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Satana—Kodi Ndi Wongopeka Kapena Ndi Munthu Woipa Yemwe Alipodi?

Satana—Kodi Ndi Wongopeka Kapena Ndi Munthu Woipa Yemwe Alipodi?

 Satana​—Kodi Ndi Wongopeka Kapena Ndi Munthu Woipa Yemwe Alipodi?

KUYAMBIRA kalekale anthu anzeru amafuna kudziŵa chifukwa chake anthu aipa chonchi. Buku lakuti Dictionary of the Bible la James Hastings limati: “Kungoyambira pamene munthu amayamba kuzindikira zinthu amalimbana ndi mphamvu zimene amalephera kuzilamulira, zimene zili zoipa kapena zovulaza.” Buku lomweli limanenanso kuti: “Mwachibadwa anthu akale ankafufuza chimene chimachititsa zinthu, ndipo ankati pali mphamvu ndi zinthu zina zachilengedwe.

Malinga ndi olemba mbiri, kukhulupirira milungu ya ziwanda ndiponso mizimu yoipa kunayamba kalekale ku Mesopotamia. Kale Ababulo, ankakhulupirira kuti Nerigali, mulungu wa chiwawa wodziŵika kuti “amaotcha” ndi amene ankayang’anira dziko la kumidima, kapena kuti “dziko losabwererako.” Ankaopanso ziwanda, zimene ankazisangalatsa ndi matsenga onenerera. M’chipembedzo cha ku Igupto, Seti anali mulungu woipa, “amene ankati anali nyama yoopsa, ya mphuno yowonda ndi yopindika, ndiponso makutu owongoka, a makona anayi ofanana ndi mchira wolimba wa mphandamphanda.”​—Linatero buku lakuti Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology.

Ngakhale kuti Agiriki ndi Aroma anali ndi milungu yochita zabwino ndi zoipa, analibe mulungu woipa weniweni. Mafilosofi awo ankaphunzitsa kuti pali zinthu ziŵiri zotsutsana. Kwa Empedocles, zinthu zimenezi zinali Chikondi ndi Udani. Kwa Plato, chimodzi chinkachita zabwino ndipo chinacho zoipa. Monga momwe ananenera Georges Minois mu buku lake lakuti Le Diable (Mdyerekezi), “chipembedzo chakale chachikunja [cha Agiriki ndi Aroma] sichinkakhulupirira kuti kuli Mdyerekezi.”

Ku Iran, Chizorowasita chinkaphunzitsa kuti mulungu wamkulu Ahura Mazida, kapena Ormazd, analenga Angra Mainyu, kapena Ahriman amene anasankha kuchita zoipa ndipo chifukwa cha zimenezi anakhala Mzimu Wowononga, kapena Wosakaza.

M’Chiyuda, Satana ankam’fotokoza mosavuta kuti anali Mdani wa Mulungu amene anayambitsa tchimo. Koma patatha zaka zambiri, chiphunzitso chimenechi chinasakanikirana ndi mfundo zachikunja. Buku lakuti Encyclopaedia Judaica limati: “Zinthu zinasintha kwambiri . . . pofika m’zaka mazana omaliza a m’ma B.C.E. M’nyengo imeneyi chipembedzo [cha Chiyuda] . . . chinatengera mbali zambiri za chikhulupiriro chakuti pali zinthu ziŵiri zotsutsana, chomwe amati Mulungu pamodzi ndi mphamvu zabwino ndi za choonadi kumwamba zimatsutsana ndi mphamvu zazikulu zoipa ndi zonyenga za pa padziko lapansi. Zikuoneka  kuti zimenezi anatengera ku chipembedzo cha Chiperisiya.” Buku lakuti The Concise Jewish Encyclopedia linati: “Munthu anali kutetezeka ku [ziwanda] mwa kutsatira malamulo ndi kugwiritsa ntchito zithumwa.”

