposa zonse, zimene akupeza pofukula ku Ugariti zikusonyeza bwino kwambiri kusiyana pakati pa kulambira Baala koipa ndi kulambira Yehova koyera.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 7 “Anthu Akunyanja” ameneŵa nthaŵi zambiri anali anthu oyenda panyanja ochokera ku zilumba za ku Mediterranean ndi m’madera a m’mphepete mwa nyanjayi. Mwina Afilisti anali ena mwa iwo.​—Amosi 9:7.

^ ndime 10 Ngakhale kuti pali maganizo osiyana, ena amati kachisi wa Dagani ndiye kachisi wa El. Roland de Vaux, katswiri wa maphunziro komanso pulofesa wachifalansa pa Sukulu ya ku Yerusalemu Yophunzitsa Baibulo, anati Dagani, amene pa Oweruza 16:23 ndi pa 1 Samueli 5:1-5 amutchula kuti Dagoni, ndiye dzina lake lenileni la El. Buku lina lakuti The Encyclopedia of Religion limati n’zotheka kuti “Dagani mwa njira ina anali kugwirizanitsidwa kapena anaphatikizana ndi [El].” M’zolemba za ku Ras Shamra, Baala amatchedwa mwana wa Dagani, koma sizikudziŵika kuti anatanthauza chiyani ponena kuti “mwana.”

[Mawu Otsindika patsamba 25]

Zimene apeza pofukula ku Ugariti zatithandiza kumvetsa bwino kwambiri Malemba

[Mapu/​Zithunzi pamasamba 24, 25]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Ufumu wa Ahiti m’zaka za m’ma 1300 B.C.E.

NYANJA YA MEDITERRANEAN

Firate

PHIRI LA CASIUS (JEBEL EL-AGRA)

Ugariti (Ras Shamra)

Tell Sukas

Orontes

SYRIA

IGUPTO

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Fano la Baala ndi chikho chooneka ngati mutu wa ng’ombe: Musée du Louvre, Paris; painting of the royal palace: © D. Héron-Hugé pour “Le Monde de la Bible”

[Chithunzi patsamba 25]

Zotsalira za pakhomo la ku nyumba yachifumu

[Chithunzi patsamba 26]

Ndakatulo ya nthano ya Chiugariti ingathandize kumvetsa lemba la Eksodo 23:19

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Musée du Louvre, Paris

[Zithunzi patsamba 27]

Mwala wosema wosonyeza Baala

Mbale ya golide imene ikuimira zochitika zauzimba

Chotsekera bokosi la zozolazola cha m’nyanga wa njovu chosonyeza mulungu wamkazi wa kubereka

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

All pictures: Musée du Louvre, Paris