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Kodi Guwa la Nsembe N’lofunika Polambira?

Kodi Guwa la Nsembe N’lofunika Polambira?

 Kodi Guwa la Nsembe N’lofunika Polambira?

KODI guwa la nsembe mumaliona kukhala lofunika kwambiri pa kulambira kwanu? Kwa anthu ambiri amene amapita m’Matchalitchi Achikristu, angaone guwa la nsembe kukhala lofunika kwambiri. Kodi munayamba mwapenda zimene Baibulo limanena pankhani yogwiritsira ntchito maguwa a nsembe polambira?

Guwa la nsembe loyamba kutchulidwa m’Baibulo ndi limene Nowa anamanga kuti aziperekerapo nsembe za nyama, atatuluka mu chingalawa chimene anapulumukira Chigumula. *​—Genesis 8:20.

Zinenero zitasokonezeka pa Babele, anthu anafalikira padziko lonse lapansi. (Genesis 11:1-9) Popeza anthu mwachibadwa amafuna kulambira, iwo anafuna kuyandikira kwa Mulungu, amene kumudziŵa kwawo kunali kucheperachepera. ‘Anam’funafuna’ mwachimbulimbuli. (Machitidwe 17:27; Aroma 2:14, 15) Kuyambira masiku a Nowa, anthu ambiri amangira milungu yawo maguwa a nsembe. Zipembedzo ndiponso anthu osiyanasiyana agwiritsira ntchito maguwa a nsembe pa kulambira konyenga. Anthu ena chifukwa chotalikirana ndi Mulungu woona, agwiritsira ntchito maguwa a nsembe pa miyambo yonyansa kwambiri imene ina mwa iyo inali kupereka nsembe anthu, ngakhalenso ana. Mafumu ena achiisrayeli atamusiya Yehova, anamangira maguwa a nsembe milungu yachikunja monga Baala. (1 Mafumu 16:29-32) Nanga bwanji kugwiritsira ntchito maguwa a nsembe pa kulambira koona?

Maguwa a Nsembe ndi Kulambira Koona mu Israyeli

Pambuyo pa Nowa, anthu ena okhulupirika anamanga maguwa a nsembe kuti azigwiritsira ntchito polambira Mulungu woona, Yehova. Abrahamu anamanga maguwa a nsembe ku Sekemu, pafupi ndi Beteli, ku Hebroni, ndi paphiri la Moriya, kumene anapereka nsembe nkhosa yamphongo imene Mulungu anamupatsa m’malo moti apereke nsembe Isake. Patapita nthaŵi, Isake, Yakobo, ndi Mose anamanga maguwa a nsembe mwa kufuna kwawo, kuti azigwiritsira ntchito polambira Mulungu.​—Genesis 12:6-8; 13:3, 18; 22:9-13; 26:23-25; 33:18-20; 35:1, 3, 7; Eksodo 17:15, 16; 24:4-8.

Mulungu atapatsa Aisrayeli Chilamulo chake, anawalamula kuti amange chihema chimene chinali choti azichinyamula, chomwe chimatchedwanso “chihema chokomanako,” monga chinthu chofunika kwambiri akafuna kulankhula naye. (Eksodo 39:32, 40) Chihemacho chinali ndi maguwa a nsembe aŵiri. Guwa lina linali la nsembe zopsereza, analipanga ndi mtengo wasitimu  wokutidwa ndi mkuwa, analiika kunja kwa khomo ndipo anali kuligwiritsa ntchito popereka nsembe za nyama. (Eksodo 27:1-8; 39:39; 40:6, 29) Guwa lina linali lofukizirapo zonunkhira. Ilinso linali la mtengo wasitimu koma lokutidwa ndi golide ndipo linaikidwa mkati mwa chihema, pafupi ndi nsalu yotchinga Malo Opatulikitsa. (Eksodo 30:1-6; 39:38; 40:5, 26, 27) Zinthu zonunkhira mwapadera anali kuzifukiza pamenepa kaŵiri patsiku, m’mawa ndi madzulo. (Eksodo 30:7-9) Kachisi wokhalitsa amene Mfumu Solomo anamanga anatsatira kamangidwe ka chihema, kokhala ndi maguwa a nsembe aŵiri.

