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Kuvutikira Kuti Baibulo Likhale M’Chigiriki Chamakono

Kuvutikira Kuti Baibulo Likhale M’Chigiriki Chamakono

 Kuvutikira Kuti Baibulo Likhale M’Chigiriki Chamakono

Simungakhulupirire mutamva kuti ku Greece, dziko limene amati ndi kumene kunayambira ufulu woganiza zomwe munthuwe ukufuna, anthu anavutikira kwa nthaŵi yaitali kuti amasulire Baibulo m’chinenero chimene anthu onse anali kumva. Koma kodi ndani sankafuna kuti Baibulo limasuliridwe m’Chigiriki chosavuta kumva? N’chifukwa chiyani anthu ena ankaletsa ntchito imeneyi?

MUNTHU angaganize kuti anthu olankhula Chigiriki ndi odala, chifukwa chakuti mbali ina ya Malemba Opatulika inalembedwa koyamba m’chinenero chawo. Komatu, Chigiriki chamakono, n’chosiyana kwambiri ndi Chigiriki cha m’Baibulo la Septuagint la Malemba Achihebri ndi Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu. Choncho, kwa zaka mazana asanu ndi limodzi apitawa, anthu ambiri olankhula Chigiriki aona kuti Chigiriki cha m’Baibulo n’chovuta kwambiri monga mmene chilili chinenero chakunja. Mawu atsopano analoŵa mmalo mwa mawu akale, ndipo galamala, ndi kalembedwe ka ziganizo kanasintha.

Mipukutu yachigiriki imene anasonkhanitsa kuyambira m’zaka za m’ma 200 mpaka 1500 imatsimikizira kuti panali khama kuti atembenuze Baibulo la Septuagint m’Chigiriki chamakono. M’zaka za m’ma 200, Gregory yemwe anali bishopu wa ku Neocaesarea (amene anakhala ndi moyo kuyambira chaka cha m’ma 213 mpaka m’ma 270 C.E.), anamasulira buku la Mlaliki m’Chigiriki chosavuta kuchokera m’Baibulo la Septuagint. M’zaka za m’ma 1000, Myuda wina dzina lake Tobias ben Eliezer amene ankakhala ku Makedoniya anamasulira mbali ina ya mabuku asanu oyambirira a Baibulo la Septuagint otchedwa Pentatuke m’Chigiriki chamakono. Anagwiritsanso ntchito zilembo zachihebri kuti Ayuda a ku Makedoniya omwe ankalankhula Chigiriki chokha koma ankaŵerenga Chihebri apindule. Mabuku onse a Pentatuke amtundu umenewu anasindikizidwa ku Kositantinopo mu 1547.

Kuŵala Pang’ono Pakati pa Mdima

Madera amene ankalankhula Chigiriki mu Ufumu Waukulu wa Byzantine atayamba kulamulidwa ndi Ufumu wa Ottoman m’zaka za m’ma 1400, anthu ambiri anali osaphunzira. Tchalitchi cha Orthodox, ngakhale kuti chinali ndi mwayi panthaŵi ya Ufumu Waukulu wa Ottoman, mwadala chinachititsa kuti anthu ake akhale osauka ndi osaphunzira. Mlembi wachigiriki dzina lake Thomas Spelios anati: “Cholinga chachikulu cha Tchalitchi cha Orthodox ndiponso mtundu wake wa maphunziro chinali kuteteza anthu kuti asaloŵe Chisilamu ndiponso ku bodza la Roma Katolika. Zotsatira zake zinali zakuti, maphunziro a Agiriki sankapita patsogolo.” Mu nthaŵi yovuta ngati imeneyi, anthu okonda Baibulo anaona kufunika kothandiza anthu ovutikawo powalimbikitsa ndi buku la m’Baibulo la Masalmo. Kuyambira mu 1543 mpaka mu 1835, panali mabaibulo osiyanasiyana okwana 18 a buku la Masalmo m’Chigiriki chimene anthu anali kulankhula.

