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Alexander VI Papa Amene Samuiŵala ku Rome

Alexander VI Papa Amene Samuiŵala ku Rome

 Alexander VI Papa Amene Samuiŵala ku Rome

“MALINGA ndi mmene Akatolika amaonera, palibe mawu amene angafotokoze mokwanira kuipa kwa Alexander VI.” (Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters [Mbiri ya Apapa Kuyambira cha m’ma 1500]) “Moyo wake unali woipa kotheratu . . . Tiyenera kuvomereza kuti Papa ameneyu amanyozetsa Tchalitchi. Mabanja ena amene analipo pa nthaŵi ya banja la a Borgia, ngakhale kuti anali atazoloŵera kuona anthu akuchita zinthu zonyansa ngati zimenezo, anachita mantha kwambiri poona zinthu zoipa ndi zoopsa zimene anthu a m’banja la a Borgia ankachita, zimene mpaka lero, zaka zopitirira 400 pambuyo pake, sizinaiŵalikebe.”​—L’Église et la Renaissance (1449-1517)(Tchalitchi pa Nthaŵi ya Kutukuka kwa Maphunziro).

Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani olemba mbiri otchuka amene analemba nkhani zokhudza Tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika analemba mawu amphamvu chotero onena za papa ndi anthu a m’banja lake? Kodi anthu ameneŵa anachita chiyani kuti adzudzulidwe mwamphamvu choncho? Chionetsero chimene chinachitika ku Rome (October 2002 mpaka February 2003), chotchedwa I Borgia​—l’arte del potere (Njira Imene Anthu a m’Banja la a Borgia Analamulirira), chinapereka mpata kwa anthu kuti aone mphamvu zimene apapa anali nazo, makamaka njira imene Rodrigo Borgia, kapena kuti Alexander VI (papa kuyambira 1492 mpaka 1503) anagwiritsira ntchito mphamvu zimenezi.

Alandira Udindo

Rodrigo Borgia anabadwa mu 1431, m’banja lolemera ku Játiva, mu ufumu wa Aragon, kumene tsopano kuli ku Spain. Amalume ake a Alfonso de Borgia, amene anali bishopu wa ku Valencia, ndi amene anam’phunzitsa Rodrigo ndipo anaonetsetsa kuti asanafike zaka makumi aŵiri, apatsidwe maudindo olandira nawo ndalama m’tchalitchi. Ali ndi zaka 18, motsogozedwa ndi Alfonso, amene tsopano anali kadinala, Rodrigo anasamukira ku Italy, kumene anakachita maphunziro a zamalamulo. Pamene Alfonso anakhala Papa Calixtus III, anasankha Rodrigo ndi mbale wake wina kuti akhale makadinala. Pere Lluís Borgia anapatsidwa udindo wolamulira mizinda ingapo. Pasanapite nthaŵi yaitali Rodrigo anasankhidwa kukhala wachiŵiri kwa wolamulira wamkulu kwambiri wa tchalitchi, ndipo anakhala pa udindo umenewu pansi pa mapapa angapo, zimene zinam’thandiza kupeza maudindo olandira nawo ndalama m’tchalitchi, chuma chadzaoneni, mphamvu zopanda nazo malire, ndiponso anakhala moyo wotukuka kwambiri ngati kalonga.

Rodrigo anali wanzeru, wodziŵa kulankhula pa gulu, wokonda ntchito zaluso, ndipo amati akafuna kuchita kanthu amakachitadi. Koma anali ndi akazi azibwenzi angapo, ndipo anabereka ana anayi ndi chibwenzi chake chimene anakhala nacho moyo wake wonse, komanso anabereka ana ena ndi akazi ena. Ngakhale kuti Papa Pius II anam’dzudzula  Rodrigo chifukwa cha “kusadziletsa” kwake ndi “kukondetsa zinthu zosangalatsa thupi,” iye sanasinthe khalidwe lake.

Atafa Papa Innocent VIII mu 1492, makadinala a tchalitchi anakumana kuti asankhe papa wotsatira. N’zodziŵika bwino kuti Rodrigo Borgia anagula mavoti kwa makadinala anzake powapatsa ziphuphu mopanda ndi manyazi omwe, ndipo pamsonkhano wosankha mtsogoleri watsopano, anam’sankha kuti akhale Papa Alexander VI. Kodi iye anawalipira bwanji makadinalawo chifukwa chomuvotera? Anawapatsa maudindo m’tchalitchi, komanso nyumba zachifumu, nyumba zikuluzikulu, mizinda, nyumba za ansembe, ndiponso anawaika pa maudindo oti akhale mabishopu olandira ndalama zambiri. Mwina mungamvetse chifukwa chimene wolemba mbiri za tchalitchi wina ananenera kuti nthaŵi imene Alexander VI ankalamulira inali “nthaŵi imene Tchalitchi cha Roma chinali ndi mbiri yoipa komanso yochititsa manyazi.”

