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Mmene Mafano Azithunzi Zachipembedzo Anayambira Kalelo

Mmene Mafano Azithunzi Zachipembedzo Anayambira Kalelo

 Mmene Mafano Azithunzi Zachipembedzo Anayambira Kalelo

“Mafano azithunzi amatithandiza kupeza ubwino ndi chiyero cha Mulungu ndi Oyera Mtima Ake.”​—GREEK ORTHODOX ARCHDIOCESE OF AUSTRALIA.

TSIKU lina mu August kunatentha kwambiri pachilumba cha Tínos, panyanja ya Aegean. Dzuŵa linali kuwomba kwambiri pa masitepe asimenti opita kunyumba ya “Mayi Wopatulikitsa wa Mulungu.” Kutenthako sikunagwetse mphwayi anthu atchalitchi cha Greek Orthodox oposa 25,000 omwe anabwera kudzapembedza ku malo awo opatulikawo. Khamu la anthu odziperekawo linkayenda pang’onopang’ono kuti likafike pomwe panali chithunzi cha mayi wa Yesu chomwe anachikongoletsa kwambiri.

Mtsikana wina wolumala yemwe ankachita kuonekeratu kuti akumva kuwawa komanso kuti ndi wotaya mtima, ankakwaŵa ndi mawondo ake omwe ankachucha magazi kwambiri. Pafupi ndi mtsikanayo, panali mayi wina wokalamba yemwe anayenda mtunda wautali kuchoka kwawo ndipo anali atatopa kwambiri moti ankangokhwekhwereza miyendo poyenda. Mwamuna wina wachikulire ndithu wamphamvu zake, ankatuluka thukuta kwambiri kwinaku akuyesetsa kukankha khamulo kuti apeze mpata woti adutse. Onse ankafuna kukapsopsona ndiponso kuŵeramira chithunzi cha Mariya.

Mosakayika anthu okonda kupembedza ameneŵa amafunitsitsadi kulambira Mulungu. Koma kodi ndi angati amene akudziŵa kuti kudzipereka kulambira mafano azithunzi koteroko kunayamba kalekale Chikristu chisanayambe?

Kufalikira kwa Mafano Azithunzi

Achipembedzo cha Orthodox amagwiritsa ntchito mafano azithunzi kulikonse. M’matchalitchi awo, zithunzi za Yesu, Mariya, ndi “oyera mtima” zimakhala pakati penipeni pa tchalitchilo. Achipembedzochi nthaŵi zambiri amalemekeza mafano azithunzi ameneŵa mwa kuwapsopsona, kuwafukizira zofukiza, ndiponso kuwayatsira makandulo. Komanso, pafupifupi m’nyumba zonse za achipembedzochi muli malo omwe amaikapo mafano azithunzi ndipo akamapemphera amapita pamenepo. Akristu achipembedzo cha Orthodox amanena kuti kulambira chithunzi chinachake kumawathandiza kukhala bwenzi lenileni la Mulungu. Amakhulupirira kuti mafano azithunzi amakhala ndi chisomo ndiponso mphamvu zochokera kwa Mulungu zochita zozizwitsa.

Mwachionekere, anthu omwe amakhulupirira zimenezi angadabwe kwambiri kudziŵa kuti Akristu a m’zaka 100 zoyambirira za nyengo yathu ino, sankavomereza kugwiritsa ntchito mafano polambira. Buku lakuti Byzantium limati: “Kulambira mafano kunali konyansa kwambiri m’chipembedzo cha Chiyuda ndipo potengera zimenezo, Akristu oyambirira sanali kuvomereza kulambira zithunzithunzi za oyera mtima.” Buku lomweli linanenanso kuti: “Kuyambira m’chaka cha 400 C.E. kunkabe m’tsogolo, mafano . . . anayamba kutchuka  kwambiri pa mapemphero a anthu onse ndiponso a m’nyumba.” Ngati kugwiritsa ntchito mafano azithunzi polambira sikunayambe ndi Akristu oyambirira, nangano kunayambira kuti?

Kufufuza Chiyambi Chake

Wofufuza wina, Vitalij Ivanovich Petrenko, analemba kuti: “Kugwiritsa ntchito mafano azithunzi polambira komanso miyambo yake ‘zinachokera ku chikunja’ ndipo zinayamba kalekale Chikristu chisanayambe.” Olemba mbiri ochuluka amavomereza kuti kulambira mafano azithunzi kunayambira ku zipembedzo zakale za ku Babulo, Igupto, ndi Girisi. Mwachitsanzo, ku Girisi wakale, mafano achipembedzo anali ochita kusema kapena kuwumba. Anthu ankakhulupirira kuti mafanowo anali ndi mphamvu ngati Mulungu. Iwo ankaganiza kuti ena mwa mafanowo sanapangidwe ndi anthu koma kuti anagwa kumwamba. Panthaŵi ya mapwando apadera, mafanowo anali kuwatenga kuzungulira nawo mzinda ndipo anali kupereka nsembe kwa iwo. Petrenko ananena kuti: “Olambira akalewo ankaona fano kuti ndi mulungu, ngakhale kuti tsopano amati pali kusiyana . . . pakati pa mulungu ndi fano lake.”