Baibulo loyamba lathunthu m’Chigiriki la Malemba Achigiriki Achikristu limene analimasulira linakonzedwa mu 1630 ndi Maximus Callipolites, yemwe anali mmonke wachigiriki wa ku Callipolis. Zimenezi zinachitika motsogozedwa ndiponso mothandizidwa ndi  Cyril Lucaris, mkulu wa mabishopu wa ku Kositantinopo ndiponso amene anadzasintha zina ndi zina m’Tchalitchi cha Orthodox. Komabe, Lucaris anali ndi anthu ena otsutsa m’tchalitchimo, amene sankalola kusintha zinthu kapena kuvomereza Baibulo lililonse limene analimasulira m’chinenero chosavuta kumva. * Anamunyonga chifukwa chomuona ngati woukira. Komabe, mabaibulo pafupifupi 1,500 amene anamasulira Maximus anasindikizidwa mu 1638. Patapita zaka 34 sinodi ya Orthodox ku Yerusalemu inachitapo kanthu chifukwa cha Baibulo limene Maximus anamasulira. Inalamula kuti Malemba “ayenera kuŵerengedwa, osati ndi munthu aliyense, koma okhawo amene akhoza kumvetsetsa zinthu zozama zauzimu atachita kafukufuku.” Zimenezi zinatanthauza kuti Malemba anayenera kuŵerengedwa ndi atsogoleri achipembedzo ophunzira okha.

M’chaka cha 1703, mmonke wina wachigiriki dzina lake Seraphim wochokera kuchilumba cha Lesbos, ali ku London, anafuna kusindikiza Baibulo lokonzedwanso limene linatembenuzidwa ndi Maximus. Atalephera kupeza thandizo la ndalama limene olamulira a Chingelezi analonjeza, anasindikiza Baibulo lokonzedwansolo pogwiritsa ntchito ndalama za m’thumba mwake. Mawu ake oyamba omwe anali amphamvu m’Baibulolo, Seraphim anatsindika kufunika koti “Mkristu aliyense wodzipereka kwa Mulungu” aŵerenge Baibulo, ndipo anadzudzula atsogoleri achipembedzo audindo waukulu patchalitchi “chifukwa chobisa khalidwe lawo loipa powamana maphunziro.” Monga mwakhalidwe lawo, omutsutsa a Orthodox anam’manga ali ku Russia ndi kum’tumiza ku Siberia, kumene anakafa m’chaka cha 1735.

Pokambapo za njala yauzimu yodetsa nkhaŵa ya anthu olankhula Chigiriki panthaŵi imeneyo, mtsogoleri wachipembedzo wachigiriki ananena mawu otsatiraŵa okhudza Baibulo lokonzedwanso la Maximus: “Agiriki pamodzi ndi anthu ena analikonda ndiponso kulinthunthumirira Baibulo Lopatulika limeneli. Ndipo analiŵerenga. Ataliŵerenga anamva bwino, ndipo chikhulupiriro chawo mwa Mulungu . . . chinalimba.” Komabe, atsogoleri awo ankaopa kuti ngati anthu amvetsa Baibulo, ndiye kuti zikhulupiriro ndi zochita zawo zachipembedzo zikanadziŵika kuti sizinali za m’malemba. Choncho, mu 1823 ndiponso mu 1836, mabishopu a ku Kositantinopo anatulutsa lamulo loti aotche mabaibulo onse amtundu umenewu.

Womasulira Wolimba Mtima

Ngakhale panali kutsutsa koopsa ndiponso panali kufunitsitsa kudziŵa za m’Baibulo, panapezeka munthu wina amene anachita zinthu zamphamvu kuti Baibulo alimasulire m’Chigiriki chamakono. Munthu wolimba mtima ameneyu anali Neofitos Vamvas katswiri wamaphunziro a Baibulo wapadera kwambiri ndiponso wodziŵika, amene ankamuona ngati mmodzi wa “Aphunzitsi a Dzikolo.”

Vamvas anakhulupirira kuti Tchalitchi cha Orthodox n’chimene chinachititsa kuti anthu asadziŵe zinthu zauzimu. Ankakhulupirira mwamphamvu kuti Baibulo linkafunika kulimasulira m’Chigiriki chimene anthu ankalankhula panthaŵiyo kuti anthu achoke mu mdima wauzimu. M’chaka cha 1831, mothandizidwa ndi akatswiri ena, anayamba kumasulira Baibulo m’Chigiriki chapamwamba. Baibulo limene anatembenuza analisindikiza mu 1850. Chifukwa chakuti Tchalitchi cha Greek Orthodox sichikanamuthandiza, anagwirizana ndi bungwe la British and Foreign Bible Society (BFBS) kuti asindikize ndi kufalitsa Baibulo limene analimasulira. Tchalitchi chinamutcha kuti “Mpulotesitanti,” ndipo ankamuona ngati wakunja.