Wosasiyana N’komwe ndi Akalonga

Chifukwa chakuti anali mkulu wa tchalitchi, Alexander VI anathetsa mkangano umene unalipo pakati pa dziko la Spain ndi la Portugal wolimbirana malo amene anali atangotulukiridwa kumene ku America. Chifukwa cha mphamvu zolamulira dziko zimene anali nazo, anakhala mkulu wa maboma olamulidwa ndi apapa amene anali ndi madera ena m’chigawo chapakati ku Italy, ndipo analamulira madera ameneŵa mosasiyana n’komwe ndi mafumu ena onse a panthaŵi imeneyo. Choncho, ulamuliro wa Alexander VI, monga momwe unalili wa apapa ena iye asanakhale ndi ena amene anabwera iye atakhala kale, unali wodzala ndi ziphuphu, kukondera, komanso anali kum’ganizira kuti anapha anthu ambiri.

Panthaŵi ya chisokonezo imeneyi, olamulira a mayiko osiyanasiyana ankalimbirana madera a ku Italy, ndipo papayu sanangokhala osachita chilichonse. Papayu anagwiritsa ntchito ndale kuti zim’thandize, ndipo anasainirana mapangano ndi anzake kenako n’kuwaswa ndi cholinga choti akhale ndi mphamvu yaikulu, atukule moyo wa ana ake, ndiponso akweze banja la a Borgia pamwamba pa mabanja ena onse. Mwana wake wamwamuna Juan, amene anakwatira msuwani wa mfumu ya ku Castile, anasankhidwa kukhala mfumu ya ku Gandía ku Spain. Jofré, mwana wake wina wamwamuna, anakwatira mdzukulu wa mfumu ya ku Naples.

Pamene papayu anafuna wothandizana naye kulimbitsa ubale wa dziko lake ndi dziko la France, anathetsa chitomero cha mwana wake wamkazi wa zaka 13, Lucrezia, ndi mwana wa m’banja lachifumu la ku Aragon ndipo m’malo mwake anam’kwatitsa kwa mbale wa mfumu ya ku Milan. Ataona kuti ukwati umenewu sungam’thandizenso pa ntchito zake za ndale, anapeza chonamizira n’kuuthetsa, ndipo anakwatitsa Lucrezia kwa munthu wochokera ku banja lachifumu lodana ndi banja la mfumu ya ku Milan, amene dzina lake linali Alfonso wa ku Aragon. Panthaŵi imeneyi, mchimwene wa Lucrezia, Cesare Borgia, amene anali wokonda maudindo komanso wankhanza, anachita pangano ndi Louis XII, mfumu ya ku France, kuti pakhale ubale pakati pa mayiko awo, ndipo anaona kuti ukwati wa mchemwali wake kwa munthu wa ku Aragon umam’chititsa manyazi. Kodi iye anachita chiyani? Nkhani ina imati Alfonso, mwamuna wa Lucrezia wosalakwayo, “anavulazidwa ndi anthu anayi amene anafuna kumupha pakhonde pa tchalitchi cha St. Peter’s. Mabala akewo akupola, mmodzi wa antchito a Cesare anam’kanyanga pakhosi n’kumupha.” Papayo, pofuna kukhala pa ubale ndi mayiko ena, zimene anaona kuti zim’thandiza pa zolinga zake, anakonza zoti mwana wake Lucrezia, amene tsopano anali ndi zaka 21, akwatiwenso kachitatu, ndipo anakwatiwa ndi mwana wa mfumu yamphamvu ya ku Ferrara.

Moyo wa Cesare aufotokoza kukhala “nkhani yonena za munthu wa khalidwe loipa, amene anapha anthu ambiri.” Ngakhale kuti bambo ake  anamusankha Cesare kukhala kadinala ali ndi zaka 17, khalidwe lake likusonyeza kuti anafunika atakhala msilikali, osati munthu watchalitchi, chifukwa anali wochenjeretsa, wokonda maudindo, ndi wokonda ziphuphu monga mmene analili anthu ena angapo. Atasiya ntchito ya m’tchalitchi, anakwatira mwana wa mfumu wa ku France, zimene zinam’thandiza kuti apatsidwe ufumu woyang’anira dera la Valentinois. Ndiyeno, mothandizidwa ndi asilikali a ku France, anayamba kumenya nkhondo, komanso kupha anthu kuti alande madera a kumpoto kwa Italy.

