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Kupereka Komwe Kumasangalatsa

Kupereka Komwe Kumasangalatsa

 Kupereka Komwe Kumasangalatsa

GENIVAL, amene amakhala m’dera losauka kwambiri kumpoto chakum’maŵa kwa dziko la Brazil, ankasamalira mkazi ndi ana ake ndi malipiro ochepa omwe ankalandira monga mlonda wa pachipatala. Ngakhale kuti anali ndi mavuto, Genival anali wokhulupirika kwambiri popereka chakhumi. “Nthaŵi zina banja langa linkakhala ndi njala,” iye anatero kwinaku akusisita pamimba, “koma ndinkafuna kupatsa Mulungu zinthu zabwino kwambiri, ngakhale kum’patsa zinthu zomwe ndinalibe.”

Ntchito itamuthera, Genival anapitirizabe kupereka chakhumi. Mbusa wa mpingo wake anam’limbikitsa kuti ayese Mulungu mwa kupereka zambiri. Mbusayo anam’tsimikizira kuti mosakayikira Mulungu adzam’dalitsa kwambiri. Motero Genival anaganiza zogulitsa nyumba yake ndi kukapereka ndalamazo kutchalitchi.

Sikuti ndi Genival yekha amene ndi wokhulupirika pa chopereka. Anthu ambiri osauka kotheratu amayesetsa kupereka chakhumi chifukwa chakuti matchalitchi awo amawaphunzitsa kuti Baibulo limanena kuti anthu azipereka chakhumi. Kodi zimenezi ndi zoona?

Kupereka Chakhumi Ndiponso Chilamulo

Lamulo lopereka chakhumi linali mbali ya Chilamulo chimene Yehova Mulungu anapatsa mafuko 12 a Israyeli wakale, zaka zoposa 3,500 zapitazo. Chilamulo chimenecho chinanena kuti limodzi la magawo khumi a zokolola zakumunda ndi mitengo ya zipatso ndiponso limodzi la magawo khumi a ziŵeto ziziperekedwa kwa fuko la Levi zothandiza pantchito ya fukoli ya pachihema.​—Levitiko 27:30, 32; Numeri 18:21, 24.

Yehova anatsimikizira Aisrayeli kuti Chilamulo ‘sichidzawalaka.’ (Deuteronomo 30:11) Yehova anawalonjeza kuti azikolola zinthu zochuluka malinga ngati atsatira mokhulupirika malamulo ake, kuphatikizapo kupereka chakhumi. Ndiponso pofuna kuti pasakhale vuto la kusoŵa kwa chakudya, nthaŵi zonse ankapatula chakhumi cha pachaka chowonjezera, chomwe nthaŵi zambiri ankachigwiritsira ntchito mtunduwo ukakumana pa zochitika zachipembedzo. Motero ‘mlendo, ndi ana amasiye, ndi mkazi wamasiye’ ankadya n’kukhuta.​—Deuteronomo 14:28, 29; 28:1, 2, 11-14.

Chilamulo sichinatchule mwatchutchutchu chilango choti munthu azipatsidwa akalephera kupereka chakhumi, koma Mwisrayeli aliyense anali ndi udindo waukulu wothandiza pa kulambira koona mwa njira imeneyi. Ndipotu, Yehova anadzudzula Aisrayeli amene ananyalanyaza kupereka chakhumi m’masiku a Malaki kuti anali ‘kumulanda zakhumi ndi zopereka.’ (Malaki 3:8, New International Version) Kodi Akristu omwe sakupereka chakhumi angaimbidwenso mlandu wofananawo?

Chabwino, tiyeni tione. Malamulo a dziko nthaŵi zambiri sagwira ntchito kunja kwa dzikolo. Mwachitsanzo, lamulo la ku Britain lakuti galimoto ziziyenda kumanzere siligwira ntchito kwa madalaivala ku France. Chimodzimodzinso lamulo la kupereka chakhumi, linali mbali ya pangano pakati pa Mulungu ndi mtundu wa Israyeli basi. (Eksodo 19:3-8; Salmo 147:19, 20) Ndi Aisrayeli okha omwe ankafunika kutsatira lamulo limenelo.

Kuwonjezera pamenepo, ngakhale kuti ndi zoona kuti Mulungu sasintha, zofuna zake nthaŵi zina zimasintha. (Malaki 3:6) Baibulo limanena mosapita m’mbali kuti imfa ya nsembe ya Yesu, mu 33 C.E., ‘inafafaniza,’ kapena kuti ‘inachotsa,’ Chilamulo ndipo pamodzi nacho “lamulo lakuti atenge limodzi la magawo khumi.”​—Akolose 2:13, 14; Aefeso 2:13-15; Ahebri 7:5, 18.

Kupereka Kwachikristu

Komabe zopereka zothandizira pa kulambira koona zinali kufunikabe. Yesu anali atalamula ophunzira ake kuti ‘akhale mboni kufikira malekezero  a dziko.’ (Machitidwe 1:8) Pamene chiŵerengero cha okhulupirira chimakula, nawonso aphunzitsi achikristu ndiponso oyang’anira oti azichezera ndi kulimbikitsa mipingo anali kufunika ambiri. Nthaŵi zina akazi amasiye, ana amasiye, ndiponso anthu ena ofuna thandizo ankafunika kusamaliridwa. Kodi Akristu a m’zaka 100 zoyambirira za Nyengo Yathu Ino ankatenga kuti ndalama zogwirira ntchito zimenezi?

