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Tchalitchi Ndiponso Boma Mumzinda wa Bezantiyamu

Tchalitchi Ndiponso Boma Mumzinda wa Bezantiyamu

 Tchalitchi Ndiponso Boma Mumzinda wa Bezantiyamu

YEMWE anayambitsa Chikristu ananena mosapita m’mbali za kusiyana kooneka bwino komwe kuyenera kukhalapo pakati pa otsatira ake ndi dziko la anthu otalikirana ndi Mulungu. Yesu anauza otsatira ake kuti: “Mukadakhala a dziko lapansi, dziko lapansi likadakonda zake za lokha; koma popeza simuli a dziko lapansi, koma Ine ndinakusankhani inu mwa dziko lapansi, chifukwa cha ichi likudani inu.” (Yohane 15:19) Yesu anauza Pilato wolamulira wandale wa m’nthaŵi yake kuti: “Ufumu wanga suli wa dziko lino lapansi.”​—Yohane 18:36.

Pofuna kukwaniritsa ntchito yawo yolalikira “kufikira malekezero ake a dziko,” Akristu ayenera kupeŵa kudodometsedwa ndi nkhani za dziko. (Machitidwe 1:8) Mofanana ndi Yesu, Akristu oyambirira sakanaloŵerera m’ndale. (Yohane 6:15) Zinaonekeratu kuti Akristu okhulupirika sanakhale m’maudindo akuluakulu a boma kapena kukhala olamulira. M’kupita kwa nthaŵi zimenezi zinasintha.

 “A Dziko Lapansi”

Patapita nthaŵi atumwi omaliza atamwalira, atsogoleri achipembedzo mwakufuna kwawo anayamba kusintha maganizo awo pankhani ya kugwirizana kwawo ndi dziko lapansi. Iwo anayamba kuganiza kuti “ufumu” suli m’dziko lapansi chabe komanso kuti uli wogwirizana ndi dziko. Kupenda mmene chipembedzo chinaloŵerera m’ndale mu Ufumu wa Byzantine​—womwe unali Ufumu Wakummaŵa wa Roma, womwe likulu lake linali mumzinda wa Bezantiyamu (tsopano Istanbul)​—kutiphunzitsa zambiri.

Tchalitchi cha Byzantine chomwe likulu lake linali ku Bezantiyamu chinali ndi mphamvu kwambiri chifukwa chakuti anthu mwachikhalidwe ankaona chipembedzo kukhala chofunika kwambiri. Wolemba mbiri za tchalitchi wina dzina lake Panayotis Christou anati: “Anthu a tchalitchi cha Byzantine ankaganiza kuti ufumu wawo wapadziko lapansi ndiwo unkaimira Ufumu wa Mulungu.” Komabe, olamulira a ufumuwo nthaŵi zambiri sanali kuvomereza maganizo ameneŵa. Motero, nthaŵi zina panali kusagwirizana pakati pa Tchalitchi ndi Boma. Buku lakuti The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium limanena kuti: “Mabishopu a ku Kositantinopo [kapena kuti Bezantiyamu] anali kuonetsa makhalidwe osiyanasiyana monga kugonjera olamulira amphamvu mwamantha  . . . , kugwira ntchito zopindulitsa mogwirizana ndi mfumu . . . , ndiponso kutsutsa mosaopa zomwe mfumu ikufuna.”

Mkulu wa mabishopu wa ku Kositantinopo yemwe anali mkulu wa Matchalitchi a Orthodox a ku Girisi, Russia, Kummaŵa kwa Ulaya ndiponso Kumadzulo kwa Asia, anakhala wamphamvu kwambiri. Iye ndiye anali kuika mfumu pa mpando, motero anali kuyembekezera mfumuyo kuchirikiza tchalitchi cha Orthodox. Mkulu  wa mabishopu analinso wolemera kwambiri chifukwa zinthu zambiri zopezera ndalama za tchalitchi zinali m’manja mwake. Mphamvu zake zambiri zinkachokera ku ulamuliro womwe anali nawo pa amonke osaŵerengeka ndiponso chikoka chomwe anali nacho kwa anthu wamba.

