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Anthu Wamba Anamasulira Baibulo

Anthu Wamba Anamasulira Baibulo

 Anthu Wamba Anamasulira Baibulo

M’CHAKA cha 1835, Henry Nott, womanga nyumba wachingelezi, ndi John Davies wa ku Wales amene anali kuphunzira ntchito yogulitsa m’golosale, anamaliza ntchito yaikulu kwambiri. Ataigwira ntchitoyi kwa zaka zoposa 30, anamaliza kumasulira Baibulo m’chinenero cha Chitahiti. Kodi ndi mavuto otani amene amuna wamba aŵiri ameneŵa anakumana nawo, ndipo n’chiyani chinachitika chifukwa cha ntchito yawo imene anaichita chifukwa cha chikondi?

“Kugalamuka Kwakukulu”

M’zaka zoyambira mu 1751, anthu a chipembedzo china chachipulotesitanti chotchedwa Kugalamuka Kwakukulu, kapena kungoti Kugalamuka, anali kulalikira m’midzi ndiponso pafupi ndi migodi komanso mafakitale ku Britain. Cholinga chawo chinali kulalikira kwa anthu amene sanali olemera. Olalikira a m’gulu la Kugalamuka analimbikitsa ndi mtima wonse kugaŵira mabaibulo.

Amene anayambitsa gululi, William Carey yemwe anali Mbatizi, anathandiza kwambiri pokhazikitsa bungwe lakuti London Missionary Society (LMS) limene linakhazikitsidwa mu 1795. Bungwe la LMS linaphunzitsa anthu amene anadzipereka kuphunzira zinenero za anthu a m’mayiko ena ndi kukakhala amishonale ku chigawo cha South Pacific. Cholinga cha amishonale ameneŵa chinali choti akalalikire Uthenga Wabwino m’chinenero cha anthu a kumeneko.

Chilumba cha Tahiti, chimene panthaŵiyo chinali chitangotulukiridwa kumene, chinali malo ochitirako umishonale oyamba a LMS. Kwa anthu a m’gulu la Kugalamuka, zilumba zimenezi zinali ‘malo a mdima’ anthu osapembedza, minda imene inacha ndipo inafunika kukololedwa.

Anthu Wamba Anaigwira Bwino Ntchito Yovuta

Kuti atute zokolola, amishonale pafupifupi 30 omwe anangosankhidwa mofulumira ndiponso omwe sanakonzekere mokwanira anakwera sitima ya m’madzi yotchedwa Duff imene bungwe la LMS linagula. Lipoti limafotokoza kuti panali “apasitala anayi oikidwa [omwe sanaphunzire kwenikweni], akalipentala asanu ndi mmodzi, okonza nsapato aŵiri, omanga nyumba aŵiri, oluka zolukaluka aŵiri, osoka zovala aŵiri, wogulitsa m’sitolo, wokonza masadulo, wogwira ntchito zapakhomo, wosamalira maluwa, dokotala, wosula zitsulo, wopanga ziteretere, wokonza ulusi, wopanga zipewa, woumba nsalu, wopanga makabineti, akazi asanu, ndi ana atatu.”

Zida zimene amishonalewo anali nazo kuti adziŵe zinenero zoyambirira za Baibulo zinali buku lotanthauzira mawu a Chigiriki m’Chingelezi  ndiponso Baibulo lokhala ndi mtanthauzira mawu wa Chihebri. M’miyezi isanu ndi iŵiri imene anali panyanja, amishonalewo analoŵeza mawu ena a Chitahiti amene anthu ena amene anakacheza kumeneko analemba, makamaka anthu amene anagalukira mu sitima ya Bounty. Kenako, sitima ya Duff inafika ku Tahiti, ndipo pa March 7, 1797, amishonalewo anatuluka m’sitimayo. Komabe, patangotha chaka, ambiri anakhumudwa ndipo anachoka. Amishonale asanu ndi aŵiri okha ndi amene anatsalira.

Mwa anthu asanu ndi aŵiriwo, Henry Nott, yemwe poyamba anali womanga nyumba anali ndi zaka 23 zokha. Poona makalata oyambirira amene iye analemba, sikuti anali wophunzira kwambiri. Komabe, kuyambira pachiyambi, anasonyeza kuti anali ndi mphatso yophunzira Chitahiti. Anthu anati iye anali woona mtima, wochezeka, ndiponso wosangalatsa.

Mu 1801, Nott anamusankha kuphunzitsa Chitahiti kwa amishonale asanu ndi anayi amene anangofika kumene. Mwa amishonale ameneŵa, munali John Davies wa ku Wales wa zaka 28, yemwe anakhala wophunzira waluso ndiponso wolimbikira ntchito, wofatsa ndiponso womasuka. Patangopita nthaŵi yochepa, amuna aŵiri ameneŵa anaganiza zomasulira Baibulo m’Chitahiti.

Ntchito Yovuta Zedi

Komabe, kumasulira m’Chitahiti inali ntchito yovuta zedi, chifukwa panthaŵi imeneyo chinenerochi chinali chisanayambe kulembedwa. Amishonale anali kuphunzira chinenero chonse mwa kumvetsera basi. Panalibe buku lotanthauzira mawu kapena la galamala. Kamvekedwe ka mawu kovuta kwambiri ka chinenerocho, kugwiritsa ntchito kwake mavawelo ambiri motsatizana (kufika mpaka mavawelo asanu m’liwu limodzi), ndiponso makonsonati ake ochepa kwambiri zinafooketsa kwambiri amishonalewo. Iwo anadandaula kuti: “Mawu ambiri ndi odzala ndi mavawelo, ndipo vawelo iliyonse ili ndi kamvekedwe kake.” Iwo anavomereza kuti sanali kutha “kumva bwinobwino kamvekedwe ka mawu molondola kwambiri monga mmene kumafunikira.” Anafika poganiza kuti anali kumva mawu omwe kulibe kwina kulikonse.

Zinthunso zikati zivute, nthaŵi ndi nthaŵi, mawu ena anali kuwaletsa, kapena kuti anali osaloleka, m’Chitahiti ndipo motero anali kuloŵedwa m’malo ndi ena. Mawu ofanana anali kubweretsanso mavuto. Mawu oti “pemphero” anali ndi mawu oposa 70 m’Chitahiti. Vuto lina linali kalembedwe ka ziganizo m’Chitahiti komwe n’kosiyana kwambiri ndi Chingelezi. Ngakhale kuti panali mavuto oterewa, pang’onompang’ono amishonalewo anakonza mawu amene kenako Davies anadzawagwiritsa ntchito patapita zaka 50 kusindikiza buku lotanthauzira mawu limene munali mawu okwana 10,000.

Ndiyeno panalinso vuto lolemba Chitahiti. Amishonalewo anayetsetsa kutero pogwiritsa ntchito kalembedwe ka Chingelezi. Komabe, alifabeti ya Chilatini imene Chingelezi chimagwiritsa ntchito sinagwirizane ndi kamvekedwe ka mawu ka Chitahiti. Motero, kukambirana katchulidwe ka mawu ndi kalembedwe kake sikunathe. Nthaŵi zambiri, amishonalewo anali kukonza masipelo atsopano, popeza anali anthu oyamba ku Nyanja za Kumwera kusintha chinenero chongolankhula kukhala chinenero cholemba. Sanadziŵe kuti ntchito yawoyo m’kupita kwa nthaŵi idzakhala chitsanzo chimene zinenero zina za ku South Pacific zidzatengera.

Anali ndi Zida Zochepa Koma Anali ndi Njira Zambiri Zothana ndi Vutolo

Omasulirawo anangokhala ndi mabuku a maumboni ochepa chabe amene akanagwiritsa ntchito. Bungwe la LMS linalangiza kuti azigwiritsa ntchito buku lakuti Textus Receptus ndi Baibulo la King James Version monga magwero awo. Nott anapempha bungwe la LMS kuti litumize mabuku ena otanthauzira mawu a Chihebri ndi Chigiriki ndiponso mabaibulo a m’zinenero ziŵiri zonsezi. Sizikudziŵika ngati analandira mabuku amenewo. Koma Davies analandira mabuku a maphunziro apamwamba kuchokera kwa anzake a ku Wales. Mbiri ikusonyeza kuti anali ndi mtanthauzira mawu wa Chigiriki, Baibulo la Chihebri, Chipangano Chatsopano m’Chigiriki, ndi Baibulo la Septuagint.