Cha m’ma 55 C.E., Akristu a ku Ulaya ndi ku Asia Minor omwe sanali Ayuda anapemphedwa kuti athandize mpingo wovutika wa mu Yudeya. M’makalata ake opita ku mpingo wa Korinto mtumwi Paulo akufotokoza mmene “chopereka cha kwa oyera mtima” chimenechi chinalinganizidwira. (1 Akorinto 16:1) Mukhoza kudabwa ndi zimene mawu a Paulo akusonyeza pankhani ya kupereka kwachikristu.

Mtumwi Paulo sanaumirize okhulupirira anzake kuti apereke. Ndipotu, Akristu a ku Makedoniya amene anali ‘m’chisautso’ ndiponso ‘osauka kwenikweni’ anachita ‘kumuumiriza momudandaulira za chisomocho ndi za chiyanjano cha utumiki wa kwa oyera mtima.’​—2 Akorinto 8:1-4.

Ndi zoona kuti Paulo analimbikitsa anthu omwe anali olemera kwambiri ku Korinto kuti atsanzire abale awo oolowa manja a ku Makedoniya. Ngakhale kuti zinali choncho, buku lina limati, iye ‘anakana kuika malamulo, m’malo mwake anasankha kupempha, kupereka malingaliro, kapena kulimbikitsa. Anthu a ku Korinto si bwenzi akupereka mwaufulu ndiponso mosangalala ngati akanapanikizidwa.’ Paulo anadziŵa kuti “Mulungu akonda wopereka mokondwerera,” osati wopereka “mwachisoni mokakamiza.”​—2 Akorinto 9:7.

Kukula kwa chikhulupiriro ndiponso kuchuluka kwa chidziŵitso pamodzi ndi kukondadi Akristu anzawo ndi zomwe zikanachititsa anthu a ku Korinto kuti azipereka mwaufulu.​—2 Akorinto 8:7, 8.

‘Monga Anatsimikiza Mtima Wake’

M’malo monena kuti azipereka ndalama mwakuti, Paulo anangopereka malingaliro akuti ‘pa tsiku loyamba lililonse la mlungu, aliyense . . . apatule ndalama mogwirizana ndi kupeza kwake.’ (1 Akorinto 16:2, NIV) Mwa kukonzekera ndi kusunga ndalama nthaŵi zonse, anthu a ku Korinto sakanakhala okakamizidwa kuti azipereka monyinyirika kapena mongotengeka maganizo Paulo akafika. Kwa Mkristu aliyense, zinali kwa iye payekha kusankha kuti apereke zingati, zomwe ‘watsimikiza mu mtima mwake.’​—2 Akorinto 9:5, 7.

Kuti akolole zochuluka, anthu a ku Korinto anafunika kufesa moolowa manja. Panalibiretu malingaliro akuti azipereka zoposa zimene ali nazo. Paulo anawatsimikizira kuti, ‘sinditero kuti inu musautsidwe.’ Zopereka ‘zinkalandiridwa monga momwe munthu ali nazo, si monga chimsoŵa.’ (2 Akorinto 8:12, 13; 9:6) M’kalata ina yomwe anadzalemba m’tsogolo mwake, mtumwiyu anachenjeza kuti: “Ngati wina sadzisungiratu . . . a m’banja lake, wakana chikhulupiriro iye, ndipo aipa koposa wosakhulupira.” (1 Timoteo 5:8) Paulo sanalimbikitse kupereka kotsutsana ndi mfundo imeneyi.

 N’zochititsa chidwi kuona kuti Paulo anali kuyang’anira “chopereka cha kwa oyera mtima” ofuna thandizo. Sitiŵerenga m’Malemba kuti Paulo kapena atumwi ena ankasonkhetsa zopereka kapena kulandira zakhumi kuti ayendetsere utumiki wawo. (Machitidwe 3:6) Ngakhale kuti nthaŵi zonse ankayamikira mphatso zomwe mipingo inkamutumizira, Paulo mwa chikumbumtima chake anapeŵa ‘kulemetsa’ abale ake.​—1 Atesalonika 2:9; Afilipi 4:15-18.

Kupereka Modzifunira Masiku Ano

N’zoonekeratu kuti m’zaka 100 zoyambirira za Nyengo Yathu Ino, otsatira a Kristu ankapereka modzifunira, osati kupereka chakhumi. Komabe, mungafunse ngati kupereka modzifuniraku kukugwirabe ntchito bwinobwino kupezera ndalama zoyendetsera ntchito yolalikira uthenga wabwino ndi kusamalira Akristu osoŵa.

Taonani izi. Mu 1879 okonza magazini ino ananena mosapita m’mbali kuti “sadzapempha kapena kupembedzera anthu kufuna thandizo.” Kodi mfundo imeneyo yalepheretsa ntchito ya Mboni za Yehova yofalitsa choonadi cha Baibulo?