Maphunziro a Zaumulungu Ampatuko Achikristu

Mofanana ndi Chiyuda chimene chinatengera ziphunzitso zachikunja pankhani ya Satana ndi ziwanda, Akristu ampatuko ankafotokoza maganizo osagwirizana ndi Malemba. Buku lakuti The Anchor Bible Dictionary limati: “Ena mwa maganizo onkitsa a maphunziro akale a zaumulungu anali akuti Mulungu anawombola anthu ake mwa kumulipira Satana kuti awamasule.” Irenaeus (wa m’zaka za m’ma 100 C.E.) ndi amene anayambitsa maganizo ameneŵa. Origen (wa m’zaka za m’ma 200 C.E.), amene ankanena kuti “mdyerekezi ali ndi ulamuliro pa anthu” komanso amene anaona “imfa ya Kristu . . . kukhala dipo limene linaperekedwa kwa mdyerekezi,” anafotokozanso maganizo ameneŵa.​—Linatero buku lakuti History of Dogma, la Adolf Harnack.

Malinga ndi buku lakuti The Catholic Encyclopedia, “kwa zaka pafupifupi 1000 [maganizo akuti dipo linaperekedwa kwa Mdyerekezi] akhala aakulu m’mbiri ya maphunziro a zaumulungu,” ndipo n’chimodzi mwa zimene tchalitchi chinkakhulupirira. Abambo ena a Tchalitchi kuphatikizapo Augustine (wa m’zaka za m’ma 300-400 C.E.), anatengeranso maganizo akuti dipo linaperekedwa kwa Satana. Mapeto ake, m’ma 1100 C.E., akatswiri a zaumulungu achikatolika, Anselm ndi Abelard, anakhala ndi maganizo akuti dipo la Kristu linaperekedwa kwa Mulungu osati kwa Satana.

Kukhulupirira Matsenga m’Masiku Akale

Ngakhale kuti pafupifupi misonkhano yonse ya Tchalitchi cha Katolika sinafune kunena zambiri pankhani ya Satana, msonkhano wachinayi wa Lateran umene unachitika mu 1215 C.E., unatchula zimene buku lakuti New Catholic Encyclopedia limati ndi “mfundo zamphamvu za chikhulupiriro.” Mfundo yoyamba imati: “Mdyerekezi ndi ziwanda anali abwino pamene Mulungu anawalenga, koma chifukwa cha zochita zawo anakhala oipa.” Limanenanso kuti amatanganidwa ndi kuyesa anthu. Mfundo yomalizayi inatenga malo kwambiri m’maganizo mwa anthu panthaŵi imeneyo. Ankati Satana ndiye ankachititsa zonse zimene zinkaoneka zachilendo, monga matenda osadziŵika, imfa ya mwadzidzidzi, kapena kukolola zochepa. Mu 1233 C.E., Papa Gregory IX anapereka malamulo otsutsa anthu ampatuko, monga lamulo lina linatsutsa Alusifala, amene ankawaganizira kuti ankalambira Mdyerekezi.

Mosakhalitsa chikhulupiriro chakuti Mdyerekezi kapena ziwanda zake zingagwire anthu, chinachititsa anthu kukhala ndi mantha adzaoneni​—kuopa matsenga ndi ufiti. Kuyambira cha m’ma 1200 kudzafika m’ma 1600, kuopa mfiti kunali kutafala ku Ulaya ndipo kunafika ku North America ndi azungu amene ankalamulira kumeneko. Ngakhalenso Martin Luther ndi John Calvin amene anayambitsa Chipulotesitanti anavomereza zoti azifufuza mfiti. Ku Ulaya khoti la kafukufuku la Akatolika ndi makhoti a dzikolo ankazenga mlandu wa ufiti wongomva mphekesera chabe kapena wongomunamizira kuti amuipitsire mbiri. Nthaŵi zambiri anthu ameneŵa anali kuwazunza kuti avomere kuti ndi “olakwa.”