Baibulo la Vamvas linatsatira kwambiri Baibulo la King James Version ndipo linatengeranso zolakwika zake chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa chidziŵitso cha Baibulo, maphunziro ndi chinenero panthaŵiyo. Komabe, kwa zaka zambiri Baibulo lokhali  ndi limene linalipo m’Chigiriki lomwe anthu anali nalo m’chinenero chosavuta kumva. Chochititsa chidwi n’chakuti mumapezeka dzina la Mulungu maulendo anayi, lolembedwa kuti “Ieová.”​—Genesis 22:14; Eksodo 6:3; 17:15; Oweruza 6:24.

Kodi anthu anamva bwanji ndi Baibulo limeneli ndiponso mabaibulo ena osavuta kumva? Linali lochititsa chidwi kwambiri! Wogulitsa mabaibulo wabungwe la BFBS yemwe anali pachilumba china cha ku Greece, “anazingidwa ndi maboti ambiri amene munali ana ambiri ofuna [mabaibulo], moti anakakamizika . . . kulamula woyendetsa botilo kuti anyamuke” poopera kuti mabaibulo onse amene anali nawo angathere pa chilumbacho. Koma otsutsa sanasiyire pomwepo.

Ansembe a tchalitchi cha Orthodox anachenjeza anthu kuti asapeze mabaibulo amenewo. Mwachitsanzo, mumzinda wa Atene mabaibulo analandidwa. M’chaka cha 1833, bishopu watchalitchi cha Orthodox ku Crete anatentha mabaibulo a “Chipangano Chatsopano” amene anawapeza m’nyumba ya amonke. Wansembe wina anabisa Baibulo limodzi, ndipo anthu a midzi yapafupi anabisanso mabaibulo awo mpaka bishopuyo atachoka pa chilumbacho.

Patapitanso zaka zingapo, Holy Synod ya Tchalitchi cha Greek Orthodox inaletsa Baibulo la Vamvas pachilumba cha Corfu. Analetsa kugulitsa mabaibulo ameneŵa ndipo mabaibulo amene analipo anawonongedwa. Pa zilumba za Chios, Síros, ndi Mykonos, atsogoleri achipembedzo ankhanza anatsogolera ntchito yotentha mabaibulo. Koma ntchito yoletsa kumasulira Baibulo inali kudzapitirizabe.

Mfumukazi Inali ndi Chidwi ndi Baibulo

M’zaka za m’ma 1870, Mfumukazi Olga ya ku Greece inadziŵa kuti anthu onse a ku Greece ankadziŵa zochepa za Baibulo. Chifukwa chokhulupirira kuti nzeru zopezeka m’Malemba zimabweretsa mpumulo ndiponso zimatsitsimula anthu, inakonza zoti Baibulo alimasulire m’chinenero chosavuta kumva osati ngati cha m’Baibulo la Vamvas.

Mwamseri, bishopu wamkulu wa ku Atene ndi mkulu wa Holy Synod, Prokopios analimbikitsa mfumukaziyi ntchito imeneyi. Komabe, mfumukaziyi italemba kalata yopempha chilolezo ku Holy Synod kuti aivomereze mwalamulo, sanaipatse chilolezocho. Ngakhale zinatero, inachita khama polembanso kalata ina, koma inalandiranso kalata imene inali yoletsa ntchitoyo mu 1899. Monyalanyaza makalata otsutsa ameneŵa, mfumukaziyi inaganiza zofalitsa mabaibulo ochepa ndi ndalama za m’thumba mwake. Zimenezi zinachitika m’chaka cha 1900.

Adani Ankhakamira

M’chaka cha 1901, nyuzipepala yotchuka ya The Acropolis, ya ku Athens, inasindikiza Uthenga Wabwino wa Mateyu m’chinenero cha Chigiriki chosavuta kumva. Amene anamasulira ndi Alexander  Pallis amene anali kugwirira ntchito ku Liverpool ku England. Cholinga chodziŵika bwino cha Pallis ndi anzake chinali ‘kuphunzitsa Agiriki’ ndiponso “kuthandiza kukonzanso mtunduwo” kuti usapitirire kuloŵa pansi.

Ophunzira maphunziro apamwamba a zaumulungu a Orthodox ndiponso mapulofesa awo anatcha Baibuloli kuti ndi “kunyoza zinthu zopatulika za dzikoli,” kunyoza Malemba Oyera. Mkulu wa mabishopu Joakim III ku Constantinople anatulutsa chikalata choletsa mabaibulo ameneŵa. Mkanganowu unafika ku zandale, ndipo unapotozedwa n’kukhala nkhondo ya magulu a zandale.