Pofuna kuti asilikali a ku France athandize Cesare kukwanitsa zolinga zake, papa analolera kuti Louis XII wa ku France atsate njira imene inali yothandiza koma yowonongetsa mbiri yake, yoti athetse ukwati wake n’kukwatira Anne wa ku Brittany, kenako n’kuonjezera dera limene linali pansi pa ulamuliro wa Anneyo ku ufumu wake. Malinga ndi zimene buku lina linanena, zimenezi zikutanthauza kuti papayo “analolera kunyozetsa Tchalitchi ndi kuphwanya malamulo ake okhwima kuti apezere anthu a m’banja mwake zinthu zabwino zimene amazifuna.”

Anadzudzula Khalidwe Lotayirira la Apapa

Kutayirira kwa anthu a m’banja la a Borgia kunawadanitsa ndi anthu ndipo ambiri anawadzudzula. Papayo sankawamvera anthu amene amam’dzudzulawo, koma panali munthu mmodzi amene amafunitsitsa kuti amvedwe basi, Girolamo Savonarola. Anali gulupa wa chipani cha Dominic, mlaliki wachangu kwambiri, ndiponso mtsogoleri wandale wa ku Florence. Iye anadzudzula kwambiri khalidwe loipa la apapa onse, komanso zinthu zoipa zimene papa wa panthaŵi imeneyo amachita, ndipo ananena kuti papayo ayenera kuchotsedwa pa udindo, ndipo zinthu m’tchalitchi ziyenera kusintha. Savonarola analankhula mwamphamvu kuti: “Atsogoleri a Tchalitchi, . . . usiku mumapita kwa zibwenzi zanu, ndipo m’maŵa ku masakalamenti anu.” Pa nthaŵi ina anati: “[Atsogoleri amenewo] ali ngati mahule, kutchuka kwawo kutionongera Tchalitchi. Anthu ameneŵa, ndikukuuzani, sakhulupirira Chikristu.”

Pofuna kuti Savonarola akhale chete, papayo anam’nyengerera pomuuza kuti am’patsa udindo wa ukadinala, koma iye anakana. Kaya n’chifukwa chodana ndi apapa, kapena chifukwa cha kulalikira kwakeko, Savonarola pamapeto pake anam’chotsa mu mpingo, kum’manga, kum’zunza kuti alape, kenaka anam’nyonga n’kumuotcha.

Mafunso Ofunika Kuwaganizira Bwino

Zinthu zimene zinachitika kalezi zimadzutsa mafunso ofunika kuwaganizira bwino. Kodi n’chiyani chimene chingapangitse kuti papa akhale kathyali komanso wa khalidwe loipa chotero? Kodi anthu olemba mbiri amati chifukwa chake n’chiyani? Iwo akupereka mfundo zosiyanasiyana.

Ambiri amanena kuti tiyenera kumumvetsa Alexander VI mogwirizana ndi nthaŵi imene ankakhala. Cholinga chachikulu cha ntchito zake zandale ndi zatchalitchi akuti chinali chobweretsa mtendere, kuthetsa mikangano pakati pa mayiko, kulimbikitsa ubale ndi mayiko amene amaikira kumbuyo apapa, komanso kulimbikitsa mgwirizano pakati pa mafumu a m’gawo la Matchalitchi Achikristu kuti athe kulimbana ndi dziko la Turkey.

Nanga bwanji khalidwe lakelo? Katswiri wina anati: “Panthaŵi iliyonse Tchalitchi chakhala ndi Akristu oipa ndi ansembe opanda pake. Kuti pasakhale munthu wodabwa ndi zimenezi, Kristu mwiniwakeyo ananeneratu zimenezi. Iye anayerekezera Tchalitchi chake ndi munda umene mukumera tirigu wabwino ndi namsongole, kapena khoka limene mwaloŵa nsomba zabwino ndi zoipa, monganso mmene iyeyo analolera kukhala ndi Yudasi pakati pa atumwi ake.” *

Katswiri yemweyu akupitiriza kunena kuti: “Kachitsulo koikapo mwala wokongola kakaonongeka  sikachepetsa mtengo wa mwala wokongolawo, chimodzimodzinso kuchimwa kwa wansembe sikuipitsa . . . zimene akuphunzitsa. . . . Golide amakhalabe golide, kaya dzanja limene likum’pereka pogaŵira ena n’loyera kapena lodetsedwa.” Mkatolika wina wolemba mbiri anati mfundo imene Akatolika oona mtima anayenera kutsatira pa nkhani ya Alexander VI ndiyo malangizo amene Yesu anapereka kwa ophunzira ake ponena za alembi ndi Afarisi: ‘Muzichita zimene iwo akunena, osati zimene akuchita.’ (Mateyu 23:2, 3) Koma, kodi n’zoona kuti mfundo zimenezi zikukukhutiritsani inuyo?

Kodi Chimenechi Ndi Chikristu Choona?