Akapezeka wolakwa ankagamulidwa kuti aphedwe kaya mwa kumuwotcha kapena, ngati ndi ku England ndi ku Scotland, mwa kumpachika. Ponena za chiŵerengero cha anthu amene analandira chilango chimenechi, buku lakuti The World Book Encyclopedia limati: “Malinga ndi zimene olemba  mbiri ena anena, akuti kuyambira mu 1484 mpaka mu 1782, tchalitchi cha Akristu chinapha akazi pafupifupi 300,000 chifukwa cha ufiti.” Ngati Satana ndiye ankachititsa zinthu zomvetsa chisoni kwambiri zakale zimenezi, kodi ankagwiritsa ntchito ndani​—ophedwawo kapena anthu achipembedzo otengekawo amene ankazunza anthuwo?

Kukhulupirira Kapena Kusakhulupirira Masiku Ano

Zaka za m’ma 1700 zinali zosintha zinthu, zodziŵika kuti nthaŵi yokana zachikale. Buku la Encyclopædia Britannica limati: “Filosofi ndiponso ziphunzitso za gulu lokana zachikale zinayesetsa kuchotsa Mdyerekezi m’maganizo a Akristu mwa kunena kuti zinali nthano zabodza za chipembedzo chakale.” Tchalitchi cha Roma Katolika chinatsutsa zimenezi ndipo chinatsimikiziranso chikhulupiriro chake mwa Satana Mdyerekezi pamsonkhano woyamba wa ku Vatican (1869-70), anabwerezanso zimenezi koma mwamantha pamsonkhano wachiŵiri wa ku Vatican (1962-65).

Malinga ndi zimene buku lakuti New Catholic Encyclopedia limanena, “Tchalitchi chimakhulupirira kuti kuli angelo ndi ziwanda.” Komabe, dikishonale ya Chifalansa ya Akatolika yotchedwa Théo imati, “Akristu ambiri masiku ano amakana kunena kuti amene akuchititsa kuti anthu aipe chonchi m’dzikoli ndi mdyerekezi.” M’zaka zaposachedwapa akatswiri a zaumulungu achikatolika achita mochenjera ndi nkhani imeneyi, achita mosamala pogwirizanitsa chikhulupiriro chodziŵika cha Chikatolika ndi zimene anthu akuganiza masiku ano. Buku lakuti Encyclopædia Britannica limati: “Maphunziro a zaumulungu achikristu ololera amaona mawu a m’Baibulo onena za Satana kukhala ‘mawu ophiphiritsira’​—osafunika kuwatenga mmene alili koma ngati nthano zoyesa kufotokoza zinthu zenizeni ndi mmene anthu aipira padziko lapansi.” Ponena za Apulotesitanti, buku lomweli limati: “Apulotesitanti ololera a masiku ano amakana kukhulupirira kuti mdyerekezi ndi munthu weniweni.” Koma kodi Akristu oona ayenera kuona zimene Baibulo limanena zokhudza Satana ngati “mawu ophiphiritsira” chabe?

Zimene Malemba Amaphunzitsa

Baibulo limafotokoza bwino chimene chachititsa anthu kuipa chonchi osati zimene anthu anzeru ndi a maphunziro a zaumulungu amafotokoza. Kuti timvetse chimene chachititsa kuti anthu aipe chonchi ndi kuvutika, komanso chifukwa chake chiwawa choipitsitsa chikuwonjezeka chaka chilichonse, mpofunika kudziŵa zimene Malemba amanena zokhudza Satana.

Anthu ena angafunse kuti: ‘Ngati Mulungu ndi Mlengi wabwino ndi wachikondi, kodi analengeranji mzimu woipa ngati Satana?’ Baibulo limanena mfundo yakuti ntchito zonse za Yehova Mulungu n’zangwiro ndiponso kuti zolengedwa zake zonse zimene zili ndi nzeru zinapatsidwa ufulu  wosankha zochita. (Deuteronomo 30:19; 32:4; Yoswa 24:15; 1 Mafumu 18:21) Choncho munthu wauzimu amene anadzakhala Satana ayenera kuti analengedwa wangwiro ndiponso kuti anachoka panjira ya choonadi ndi yolungama mwa kufuna kwake.​—Yohane 8:44; Yakobo 1:14, 15.

Kupanduka kwa Satana n’kofanana kwambiri ndi zimene inachita “mfumu ya Turo,” amene ndakatulo ina imanena kuti anali “wokongola wangwiro” ndiponso ‘wangwiro m’njira zake chilengedwere iye, mpaka chinapezeka mwa iye chosalungama.’ (Ezekieli 28:11-19) Satana sanatsutse kuti Yehova anali wamkulu kapena kuti ndi Mlengi. Kodi akanatsutsa bwanji, popeza anachita kulengedwa ndi Mulungu? Koma, Satana anakaikira momwe Yehova amachitira ulamuliro wake. M’munda wa Edene, Satana anasonyeza kuti Mulungu anali kuwamana anthu aŵiri oyambirirawo chinthu china chimene ankafunika kuti asangalale. (Genesis 3:1-5) Anapambana ponyengerera Adamu ndi Hava kupandukira ulamuliro wolungama wa Yehova, ndipo zimenezi zinabweretsa uchimo ndi imfa pa iwo ndi pa ana awo. (Genesis 3:6-19; Aroma 5:12) Choncho Baibulo limasonyeza kuti Satana ndi amene amachititsa kuti anthu azivutika.

Nthaŵi ina Chigumula chisanachitike, angelo ena anatsatira Satana pa kupanduka kwake. Anavala matupi a anthu kuti akakhutiritse chilakolako chawo cha kugonana ndi ana aakazi a anthu. (Genesis 6:1-4) Pa Chigumula, angelo opanduka ameneŵa anabwerera kumalo a mizimu koma osati “pokhala pawopawo” ndi Mulungu kumwamba. (Yuda 6) Anaikidwa ku mdima wauzimu wandiweyani. (1 Petro 3:19, 20; 2 Petro 2:4) Anakhala ziwanda, sanali kutumikiranso motsogozedwa ndi Yehova koma Satana. Ngakhale kuti zikuoneka kuti ziwanda sizingavalenso matupi a anthu, zingasonkhezere kwambiri maganizo ndi moyo wa anthu, ndipo mosakayikira ndi zimene zikuchititsa chiwawa chochuluka chimene tikuona masiku ano.​—Mateyu 12:43-45; Luka 8:27-33.

Mapeto a Ulamuliro wa Satana Ayandikira

N’zoonekeratu kuti mphamvu zoipa zikugwira ntchito m’dziko masiku ano. Mtumwi Yohane analemba kuti: “Dziko lonse lapansi ligona mwa woipayo.”​—1 Yohane 5:19.

Koma, ulosi wa Baibulo umene wakwaniritsidwa kale, ukusonyeza kuti Mdyerekezi akuwonjezera kwambiri mavuto padzikoli chifukwa akudziŵa kuti “kamtsalira kanthaŵi” koti asokoneze zinthu iye asanatsekeredwe. (Chivumbulutso 12:7-12; 20:1-3) Kutha kwa ulamuliro wa Satana kudzabweretsa dziko latsopano lolungama, kumene misozi, imfa ndi zopweteka ‘sizidzakhalakonso.’ Ndiyeno, chifuno cha Mulungu chidzachitika “monga Kumwamba chomwecho pansi pano.”​—Chivumbulutso 21:1-4; Mateyu 6:10.

[Zithunzi patsamba 4]

Ababulo ankakhulupirira mulungu wachiwawa wotchedwa Nerigali (amene ali kumanzere koyambirirako); Plato (kumanzere) ankakhulupirira kuti pali zinthu ziŵiri zotsutsana

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Cylinder: Musée du Louvre, Paris; Plato: National Archaeological Museum, Athens, Greece

[Zithunzi patsamba 5]

Irenaeus, Origen, ndi Augustine ankaphunzitsa kuti dipo linaperekedwa kwa Mdyerekezi

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Origen: Culver Pictures; Augustine: Kuchokera m’buku lakuti Great Men and Famous Women

[Chithunzi patsamba 6]

Kuopa mfiti kunaphetsa anthu miyandamiyanda

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Kuchokera m’buku lakuti Bildersaal deutscher Geschichte