Pakali pano, Mboni zikugaŵa Mabaibulo, mabuku achikristu, ndi zofalitsa zina m’mayiko 235. Nsanja ya Olonda, magazini yophunzitsa Baibulo, poyambirira inkatuluka makope 6,000 pamwezi, omwe ankasindikizidwa m’chinenero chimodzi. Panopo imatuluka kaŵiri pamwezi ndipo makope oposa 24,000,000 amasindikizidwa m’zinenero 146. Pofuna kuyendetsa ntchito yawo yophunzitsa Baibulo padziko lonse, Mboni zamanga kapena kugula malo oyendetsera ntchitoyi m’mayiko 110. Kuwonjezeranso pamenepo zamanga malo osonkhaniramo ambirimbiri komanso nyumba za misonkhano ikuluikulu kuti anthu amene akufuna kulandira malangizo owonjezera a Baibulo azilandirira mmenemo.

Ngakhale kuti kusamalira zosoŵa zauzimu za anthu ndicho cholinga chachikulu, Mboni za Yehova sizinyalanyaza kupereka chithandizo kwa okhulupirira anzawo. Abale awo akavutika  ndi nkhondo, zivomezi, chilala, ndi mphepo za mkuntho, amatumiza mwamsangamsanga mankhwala, chakudya, zovala, ndi zofunika zina. Ndalama zogulira zinthu zimenezi zimachokera ku zopereka za Mkristu aliyense payekha ndiponso mipingo.

Kuwonjezera pa kukhala kothandiza kwambiri, kupereka modzifunira kumapepukitsa anthu osauka, monga Genival, amene tam’tchula uja. Mwamwayi, Genival asanagulitse nyumba yake, Maria, mtumiki wa nthaŵi zonse wa Mboni za Yehova, anakacheza kunyumba kwake. “Zomwe tinakambirana pamenepo zinapulumutsa banja langa kumavuto achabechabe ambirimbiri,” anatero Genival.

Genival anaona kuti ntchito ya Ambuye sidalira pa chakhumi. Ndipotu, kupereka chakhumi si lamulonso la m’Malemba. Anaphunzira kuti Akristu amadalitsidwa akamapereka moolowa manja koma sakulamulidwa kupereka zoposa zomwe angathe.

Genival akusangalala chifukwa cha kupereka modzifunira. Iye akufotokoza zimenezi motere: “Ndingapereke kapena sindingapereke gawo limodzi la magawo khumi, koma ndikusangalala ndi ndalama zomwe ndikupereka, ndipo ndikukhulupirira kuti Yehova nayenso akusangalala.”

[Bokosi/​Zithunzi patsamba 6]

Kodi Abambo a Tchalitchi Oyambirira Ankaphunzitsa za Kupereka Chakhumi?

“Anthu achuma pakati pathu amathandiza anthu osauka . . . Anthu omwe ndi olemera, ndipo akufuna, amapereka zomwe aliyense wa iwo akuona kuti n’zokwanira.”​—The First Apology, Justin Martyr, c. 150 C.E.

“N’zoona kuti Ayuda ankapereka kwa Mulungu chakhumi pa katundu wawo, koma Akristu ankapatula katundu wawo yense kuti agwire ntchito pa zofuna za Ambuye, . . . monga momwe mkazi wamasiye wosauka uja anachitira poponya mosungiramo za Mulungu zonse anali nazo.”​—Against Heresies, Irenaeus, c. 180 C.E.

“Ngakhale kuti tili ndi mabokosi athu a ndalama, ndalamazo sizogulira chipulumutso, ngati kuti chipembedzo chili ndi mtengo wochigulira. Kamodzi pamwezi, aliyense ngati afuna, amaponyamo chopereka chochepa; koma kokha pamene chili chikhumbo chake, ndipo kokha ngati ngokhoza: pakuti palibe kukakamiza; zonse n’zodzifunira.”​—Apology, Tertullian, c. 197 C.E.

“Panthaŵi yomwe Tchalitchi chinkakula ndiponso panthaŵi yomwe pankamangidwa nyumba zosiyanasiyana, panafunika kupanga malamulo kuti atsogoleri a matchalitchi azithandizidwa bwino komanso mokwanira. Anatenga m’Chilamulo Chakale lamulo la kupereka chakhumi . . . Zikuoneka kuti malamulo akale kwambiri okhazikika okhudza nkhaniyi ndi amene amapezeka m’chikalata cha mabishopu omwe anasonkhana ku Tours m’chaka cha 567 ndiponso [malamulo] a Msonkhano wa ku Macon womwe unachitika mu 585.”​—The Catholic Encyclopedia.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Ndalama, pamwamba kumanzere: Pictorial Archive (Near Eastern History) Est.

[Chithunzi pamasamba 4, 5]

Kupereka modzifunira kumasangalatsa

[Zithunzi patsamba 7]

Ndalama zoyendetsera ntchito yolalikira, kupereka chithandizo chamwadzidzidzi, ndiponso kumanga malo osonkhanira zimachokera ku zopereka zodzifunira