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Kodi Tatian Anali Woikira Kumbuyo Chikristu Kapena Anali Wopanduka?

Kodi Tatian Anali Woikira Kumbuyo Chikristu Kapena Anali Wopanduka?

 Kodi Tatian Anali Woikira Kumbuyo Chikristu Kapena Anali Wopanduka?

CHAKUMAPETO kwa ulendo wake waumishonale wachitatu, mtumwi Paulo anaitanitsa msonkhano wa akulu a mu mpingo wa ku Efeso. Iye anawauza kuti: “Ndidziŵa ine kuti, nditachoka ine, adzaloŵa mimbulu yosautsa, yosalekerera gululo; ndipo mwa inu nokha adzauka anthu, olankhula zokhotakhota, kupatutsa ophunzira awatsate.”​—Machitidwe 20:29, 30.

Mogwirizana ndi mmene ananenera Paulo, zaka za m’ma 100 C.E. zinalidi nthaŵi ya kusintha komanso ya mpatuko umene ananeneratu kuti udzabwera. Chinositisizimu, chomwe chinali chiphunzitso chachipembedzo komanso cha nzeru za anthu chimene chinawononga chikhulupiriro cha Akristu ena, chinali kukula. Anthu otsata chiphunzitsochi ankakhulupirira kuti zinthu zauzimu zonse n’zabwino, ndipo zina zonse n’zoipa. Poganiza kuti zilakolako zonse n’zoipa, iwo ankadana ndi kukwatira ndi kubereka ana chifukwa amati zimenezi anaziyambitsa ndi Satana. Ena a iwo ankakhulupirira kuti popeza zinthu zauzimu zokha n’zimene zili zabwino, palibe vuto ngati munthu atachita chinthu china chilichonse chimene angafune ndi thupi lake. Kuganiza koteroko kunapangitsa kuti anthu azichita zinthu monyanyira. Ena ankakhala moyo wodzimana kwambiri, pamene ena ankakhala moyo wotayirira kwambiri. Zimene ankanena zoti munthu sangapulumuke pokhapokha atadzera ku Chinositisizimu chovuta kumvetsacho, kapena podzidziŵa bwino kwambiri, zinalanda malo a choonadi cha Mawu a Mulungu.

Kodi anthu amene ankati anali Akristu anachita chiyani patabwera Chinositisizimu chowonongacho? Anthu ena ophunzira anatsutsa ziphunzitso zake zolakwa, pamene ena anayamba kukhulupirira ziphunzitso zolakwazo. Mwachitsanzo, Irenaeus anakhala moyo wake wonse akutsutsa ziphunzitso za mpatuko. Anaphunzitsidwa ndi Polycarp, munthu amene analipo panthaŵi ya atumwi. Polycarp ankaphunzitsa kuti m’pofunika kutsatira mosamalitsa zinthu zonse zimene Yesu Kristu ndi atumwi ake anaphunzitsa. Koma mnzake wa Irenaeus wotchedwa Florinus, yemwenso anaphunzitsidwa ndi Polycarp, pamapeto pake anavomereza ziphunzitso za Valentinus, amene anali mtsogoleri wotchuka kwambiri wa gulu lotsata Chinositisizimu. Imeneyo inalidi nthaŵi yachisokonezo.

Zimene analemba Tatian, wolemba wa m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., zimatisonyeza mmene maganizo a anthu analili panthaŵi imeneyo. Kodi Tatian anali munthu wotani? Kodi zinatani kuti aloŵe nawo Chikristu? Nanga zinthu zinam’thera bwanji kutabwera chiphunzitso cha mpatuko cha Chinositisizimu? Mayankho a Tatian ochititsa chidwi komanso chitsanzo cha moyo wake, zili ndi maphunziro ofunika kwambiri kwa anthu ofunafuna choonadi lerolino.

Anapeza “Zolemba Zina Zachilendo”

Tatian kwawo kunali ku Syria. Chifukwa chakuti anayenda kwambiri komanso anali munthu  wokonda kuŵerenga kwambiri, anadziŵa zinthu zambiri zokhudza chikhalidwe cha Aroma ndi Agiriki chimene chinalipo nthaŵi imeneyo. Tatian anabwera ku Rome monga munthu wodziŵa kulankhula pamaso pa anthu amene anali woyendayenda. Koma ali ku Rome, anakopeka ndi Chikristu. Anayamba kucheza ndi Justin Martyr, ndipo mwina anasanduka wophunzira wake.