Atolankhani otchuka a ku Athens anayamba kuukira Baibulo limene Pallis anamasulira. Anatcha ochirikiza Baibuloli kuti “okana Mulungu,” “opanduka,” ndiponso “akazitape” amene ankafuna kusokoneza anthu a ku Greece. Kuyambira pa November 5 mpaka 8, 1901, anyamata asukulu anachita ziwawa ku Atene, molimbikitsidwa ndi magulu osafuna kusintha zinthu a m’Tchalitchi cha Greek Orthodox ochita zinthu monkitsa. Anaukira maofesi amene ankasindikizirako nyuzipepala ya The Acropolis ndiponso kuchita zionetsero mozungulira nyumba yaboma. Analanda yunivesite ya Athens, ndipo analamula kuti boma litule pansi ulamuliro. Ziwawazo zitafika poopsa, anthu asanu ndi atatu anaphedwa pamene ankalimbana ndi asilikali. Tsiku lotsatira, mfumu inalamula kuti Mkulu wa mabishopu Prokopios atule pansi udindo, ndipo patapita masiku aŵiri nduna za boma zinatula pansi maudindo awo.

Patapita mwezi umodzi, ana asukulu anachitanso ziwawa ndipo anatentha poyera Baibulo limene anamasulira Pallis. Anatulutsa chikalata choletsa kufalitsa Baibulo limeneli ndiponso analamula kuti wopezeka akutero adzalangidwa modetsa nkhaŵa. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti aletse kugwiritsa ntchito mabaibulo ena onse a Chigiriki chamakono. Inali nthaŵi yovuta kwambiri!

“Mawu a Mulungu Akhala Chikhalire”

Lamulo loletsa kugwiritsa ntchito Baibulo m’Chigiriki chamakono linachotsedwa mu 1924. Kuyambira nthaŵi imeneyo, Tchalitchi cha Greek Orthodox sichinapezenso mphamvu pa zoyesayesa zake zoletsa anthu kuti asakhale ndi Baibulo. Padakali pano Mboni za Yehova zapititsa patsogolo ntchito yophunzitsa Baibulo ku Greece, monga mmene zachitiranso m’maiko ena. Chiyambireni chaka cha 1905, Mboni zakhala zikugwiritsa ntchito Baibulo limene anamasulira Vamvas kuti zithandize anthu masauzande ambiri olankhula Chigiriki kupeza chidziŵitso choona cha Baibulo.

Kwa zaka zambiri, ophunzira ambiri ndiponso mapulofesa ayesa kuchita ntchito yabwino kuti atulutse Baibulo m’Chigiriki chamakono. Tsopano, pali mabaibulo amene awamasulira pafupifupi 30 athunthu kapena mbali zake, amene anthu a ku Greece angaŵerenge. Chinthu chamtengo wapatali kwa Agiriki ndi Baibulo la New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, lomwe linatulitsidwa mu 1997 kuti anthu 16 miliyoni amene amalankhula Chigiriki padziko lonse apindule nalo. Baibulo limeneli lomwe limafalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova, limagwiritsa ntchito Mawu a Mulungu m’njira yosavuta kuŵerenga, kumva, ndipo linatsatira mokhulupirika mawu oyambirira.

Kuvutikira kuti Baibulo likhale m’Chigiriki chamakono kumatsimikizira mfundo yofunika. Zimasonyezeratu kuti ngakhale anthu ataletsa moopsa bwanji, “mawu a Mulungu akhala chikhalire.”​—1 Petro 1:25.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 7 Kuti mudziŵe zambiri za Cyril Lucaris, onani Nsanja ya Olonda ya February 15, 2000, masamba 26-9.

[Chithunzi patsamba 27]

Cyril Lucaris anatsogolera ntchito yoyamba yomasulira Malemba onse a Baibulo la Chigiriki mu 1630

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Bib. Publ. Univ. de Genève

[Zithunzi patsamba 28]

Mabaibulo ena amene anawamasulira m’Chigiriki cholankhulidwa: Masalmo osindikizidwa mu: (1) 1828 ndi Ilarion, (2) 1832 ndi Vamvas, (3) 1643 ndi Julianus. “Chipangano Chakale” chosindikizidwa mu: (4) 1840 ndi Vamvas

Mfumukazi Olga

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Mabaibulo: National Library of Greece; Queen Olga: Culver Pictures

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 26]

Chidutswa cha mpukutu: Chasindikizidwa mwachilolezo cha The Trustees of the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 29]

Chidutswa cha mpukutu: Chasindikizidwa mwachilolezo cha The Trustees of the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin