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Eusebius Kodi Anali “Woyamba Kulemba Mbiri ya Tchalitchi”?

Eusebius Kodi Anali “Woyamba Kulemba Mbiri ya Tchalitchi”?

 Eusebius Kodi Anali “Woyamba Kulemba Mbiri ya Tchalitchi”?

M’CHAKA cha 325 C.E., Kositantini, Mfumu ya Roma, anaitana mabishopu onse kuti akumane ku Nesiya. Cholinga chake chinali chakuti athetse nkhani ya ubale wa Mulungu ndi Mwana wake imene anthu anali kutsutsana kwambiri. Mmodzi mwa mabishopu amene anapita kumeneko anali Eusebius wa ku Kaisareya amene anthu amati anali wophunzira kwambiri kuposa wina aliyense m’nthaŵi yake. Eusebius anaphunzira Malemba mwakhama ndipo anakhalira kumbuyo Chikristu chimene chimakhulupirira Mulungu mmodzi yekha.

Buku lakuti Encyclopædia Britannica limati pa Msonkhano wa ku Nesiya, “Kositantiniyo ndi amene anali tcheyamani, kutsogolera zokambiranazo, ndipo anapereka . . . mfundo yaikulu yosonyeza ubale wa Kristu ndi Mulungu m’chiphunzitso chimene msonkhanowu unatulutsa, ‘chakuti iye ndi wofanana ndi Atate’ . . . Chifukwa choopa mfumuyo, mabishopuwo, kupatulapo aŵiri okha, anasainira chiphunzitsocho ndipo ambiri anatero motsutsana ndi zimene anali kukhulupirira.” Kodi Eusebius anali mmodzi mwa mabishopu amene sanasainewo? Kodi tingaphunzire chiyani pa zimene anachita? Tiyeni tione moyo wa Eusebius, maphunziro ake ndiponso zimene anachita.

Zolemba Zake Zapamwamba

Eusebius ayenera kuti anabadwira ku Palestina cha m’ma 260 C.E. Ali wachinyamata, anali kugwirizana ndi Pamphilus, amene anali kuyang’anira tchalitchi cha ku Kaisareya. Anaphunzira sukulu yophunzitsa zaumulungu ya Pamphilus ndipo anali wolimbikira kwambiri maphunziro. Anagwiritsa ntchito mosamalitsa laibulale ya Pamphilus yomwe inali yaikulu kwambiri. Eusebius anadzipereka kwambiri pa maphunziro ake, makamaka pophunzira Baibulo. Analinso mnzake weniweni wa Pamphilus, moti patapita nthaŵi anadzitcha “Eusebius mwana wa Pamphilus.”

Pofotokoza zolinga zake, Eusebius anati: “Cholinga changa ndi choti ndilembe nkhani ya kutsatizana kwa Atumwi opatulika komanso nthaŵi imene yadutsa kuyambira m’masiku a Mpulumutsi wathu kudzafika panopa. Ndikufuna kusimba mmene amati zochitika zambiri komanso zofunika zinachitikira m’mbiri ya tchalitchi. Ndikufunanso kutchula amene anali kulamulira ndi kutsogolera tchalitchi m’maparishi aakulu, ndiponso amene mu mbadwo uliwonse analalikira mawu a Mulungu kaya mwapakamwa kapena mwa kulemba.”

Eusebius amakumbukiridwa kwambiri chifukwa cha buku limene analemba lakuti History of the Christian Church limene anthu amaliona kuti n’lapamwamba. Magawo ake khumi amene anawatsindikiza cha m’ma 324 C.E. amaonedwa kuti ndi mabuku ofunika kwambiri osimba mbiri ya tchalitchi amene analembedwa kale zedi. Chifukwa cha mabuku amene analembawa, Eusebius anadziŵika kukhala woyamba kulemba mbiri ya tchalitchi.

Kuphatikiza pa mabuku a Church History, Eusebius analemba buku lakuti Chronicle, m’magawo aŵiri. Gawo loyamba linafotokoza mbiri ya dziko lonse mwachidule. M’zaka za m’ma 300 C.E., bukuli ndi limene anthu anali kuligwiritsa ntchito  akafuna kudziŵa zinthu zimene zinachitika padziko lonse lapansi. Gawo lachiŵiri linatchula madeti a zochitika m’mbiri. Pogwiritsa ntchito madanga amene kwinaku amatchula madeti kwinaku n’kufotokoza zochitika, Eusebius anaonetsa kutsatizana kwa mafumu a mitundu yosiyanasiyana.