“Chihema Choona” Ndiponso Guwa la Nsembe Lophiphiritsira

Pamene Yehova anapatsa Aisrayeli Chilamulo, anawapatsa zambiri kuwonjezera pa malamulo oti anthu ake azitsatira pamoyo wawo ndiponso mmene angalankhulire naye popereka nsembe ndi popemphera. Mbali zake zambiri zinali ndi zimene mtumwi Paulo anati ndi “chifaniziro” “chiphiphiritso,” kapena “mthunzi wa zakumwambazo.” (Ahebri 8:3-5; 9:9; 10:1; Akolose 2:17) M’mawu ena, tinganene kuti mbali zambiri za Chilamulo zinatsogolera Aisrayeli mpaka kubwera kwa Kristu ndiponso zinaimira zolinga za Mulungu zimene zidzakwaniritsidwa mwa Yesu Kristu. (Agalatiya 3:24) Inde, mbali za Chilamulo zinali zaulosi. Mwachitsanzo, mwana wankhosa wa Paskha, amene mwazi wake unali kugwiritsidwa ntchito monga chizindikiro cha chipulumutso cha Aisrayeli, unaimira Yesu Kristu. Iye ndiye “Mwanawankhosa wa Mulungu amene achotsa tchimo lake la dziko lapansi,” amene mwazi wake unakhetsedwa kuti utimasule ku machimo.​—Yohane 1:29; Aefeso 1:7.

Zinthu zambiri zokhudza chihema ndi utumiki wa pakachisi zinali kuimira zinthu zauzimu. (Ahebri 8:5; 9:23) Ndipotu, Paulo analemba za “chihema choona, chimene Ambuye anachimanga, si munthu ai.” Anapitiriza kuti: ‘Anafika Kristu, Mkuluwansembe wa zokoma zilinkudza, mwa chihema chachikulu ndi changwiro choposa, chosamangika ndi manja, ndiko kunena kuti, chosati cha chilengedwe ichi.’ (Ahebri 8:2; 9:11) “Chihema chachikulu ndi changwiro choposa” chinali kachisi wamkulu wauzimu yemwe Yehova anakonza. Mmene Malemba amafotokozera amasonyeza kuti kachisi wamkulu wauzimu ndi makonzedwe othandiza anthu kulankhula ndi Yehova pamaziko a nsembe yowombola ya Yesu Kristu.​—Ahebri 9:2-10, 23-28.

Ndithudi, kuphunzira m’Mawu a Mulungu kuti zinthu zina za m’Chilamulo zimaimira zinthu zauzimu zazikulu, zofunika kwambiri, kumalimbitsa chikhulupiriro chakuti Baibulo n’louziridwa. Ndiponso kumakulitsa kuyamikira nzeru za Mulungu zoonekera mwapadera m’Malemba.​—Aroma 11:33; 2 Timoteo 3:16.

Guwa la nsembe zopsereza linalinso laulosi. Zikuoneka kuti limaimira “chifuniro” cha Mulungu kapena kuti kufunitsitsa kwake kulandira nsembe ya Yesu yangwiro.​—Ahebri 10:1-10.

Kenako m’buku la Ahebri, Paulo ananena mawu osangalatsa awa: “Tili nalo guwa la nsembe, limene iwo akutumikira chihema alibe ulamuliro wa kudyako.” (Ahebri 13:10) Kodi anali kunena za guwa la nsembe liti?

Omasulira ambiri achikatolika amati guwa la nsembe lotchulidwa pa Ahebri 13:10 ndi limene limagwiritsidwa ntchito pochita Ukalisitiya, “sakaramenti” imene amati nsembe ya Kristu imabwerezedwa pochita Misa. Koma mungaone mu nkhani ya m’lembali kuti guwa la nsembe limene Paulo anali kunena n’lophiphiritsira. Akatswiri angapo a maphunziro amanena kuti mawu akuti “guwa la nsembe” palemba limeneli ndi ophiphiritsira. Kwa Giuseppe Bonsirven,  m’Jezuwiti, “zimenezi zikugwirizana ndendende ndi mawu ophiphiritsira ena onse a m’kalata [yopita kwa Ahebri].” Iye anati: “Pachikristu, mawu akuti ‘guwa la nsembe’ poyamba ankaligwiritsira ntchito mwauzimu koma pambuyo pa Irenaeus, ndiponso makamaka pambuyo pa Tertullian ndi St. Cyprian, linayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito pa ukalisitiya ndipo makamaka pa gome la ukalisitiya.”

Monga imanenera magazini ya Akatolika, kugwiritsira ntchito guwa la nsembe kunafala pa “nthaŵi ya Konsitantini” pamene “anamanga matchalitchi akuluakulu.” Magazini ya Rivista di Archeologia Cristiana (Kupenda Zofukulidwa m’Mabwinja Zokhudza Akristu) inati: “N’zachidziŵikire kuti m’zaka mazana aŵiri oyambirira, palibe anganene kuti panali malo enieni olambirira koma kuti misonkhano ya tchalitchi inali kuchitikira m’nyumba za anthu . . . , moti misonkhanoyi ikangotha, nthaŵi yomweyo zipindazo zinali kugwira ntchito zawo za masiku onse.”