Mu nkhani imene anafotokozamo bwinobwino mmene analoŵera Chikristu cha nthaŵi imeneyo, Tatian analemba kuti: “Ndinafunafuna njira yoti ndipezere choonadi.” Pofotokozapo za mmene anamvera atapeza mwayi woŵerenga Malemba, iye anati: “Ndinapeza zolemba zina zachilendo. Zolemba zimenezi zinali zakale kwambiri zosati n’kuziyerekezera ndi mfundo za Agiriki, ndipo zinali zabwino kwambiri zosati n’kuziyerekezera ndi zolakwitsa za Agiriki. Ndinakopeka n’kukhulupirira zolemba zimenezi chifukwa cha mawu ake osavuta kumva, kuona mtima kwa olemba ake, maulosi ake, mfundo zake zogwira mtima, komanso chifukwa chakuti zinkanena za boma la chilengedwe chonse lolamulidwa ndi Mulungu mmodzi.”

Tatian nthaŵi yomweyo anayamba kuuza anzake kuti apende Chikristu cha nthaŵi yake komanso kuti aone kuphweka ndi kumveka bwino kwake, poyerekezera ndi chisokonezo cha chikunja. Kodi tingaphunzire chiyani kuchokera ku zolemba zake?

Kodi Zolemba Zake Zimasonyeza Chiyani?

Zolemba za Tatian zimasonyeza kuti anali woikira kumbuyo Chikristu, amene ankalemba zinthu zoteteza chipembedzo chake. Amadana kwambiri ndi ziphunzitso zachikunja. Mu nkhani yake yotchedwa Address to the Greeks, Tatian anasonyeza kupanda pake kwa chikunja ndi kumveka bwino kwa Chikristu. Analankhula mosapita m’mbali potsutsana ndi zimene ankachita Agiriki. Mwachitsanzo, ponena za munthu wokonda nzeru za anthu Heracleitus, Tatian anati: “Imfa inasonyeza kupusa kwa munthu ameneyu, chifukwa atadwala matenda otchedwa mbulu, monga munthu woti anaphunzira za mankhwala ndi nzeru za anthu, anadzimata ndowe za ng’ombe, ndipo pamene ndowezo zimauma, zinakoka mnofu wa thupi lake lonse, mpaka anang’ambika n’kufa.”

Tatian ankakhulupirira kwambiri kuti kuli Mulungu mmodzi, Mlengi wa zinthu zonse. (Ahebri 3:4) Mu nkhani yotchedwa Address to the Greeks, iye anati Mulungu ndi “Mzimu” ndipo anatinso: “Ndi Iye yekha amene alibe chiyambi, ndipo Iye Mwiniyo ndiye chiyambi cha zinthu  zonse.” (Yohane 4:24; 1 Timoteo 1:17) Potsutsana ndi kugwiritsa ntchito mafano popembedza, Tatian analemba kuti: “Ndinganene bwanji kuti zidutswa za mitengo komanso miyala ndi milungu?” (1 Akorinto 10:14) Iye anakhulupirira kuti Mawu, kapena kuti Logos, anali woyamba wa zolengedwa za Atate wakumwamba ndipo kenaka anagwiritsidwa ntchito polenga zinthu zonse. (Yohane 1:1-3; Akolose 1:13-17) Ponena za kuuka kwa akufa panthaŵi yoikidwa, Tatian anati: “Timakhulupirira kuti padzakhala kuuka kwa matupi pambuyo pa kutha kwa zinthu zonse.” Ponena za chifukwa chimene timafera, Tatiana analemba kuti: “Sitinalengedwe kuti tizifa, koma timafa chifukwa cha kulakwa kwathu. Ufulu wathu wosankha zinthu watiwononga, ndipo ife amene tinali mfulu tasanduka akapolo, tagulitsidwa chifukwa cha uchimo.”