Panthaŵiyi, ntchito yolalikira ya amishonale sinabalebe zipatso. Ngakhale kuti amishonalewo anali atakhala ku Tahiti kwa zaka 12, palibe munthu ndi mmodzi yemwe wa m’deralo amene anabatizidwa. Kenako, nkhondo zachiweniweni zosatha zinachititsa kuti amishonale onsewo athaŵire  ku Australia kupatulapo Nott yemwe anali wolimba mtima kwambiri. Kwa nthaŵi ndithu, iye anali mmishonale yekhayo amene anatsalira ku zilumba zotchedwa Windward Islands zomwe ndi gulu lina la zilumba zimene zonse pamodzi zimatchedwa Society Islands. Komabe anafunika kutsatira Mfumu Pomare Yachiŵiri pamene mfumuyi inathaŵira ku chilumba chapafupi cha Moorea.

Komabe, kusamuka kwa Nott sikunaimitse ntchito yomasulira, ndipo Davies atakhala ku Australia zaka ziŵiri, anabwerera n’kudzakhala limodzi ndi Nott. Panthaŵiyi, Nott n’kuti ataphunzira Chigiriki ndi Chihebri ndipo anazidziŵa bwino kwambiri zinenero zimenezi. Motero, anayamba kumasulira mbali zina za Malemba Achihebri m’Chitahiti. Anasankha ndime za m’Baibulo zimene zinali ndi nkhani zomwe anthu a pachilumbapo akanatha kumvetsa bwino ndi kuzitsatira.

Nott anagwira ntchito limodzi ndi Davies ndipo tsopano anayamba kumasulira Uthenga Wabwino wa Luka, umene anaumaliza mu September 1814. Anamasulira momveka kuti ndi mmene anthu amalankhulira m’Chitahiti ndipo Davies anayerekezera zimene Nott anamasulirazo ndi chinenero choyambirira cha Uthengawo kuti atsimikizire kuti wamasulira bwino. Mu 1817, Mfumu Pomare Yachiŵiri inapempha kuti isindikize yokha tsamba loyamba la Uthenga Wabwino wa Luka. Inachitadi zimenezo pa makina osindikizira amene amishonale ena anabweretsa ku Moorea. Palinso munthu wina wokhulupirika wachitahiti dzina lake Tuahine yemwe sitingalephere kumutchula pankhani yomasulira Baibulo la Chitahiti. Iye anakhalabe ndi amishonale m’zaka zonsezo ndipo anawathandiza kumvetsa mfundo zina zabwino kwambiri za chinenerocho.

Anamaliza Kumasulira Baibulo

Mu 1819, patatha zaka zisanu ndi chimodzi akugwira ntchito zolimba, anamaliza kumasulira Mauthenga Abwino, buku la Machitidwe a Atumwi, ndi buku la Masalmo. Makina osindikizira amene amishonale omwe anangofika kumene anabweretsa, anachititsa kuti ntchito yosindikiza ndi kugawira mabuku a Baibulo ameneŵa iyende mofulumira.

Kenako inafika nthaŵi ya ntchito yaikulu yomasulira, kuŵerenga, ndi kukonzanso zimene anamasulirazo. Atakhala ku Tahiti kwa zaka 28, Nott anadwala mu 1825, ndipo bungwe la LMS linamulola kuti abwerere ku England. N’zosangalatsa kuti panthaŵiyo, anangotsala pang’ono kwambiri kumaliza kumasulira Malemba Achigiriki. Anapitiriza kumasulira mbali zotsala za Baibulo paulendo wake wa ku England ndi nthaŵi imene anakhala kumeneko. Nott anabwerera ku Tahiti mu 1827. Kenako patapita zaka zisanu ndi zitatu, mu December 1835, anamaliza ntchito yonse yomasulira. Anamaliza kumasulira Baibulo lonse atagwira ntchito zolimba kwa zaka zoposa 30.

Mu 1836, Nott anabwerera ku England kuti akasindikizitse Baibulo lonse la Chitahiti ku London. Pa June 8, 1838, Nott yemwe chimwemwe chinadzala saya, anapereka Baibulo loyambirira kusindikizidwa m’Chitahiti kwa Mfumukazi Victoria.  Mpake kuti imeneyi inali nthaŵi yosangalatsa kwambiri kwa munthu amene kale anali womanga nyumba yemwe zaka 40 m’mbuyomo anayenda ulendo pa sitima ya m’madzi yotchedwa Duff ndipo anatengera kwambiri chikhalidwe chachitahiti kuti amalize ntchito yaikulu imeneyi yomwe anaichita kwa moyo wake wonse.