Mmene Matchalitchi Achikristu Amagwiritsira Ntchito Guwa la Nsembe

Magazini yachikatolika yakuti La Civiltà Cattolica inati: “Guwa la nsembe ndi pachimake pa tchalitchi komanso chimake cha Tchalitchi chenichenicho.” Komabe, Yesu Kristu sanakhazikitse ndi mwambo umodzi womwe wachipembedzo woti uzichitikira pa guwa la nsembe; komanso sanalamule ophunzira ake kuchita miyambo pa maguwa a nsembe. Yesu potchula guwa la nsembe pa Mateyu 5:23, 24 ndi malo enanso anali kunena za miyambo ya chipembedzo imene inali yofala kwa Ayuda, koma sanasonyeze kuti otsatira ake anafunika kulambira Mulungu pogwiritsa ntchito guwa la nsembe.

Wolemba mbiri wa ku America dzina lake George Foot Moore (amene anakhala ndi moyo kuyambira mu 1851 mpaka mu 1931), analemba kuti: “Nthaŵi zonse zinthu zofunika kwambiri pa kulambira kwa Akristu sizinkasintha, koma patapita nthaŵi miyambo yosavuta imene Justin anaifotokoza mkatikati mwa zaka za m’ma 100 inawonjezedwa zambiri n’kufika poilambira.” Miyambo ya Akatolika ndiponso miyambo yachipembedzo yochitira pamaso pa anthu ndi yambiri zedi ndiponso yovuta kwambiri moti ndi phunziro la malamulo a chipembedzo m’maseminale a Akatolika. Moore anatinso: “Khalidwe limeneli, lochitidwa ndi miyambo yonse, linalimbikitsidwa ndi Chipangano Chakale pamene mtsogoleri wachipembedzo wachikristu anayamba kuonedwa monga woloŵa m’malo mwa ansembe odzozedwa ndi Mulungu anthaŵi imeneyo. Zovala zapamwamba za mkulu wa nsembe, zovala zapadera za ansembe ena, ndawala zachipembedzo, makwaya a Alevi oimba masalmo, zofukiza zambiri zimene zimachokera m’chofukizira chimene anali kuchilendeŵetsa​—zonse zinaoneka ngati zinaperekedwa ndi Mulungu monga njira yolambirira, imene inachititsa tchalitchi kuonetsa ngati chikuposa mwambo wa zipembedzo zakale.”

Mungadabwe kumva kuti miyambo yambiri, zovala, ndiponso zinthu zina zimene amazigwiritsa ntchito polambira m’matchalitchi osiyanasiyana imatengera miyambo ya Ayuda ndi ya Akunja osati ziphunzitso za Chikristu za m’Mauthenga Abwino. Buku lakuti Enciclopedia Cattolica limanena kuti Chikatolika “chinatengera kugwiritsira ntchito guwa la nsembe kwa Ayuda ndiponso ku chikunja.” Minucius Felix wokhalira kumbuyo chikhulupiriro wa m’zaka za m’ma 200 C.E, analemba kuti Akristu analibe ‘akachisi kapena maguwa a nsembe.’ Dikishonale ya Insaikulopediya ya Religioni e Miti (Zipembedzo ndi Nthano) inanena zofananazo kuti: “Akristu oyambirira anakana kugwiritsira ntchito guwa la nsembe kuti azisiyana ndi kulambira kwa Ayuda ndiponso kwa chikunja.”

Chifukwa chakuti Chikristu kwenikweni chinagona pa mfundo zofunika kuzivomereza ndiponso kuzigwiritsa ntchito pa moyo wa tsiku ndi tsiku ndiponso m’madera onse, panalibenso chifukwa chokhalira ndi mzinda woyera padziko lapansi, kapena kachisi weniweni wokhala ndi maguwa a nsembe, kapena kukhala ndi ansembe apamwamba ovala zovala zapadera. Yesu anati: “Ikudza nthaŵi, imene simudzalambira Atate kapena m’phiri ili, kapena m’Yerusalemu. . . . Olambira oona adzalambira Atate mumzimu ndi m’choonadi.” (Yohane 4:21, 23) Kuchulukitsitsa kwa miyambo ya matchalitchi ambiri ndiponso kugwiritsira ntchito maguwa a nsembe kumanyalanyaza zimene Yesu ananena za njira yolambirira Mulungu woona.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 3 Zimenezi zisanachitike, Kaini ndi Abele ayenera kuti anapereka nsembe zawo kwa Yehova pa guwa la nsembe.​—Genesis 4:3, 4.