Yesu anatisiyira njira yosavuta yodziŵira ngati Akristu ali oona kapena ayi: “Mudzawazindikira ndi zipatso zawo. Kodi atchera mphesa paminga, kapena nkhuyu pamtula? Chomwecho mtengo wabwino uliwonse upatsa zipatso zokoma; koma mtengo wamphuchi upatsa zipatso zoipa. Sungathe mtengo wabwino kupatsa zipatso zoipa, kapena mtengo wamphuchi kupatsa zipatso zokoma. Inde chomwecho pa zipatso zawo mudzawazindikira iwo.”​—Mateyu 7:16-18, 20.

Potsatira njira yodziŵira Akristu oona imeneyi, kodi atsogoleri a chipembedzo ambiri zaka mazana ambiri zapitazi asonyeza kuti ndi Akristu otani? Nanga masiku ano, kodi iwo akusonyeza kuti ndi otani? Kodi akutsatira chitsanzo cha Chikristu choona chimene Yesu anakhazikitsa komanso chimene otsatira ake oona anasonyeza? Tiyeni tione mbali ziŵiri zokha​—kuloŵerera m’ndale za dziko, ndi moyo wawo.

Yesu sanali kalonga wa dziko. Iye anakhala moyo wosafuna zinthu zambiri, moti anavomereza kuti analibe ngakhale “potsamira mutu wake.” Ufumu wake sunali “wa dziko lino lapansi,” ndipo ophunzira ake sanayenera kukhala “a dziko lapansi monga [iye sanali] wa dziko lapansi.” Choncho, Yesu anakana kuloŵa ndale zimene zinalipo nthaŵi imeneyo.​—Mateyu 8:20; Yohane 6:15; 17:16; 18:36

Koma, kodi si zoona kuti kwa zaka mazana ambiri zipembedzo zakhala zikugwirizana ndi atsogoleri a ndale kuti awapatse mphamvu ndi chuma, ngakhale kuti zimenezi zachititsa kuti anthu wamba azivutika? Kodi si zoonanso kuti atsogoleri a chipembedzo ambiri amakhala moyo wa mwanaalirenji, ngakhale kuti anthu ambiri amene ayenera kuwatumikira ali pa umphaŵi wadzaoneni?

Mbale wa Yesu, Yakobo, anati: “Akazi achigololo inu, kodi simudziŵa kuti ubwenzi wa dziko lapansi uli udani ndi Mulungu? Potero iye amene afuna kukhala bwenzi la dziko lapansi adziika mdani wa Mulungu.” (Yakobo 4:4) “Mdani wa Mulungu” chifukwa chiyani? Yohane woyamba 5:19 amati: “Dziko lonse lapansi ligona mwa woipayo.”

Ponena za khalidwe la Alexander VI, wolemba mbiri wina amene anakhala ndi moyo pa nthaŵi imodzi ndi Borgia anati: “Moyo wake unali wotayirira. Analibe manyazi kapena chilungamo, chikhulupiriro kapena chipembedzo. Anali ndi dyera ladzaoneni, amakonda udindo mopitirira muyezo, anali wankhanza zosaneneka, ndipo ankalakalaka kutukula moyo wa ana ake ambirimbiriwo.” Koma sikuti pa atsogoleri a tchalitchi ndi Borgia yekha amene anali ndi khalidwe lotero.

Kodi Malemba amati chiyani za khalidwe loterolo? Mtumwi Paulo anafunsa kuti: “Kapena simudziŵa kuti osalungama sadzalandira ufumu wa Mulungu? Musasocheretsedwe; adama, kapena . . . achigololo, kapena . . . osirira, . . . sadzaloŵa Ufumu wa Mulungu.”​—1 Akorinto 6:9, 10.

Cholinga cha chionetsero chimene chinachitika posachedwa ku Rome chokhudza a m’banja la a Borgia chinali chofuna “kuwamvetsa anthu otchuka ameneŵa mogwirizana ndi nthaŵi imene anakhalako . . . , kuwamvetsetsa koma osati kuwakhululukira kapena kuwaimba mlandu.” Chotero, aliyense amene anabwera kudzaona chionetserocho anali ndi ufulu woiona nkhaniyo malinga ndi mmene akuganizira. Kodi inuyo maganizo anu ndi otani pa nkhani imeneyi?

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 20 Kuti mumve tanthauzo lolondola la mafanizo ameneŵa, onani Nsanja ya Olonda, ya February 1, 1995, masamba 5 mpaka 6, ndi ya June 15, 1992, masamba 17 mpaka 22.

[Chithunzi patsamba 26]

Rodrigo Borgia, Papa Alexander VI

[Chithunzi patsamba 27]

Abambo ake a Lucrezia Borgia anam’gwiritsa ntchito kuchulukitsa mphamvu zawo

[Chithunzi patsamba 28]

Cesare Borgia anali wokonda maudindo ndi ziphuphu

[Chithunzi patsamba 29]

Chifukwa chakuti Girolamo Savonarola sanalole kukhala chete, ananyongedwa n’kuotchedwa