Patatha miyezi iŵiri, Nott anabwerera ku South Pacific ndi mabokosi 27 mmene munali mabaibulo oyambirira a m’Chitahiti okwana 3,000. Ataima ku Sydney, anadzadwalanso, koma anakana kuti asiyane ndi mabokosi a mtengo wapataliwo. Atachira, anafika ku Tahiti mu 1840 kumene anthu a kumeneko anafika polanda katundu wakeyo, kufuna kuti apeze Baibulo la Chitahiti. Nott anamwalira ku Tahiti mu May 1844 ali ndi zaka 70.

Ntchito Imene Zotsatira Zake Zinafika Patali

Komabe, ntchito ya Nott inapitirizabe. Ntchito yake yomasulira inakhudza kwambiri zinenero za ku Polynesia. Mwa kulemba m’Chitahiti, amishonalewo anasunga chinenerocho. Wolemba mabuku wina anafotokoza kuti: “Nott anasunga galamala ya Chitahiti. Kudzakhala koyenera nthaŵi zonse kugwiritsa ntchito Baibulo pofuna kuphunzira Chitahiti chenicheni.” Ntchito imene omasulira ameneŵa anaichita mwakhama inapulumutsa mawu ambirimbiri amene akanatha kuiŵalika. Patapita zaka 100, wolemba wina anati: “Baibulo la Chitahiti labwino kwambiri la Nott ndi chimake cha chinenero cha Chitahiti, ndipo aliyense akuvomereza zimenezi.”

Ntchito yofunika kwambiri imeneyi sikuti inangopindulitsa anthu a ku Tahiti okha, m’malo mwake inayalanso maziko a ntchito zina zomasulira m’zinenero za ku South Pacific. Mwachitsanzo, omasulira a ku zilumba za Cook Islands ndi Samoa anatsatira kamasuliridwe kameneka. Womasulira wina anati: “Ndatsatira kwambiri Mr. Nott amene kamasuliridwe kake ndakapenda mosamalitsa.” Ena ananena kuti womasulira wina ‘anali ndi buku la Masalmo la Chihebri ndi Baibulo la Chingelezi ndi la Chitahiti’ pamene anali ‘kumasulira limodzi mwa masalmo a Davide m’chinenero cha Chisamoa.’

Potsatira chitsanzo cha anthu a m’gulu la Kugalamuka ku England, amishonale ku Tahiti analimbikitsa ndi mtima wonse kuphunzira kulemba ndi kuŵerenga. Ndipotu, kwa zaka zoposa 100, Baibulo linali buku lokhalo limene linalipo m’Chitahiti. Motero, Baibulo linakhudza kwambiri chikhalidwe cha Chitahiti.

Imodzi mwa mbali zabwino kwambiri za Baibulo la Nott ndi yakuti dzina la Mulungu limapezekamo nthaŵi zambiri m’Malemba a Chihebri ndi a Chigiriki. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, masiku ano dzina la Yehova n’lodziŵika kwambiri ku Tahiti ndi m’zilumba zake. Amalilembanso pa matchalitchi ena a Chipulotesitanti. Koma masiku ano anthu akamva za dzina la Mulungu amaganizira za Mboni za Yehova ndiponso ntchito yawo yolalikira mwachangu, imene amagwiritsa ntchito kwambiri Baibulo la Chitahiti limene Nott ndi anzake anamasulira. Ndipo ntchito yaikulu imene omasulira monga Henry Nott anachita ikutikumbutsa kuti tiyenera kuyamikira kuti Mawu a Mulungu akupezeka kwa anthu ambiri masiku ano.

[Zithunzi patsamba 26]

Baibulo loyamba kulimasulira m’Chitahiti, 1815. Dzina la Yehova lilimo

Henry Nott (1774-1844), amene anachita mbali yaikulu yomasulira Baibulo la Chitahiti

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Tahitian Bible: Copyright the British Library (3070.a.32); Henry Nott and letter: Collection du Musée de Tahiti et de ses Îles, Punaauia, Tahiti; catechism: With permission of the London Missionary Society Papers, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand

[Chithunzi patsamba 28]

Katekisimu ya m’zinenero ziŵiri, Chitahiti ndi Chiwelosi ya 1801, mmene dzina la Mulungu likupezeka

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

With permission of the London Missionary Society Papers, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand

[Chithunzi patsamba 29]

Tchalitchi cha Chipulotesitanti ndi dzina la Yehova kumaso kwake, pa chilumba cha Huahine, ku French Polynesia

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Avec la permission du Pasteur Teoroi Firipa