Zimene Tatian analemba pofotokoza mzimu n’zosokoneza. Iye anati: “Agiriki inu, mzimu sikuti sumafa ayi, umafa. Komabe, n’zotheka kuti usafe. Zoona, ngati sudziŵa choonadi, umafa ndipo umasungunikira limodzi ndi thupi, koma udzadzukanso pomaliza pamapeto a dzikoli limodzi ndi thupi, ndipo udzapatsidwa chilango chosatha cha imfa.” Zimene Tatian kwenikweni amatanthauza ponena mawu ameneŵa sizikudziŵika. Kodi n’kutheka kuti ngakhale ankakhulupirira ziphunzitso zina za m’Baibulo, Tatian ankafunabe kugwirizana ndi anzake ndipo anasakaniza choonadi cha m’Malemba ndi ziphunzitso zachikunja?

Buku lina lotchuka la Tatian limatchedwa Diatessaron, kapena kuti, Harmony of the Four Gospels. Tatian anali munthu woyamba kulembera mipingo ya ku Syria Mauthenga Abwino m’chilankhulo chawo. Limeneli linali buku lotchuka kwambiri, ndipo analembamo Mauthenga Abwino onse anayi ngati nkhani imodzi. Buku limeneli linkagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi Tchalitchi cha Syria.

Kodi Anali Mkristu Kapena Wopanduka?

Tikaŵerenga mofatsa zimene Tatian analemba timaona kuti ankawadziŵa bwino Malemba ndipo ankawalemekeza kwambiri. Pofotokoza mmene Malemba anam’khudzira, iye analemba kuti: “Sindilakalaka kulemera, ndimakana usilikali, ndimanyansidwa ndi chiŵereŵere, sindikakamizika kuti ndikhale mmalinyero chifukwa chofunitsitsa chuma; . . . Ndikakhala sikuti ndimangoganiza zofuna kutchuka; . . . Anthu onse amaothera dzuŵa limodzi lomwelo, ndipo onse amafa, kaya akhale pamtendere kapena paumphaŵi wadzaoneni.” Tatian analangiza anthu kuti: “Siyanani nalo dziko, ndipo kanani misala imene ili mmenemo. Khalani ndi moyo mogwirizana ndi Mulungu, ndipo chifukwa chomudziŵa bwino vulani umunthu wanu wakale.”​—Mateyu 5:45; 1 Akorinto 6:18; 1 Timoteo 6:10.

Koma taonani zimene Tatian analemba mu nkhani yotchedwa On Perfection According to the Doctrine of the Savior. Mu nkhani imeneyi ananena kuti ukwati unachokera kwa Mdyerekezi. Tatian ankadana kwambiri ndi kukwatira chifukwa amati munthu akakwatira amakhala kapolo wa dziko limene lidzaonongedwe.

Zikuoneka kuti pafupifupi m’chaka cha 166 C.E., pambuyo pa imfa ya Justin Martyr, Tatian anayambitsa, kapena anakaloŵa nawo, gulu la anthu a mpatuko odzimana kwambiri la Aenkirito. Anthu otsatira gulu limeneli ankalimbikitsa kudziletsa kwambiri komanso kuti azilamulira thupi lawo. Ankakhala moyo wodzimana kwambiri ndipo sankamwa vinyo, kukwatira, kapena kukhala ndi zinthu.

Zimene Tiyenera Kuphunzirapo

Kodi n’chifukwa chiyani Tatian anasiyana kwambiri choncho ndi Malemba? Kodi anasanduka “wakumva wakuiwala”? (Yakobo 1:23-25) Kodi Tatian analephera kukana nkhani zachabe n’kukodwa mu msampha wa nzeru za anthu? (Akolose 2:8; 1 Timoteo 4:7) Popeza zikhulupiriro zabodza zimene ankatsatira zinali zazikulu kwambiri, kodi chinali chifukwa chakuti mwina anali atazungulira mutu?

Mulimonse mmene zinakhalira, zolemba za Tatian zimatisonyeza mmene zinthu zinalili pa nkhani ya chipembedzo pa nthaŵi imeneyo. Zimatisonyeza mmene nzeru za anthu zingawonongere chikhulupiriro. Choncho, tiyeni timvere chenjezo la mtumwi Paulo lakuti tipeŵe “zokamba zopanda pake ndi zotsutsana za ichi chitchedwa chizindikiritso [cho]nama.”​—1 Timoteo 6:20.