Kodi ziphunzitso ndiponso kulambira kotereku kunaloŵa bwanji m’Chikristu? Wofufuza yemwe tam’tchula kale uja, ananena kuti, patapita zaka mazana angapo atumwi a Akristu atamwalira, makamaka ku Igupto, “ziphunzitso za Chikristu zinaphatikizana ndi ‘ziphunzitso zachikunja.’ Ziphunzitsozo zinachokera ku miyambo ndi zikhulupiriro za Aigupto, Agiriki, Ayuda, Anthu a Kum’maŵa, ndiponso Aroma.” Chifukwa cha zimenezi, “amisiri achikristu anatengera [kulambira] koteroko n’kuyamba kugwiritsa ntchito mafano achikunjawo, atawakonza kuti agwirizane ndi Chikristu ngakhale kuti sanachotseretu zinthu zachikunja pa mafano achikristu atsopanowo.”

Posakhalitsa, mafano azithunzi anayamba kukhala ofunika kwambiri pa mapemphero a m’nyumba kapena a anthu onse. M’buku lake lakuti The Age of Faith, wolemba mbiri, Will Durant, anafotokoza mmene zimenezi zinayambira. Anati: “Oyera mtima amene ankawalambira atachuluka, panafunika kuti iwo azidziŵika bwinobwino komanso kuwakumbukira. Chotero, anthu anapanga mafano ambiri azithunzi za oyera mtima ndi Mariya. Tikanena za Kristu, anthu anali kulambira osati chithunzi chake chokha komanso mtanda wake. Ndipo ena otengeka ndi zilizonse mpaka ankaona zinthu  zimenezi monga zithumwa. Chifukwa cha mphamvu yachibadwa yotha kuyerekeza zinthu, anthuwo anayamba kulambira zinthu zopatulika, zithunzi, ndiponso mafano osema. Iwo ankaziŵeramira, kuzipsopsona, kuziyatsira makandulo ndi kuzifukizira zofukiza, kuziveka maluŵa, ndiponso kufunsira zozizwitsa chifukwa cha mphamvu zake zamizimu. . . . Abambo ndiponso akuluakulu a Tchalitchi ankafotokoza mobwerezabwereza kuti mafano amaimira milungu osati kuti mafanowo ndi milungu ayi. Komabe, kusiyana kumeneku anthu analibe nako ntchito.”

Masiku ano ambiri amene amagwiritsa ntchito mafano azithunzi zachipembedzo amanena kuti mafanowo amangowapatsa ulemu chabe osati kuwalambira ayi. Iwo anganene kuti mafano azithunzi ndi ovomerezeka ndipo ndi othandiza kwambiri polambira Mulungu moti munthu sangalambire popanda kugwiritsa ntchito mafanowo. Mwina inunso mumaganiza motero. Koma funso n’lakuti, Kodi Mulungu amamva bwanji ndi zimenezi? Kodi n’kutheka kuti kulemekeza chithunzi chinachake n’chimodzimodzi ndi kuchilambira? Kodi kuchita zimenezi kungakhale ndi ngozi zina zobisika?

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 4]

Kodi Fano Lachithunzi N’chiyani?

Mosiyana ndi mafano osema kapena owumba omwe anthu ambiri a Roma Katolika amagwiritsa ntchito polambira, mafano azithunzi omwe tikunena m’nkhani zino ndi zithunzi za Kristu, Mariya, “oyera mtima,” angelo, anthu ndiponso zochitika za m’Baibulo, kapenanso zochitika m’mbiri ya Tchalitchi cha Orthodox. Nthaŵi zambiri mafanoŵa amawajambula pa thabwa losavuta kunyamula.

Malinga ndi zomwe Tchalitchi cha Orthodox, chimanena, “mafano azithunzi zachipembedzoŵa, amasiyana kwambiri ndi zithunzi wamba za anthu.” Amakhulupiriranso kuti Mulungu amakhala m’thabwa ndiponso mu utoto wa fanolo.”

[Chithunzi patsamba 4]

Kugwiritsa ntchito mafano kunachokera ku miyambo yachikunja

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 3]

© AFP/​CORBIS