Eusebius analemba mabuku enanso aŵiri ofotokoza mbiri, lina linali lakuti Martyrs of Palestine ndipo lina linali lakuti Life of Constantine. Loyambalo linasimba zimene zinachitika kuyambira m’chaka cha 303 mpaka mu 310 C.E. ndipo limafotokoza za anthu amene anaphedwa chifukwa cha chikhulupiriro m’nthaŵi imeneyi. Eusebius ayenera kuti anadzionera yekha zimenezi. Buku lachiŵirilo, limene analisindikiza m’magawo anayi Mfumu Kositantini itamwalira mu 337 C.E, linafotokoza zochitika m’mbiri zofunika kwambiri. M’malo molilemba ngati mbiri yeniyeni, mbali yaikulu anamuyamikira Kositantiniyo.

Limodzi mwa mabuku amene Eusebius analemba okhalira kumbuyo Chikristu linali buku lomuyankha Hierocles, kazembe wa Roma amene anakhalako m’nthaŵi imodzi ndi Eusebius. Hierocles atalemba zotsutsana ndi Akristu, Eusebius anayankha poteteza Akristuwo. Ndiponso, pokhalira kumbuyo mfundo yoti Malemba anauziridwa ndi Mulungu, iye analemba mabuku 35, amene anthu amawaona kuti anali mabuku ofunika kwambiri ndiponso ofotokoza nkhani mwatsatanetsatane. Mabuku 15 oyambirira mwa mabuku ameneŵa anapereka umboni wakuti Akristu amavomereza malemba opatulika a Ahebri. Mabuku 20 enawo anapereka umboni wakuti Akristu akulondola popitirira zikhulupiriro za Ayuda ndi kutsatira mfundo ndi kachitidwe ka zinthu katsopano. Mabuku onsewa pamodzi anafotokoza mfundo zambiri zoteteza Chikristu malinga ndi mmene Eusebius anali kudziŵira.

Eusebius anakhala ndi moyo kwa zaka pafupifupi 80 (kuyambira cha m’ma 260 mpaka cha m’ma 340 C.E), ndipo anali mmodzi mwa anthu akale amene analemba mabuku ambiri. Analemba zochitika za m’zaka mazana atatu oyambirira kudzafika m’nthaŵi ya Mfumu Kositantini. M’zaka zake zauchikulire, kuwonjezera pa ntchito yake yolemba, analinso bishopu ku Kaisareya. Ngakhale kuti amatchuka kwambiri ndi kulemba mbiri, Eusebius analinso wokhalira kumbuyo chipembedzo chake, wokonza mapu, mlaliki, wofufuza, ndiponso wolemba mabuku ofotokozera buku la chipembedzo.

Zifukwa Ziŵiri Zimene Analembera Mabuku Ake

N’chifukwa chiyani Eusebius anagwira ntchito yaikulu kwambiri imeneyi yomwe inali isanachitikepo m’mbuyomo? Chifukwa chake chinali chakuti ankakhulupirira kuti anali kukhala m’nthaŵi imene inali kusintha kuloŵa m’nyengo yatsopano. Anaganiza kuti panachitika zinthu zazikulu m’mibadwo yakale ndipo kulemba zimenezo kunali kofunika kwa mibadwo ya m’tsogolo.

Panalinso chifukwa china chimene Eusebius analembera mabukuwa. Analemba kuti akhalire kumbuyo chipembedzo chake. Anali kukhulupirira kuti Chikristu chinachokera kwa Mulungu. Koma ena anali kutsutsa mfundo imeneyi. Eusebius analemba kuti: “Cholinga changanso n’choti nditchule mayina ndi ziŵerengero ndiponso nthaŵi zimene anthu okonda kuyambitsa njira zatsopano analakwitsa kwambiri, ndipo podzitcha otulukira zinthu zatsopano, lomwe ndi bodza, avutitsa nkhosa za Kristu mopanda chifundo ngati mimbulu yolusa.”

Kodi Eusebius ankadziona kuti anali Mkristu? Zikusonyeza choncho, chifukwa anatcha Kristu kuti “Mpulumutsi wathu.” Iye anafotokoza kuti: “N’cholinga changa kuti . . . ndifotokoze mavuto amene mtundu wa Chiyuda wonse unakumana nawo pasanapite nthaŵi yaitali chifukwa cha chiwembu chimene mtunduwu unachitira Mpulumutsi wathu, ndiponso n’cholinga changa kulemba njira ndiponso nthaŵi zimene mawu a Mulungu anaukiridwa ndi Akunja. N’cholinga changanso kufotokoza makhalidwe a anthu amene m’nthaŵi zosiyanasiyana akhalira kumbuyo mawu a Mulungu ngakhale kuti akhetsedwa magazi ndiponso kuzunzidwa, komanso anthu amene akhulupirika ku mawuwa  m’nthaŵi yathu ino, komanso chifundo ndi kuwathandiza mokoma mtima kumene Mpulumutsi wathu wawachitira anthu onseŵa.”

Kufufuza Kwake Mwakuya

Mabuku amene Eusebius anaŵerenga yekha ndi kuwagwiritsa ntchito anali ambiri zedi. Anthu otchuka ambiri a m’zaka mazana atatu oyambirira a Nyengo Yathu Ino adziŵika chifukwa cha zimene Eusebius analemba. Nkhani zopindulitsa zimene zathandiza anthu kudziŵa magulu a anthu ofunika zimapezeka m’mabuku amene iye analemba okha basi. Magulu amenewa anali kupezeka m’zolembedwa zimene pakalipano sizikupezeka.

Pofuna kulemba nkhani, Eusebius anali wakhama ndiponso wosamala. Akuoneka kuti anayesetsa mosamala kusiyanitsa malipoti odalirika ndi malipoti osadalirika. Komabe, sikuti zimene iye analemba zinali zolondola zokhazokha. Nthaŵi zina, anawafotokoza molakwika ndiponso ngakhale kulephera kuwamvetsa anthu ndi zochita zawo. Pofotokoza nthaŵi ya zochitika zosiyanasiyana, nthaŵi zina sanafotokoze molondola. Eusebius analibenso luso lofotokoza bwino zinthu. Komabe, ngakhale kuti anali ndi zofooka zimenezi, mabuku ambiri amene analemba amatengedwa kukhala chuma chamtengo wapatali.

Kodi Anali Wokonda Choonadi?

Eusebius anali kudera nkhaŵa nkhani imene inali isanathetsedwe ya ubale wa Atate ndi Mwana. Kodi Atate analiko Mwana asanakhaleko, monga mmene Eusebius ankakhulupirira? Kapena kodi Atate ndi Mwana anakhalako panthaŵi imodzi? Iye anafunsa kuti: “Ngati anakhalako nthaŵi imodzi, kodi Atate akanakhala bwanji Atate ndipo Mwana akanakhala bwanji Mwana?” Iye anafika potsimikizira zimene anali kukhulupirirazo potchula maumboni a m’Malemba, monga Yohane 14:28, limene limanena kuti ‘Atate ndi wamkulu kuposa Yesu,’ ndiponso Yohane 17:3, limene limanena kuti Yesu ‘anatumidwa’ ndi Mulungu woona yekha. Pofotokoza Akolose 1:15 ndi Yohane 1:1, malemba omwe sanawatchule mwachindunji, Eusebius anati Logos, kapena kuti Mawu, ndiye “fanizo la Mulungu wosaonekayo”​—Mwana wa Mulungu.

Koma modabwitsa, pomaliza Msonkhano wa ku Nesiya, Eusebius anakhala kumbali yotsutsana ndi mfundo imeneyo. Mosiyana ndi zimene anali kukhulupirira zogwirizana ndi Malemba zoti Mulungu ndi Kristu sanakhaleko nthaŵi yofanana, iye anagwirizana ndi malingaliro a mfumuyo.

Zimene Tikuphunzirapo

N’chifukwa chiyani Eusebius anagonjera pa Msonkhano wa ku Nesiya ndi kukhalira kumbuyo chiphunzitso chosagwirizana ndi Malemba? Kodi anali ndi zolinga zandale? N’chifukwa chiyani anakapezekapo pa msonkhanowo? Ngakhale kuti mabishopu onse anaitanidwa, ochepa okha, okwana 300, ndi amene anapezekapo. Kodi mwina Eusebius anachita zimenezi n’cholinga choti udindo wake usathe? Ndipo n’chifukwa chiyani Mfumu Kositantini inali kumulemekeza kwambiri? Eusebius anakhala ku dzanja lamanja la mfumuyo pa msonkhanopo.

Mwachionekere, Eusebius ananyalanyaza zimene Yesu ananena kuti otsatira Ake ‘sayenera kukhala a dziko lapansi.’ (Yohane 17:16; 18:36) Wophunzira Yakobo anafunsa kuti: “Akazi achigololo inu, kodi simudziŵa kuti ubwenzi wa dziko lapansi uli udani ndi Mulungu?” (Yakobo 4:4) Ndipotu langizo la Paulo lakuti: “Musakhale omangidwa m’goli ndi osakhulupira,” n’loyenera kwambiri. (2 Akorinto 6:14) Ndiyetu tiyeni tikhalebe osiyana ndi dziko lapansi pamene ‘tikulambira Atate mumzimu ndi m’choonadi.’​—Yohane 4:24.

[Chithunzi patsamba 31]

Zojambula pakhoma zosonyeza Msonkhano wa ku Nesiya

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Scala/​Art Resource, NY

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 29]

Courtesy of Special Collections Library, University of Michigan