Nthaŵi zambiri mkulu wa mabishopu anali ndi mphamvu zotsutsa mfumu. Iye ankatha kuopseza kuti achotsa mfumu mumpingo mwa kuumiriza m’dzina la Mulungu kuti zofuna zake zichitike, kapenanso kugwiritsa ntchito njira zina zomwe angachotsere mafumu pampando.

Chifukwa cha kutha kwapang’onopang’ono kwa ulamuliro wa boma m’madera a kunja kwa mzinda womwe unali likulu la boma, mabishopu kaŵirikaŵiri ndiwo anali ndi mphamvu kwambiri m’mizinda yomwe ankakhala. Mphamvu zawo zinali zofanana ndi za akazembe olamulira zigawo omwe ankasankhidwa mothandizidwa ndi mabishopuwo. Iwo anali kuweruza milandu ndiponso kusamalira nkhani zabizinesi zokhudza tchalitchi ndipo nthaŵi zina ngakhale zomwe sizinkakhudza tchalitchi. Izi zinkachitika choncho chifukwa chakuti ansembe pamodzi ndi amonke, omwe analipo ambirimbiri,  anali kulamulidwa ndi mabishopu a m’dera lawo.

Ndale Ndiponso Chisimoni

Monga momwe taonera pamwambapa, udindo wa ubishopu unali wogwirizana kwambiri ndi ndale. Komanso, atsogoleri ambiri achipembedzo ndiponso ntchito zawo zofunika zachipembedzo zinkafuna ndalama zambiri. Atsogoleri akuluakulu achipembedzo anali kukhala moyo wapamwamba kwambiri. Kukhala aumphaŵi ndiponso oyera mtima monga atumwi kunatha pamene tchalitchi linayamba kupeza mphamvu ndiponso chuma. Ansembe ena ndiponso mabishopu anali kuchita kugula kuti awaike paudindo. Chisimoni chinali chofala kwambiri mpaka kwa akuluakulu atchalitchi. Atsogoleri achipembedzo mothandizidwa ndi magulu a anthu olemera ankalimbirana maudindo a m’tchalitchi pamaso pa mfumu.

Kupereka ziphuphu inalinso njira ina yonyengerera atsogoleri akuluakulu achipembedzo. Pamene Mfumukazi Zoe (c. 978-1050 C.E) inaphetsa mwamuna wake Romanus III kuti ikwatiwe ndi bwenzi lake yemwenso anali kudzakhala Mfumu Michael IV, mfumukaziyo mofulumira inaitanira mkulu wa mabishopu Alexius kunyumba yachifumu. Kumeneko, mkulu wa mabishopu ameneyu anamva za imfa ya Romanus ndiponso mwambo waukwati wa patchalitchi womwe unayenera kuchitika. Popeza kuti tchalitchi chinali kukondwerera Lachisanu Loyera, usiku umenewo zinthu zinam’thina kwambiri Alexius. Komabe, iye analandira mphatso zochuluka zomwe mfumukaziyo inam’patsa ndipo anaichitira zomwe inkafuna.

Kugonjera kwa Mfumu

Nthaŵi zina m’mbiri ya Ufumu wa Byzantine, mfumu inkagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zake posankha mkulu wa mabishopu wa ku Kositantinopo. Nthaŵi zimenezi, palibe amene anali kukhala mkulu wa mabishopu kapena kupitiriza kukhala paudindowu ngati mfumu sikufuna.

Mfumu Andronicus II (1260-1332) inasintha mkulu wa mabishopu kasanu ndi kanayi. Nthaŵi zambiri, cholinga chochitira zimenezi chinali kuika munthu wosavuta kulolera kuti akhale mkulu wa mabishopu. Buku lakuti The Byzantines limanena kuti, mkulu wa mabishopu wina mpaka analonjeza mfumu mwakuilembera kuti, “adzachita chilichonse chomwe mfumuyo ingalamule ngakhale chitakhala cholakwika motani ndiponso kuti adzapewa kuchita chilichonse chomwe sichingasangalatse mfumuyo.” Kaŵiri konse, mafumu anayesa kukakamiza tchalitchi kutsatira zofuna zawo mwakuika munthu wa m’banja lachifumu kukhala mkulu wa mabishopu. Mfumu Romanus I inakweza mwana wake wamwamuna Theophylact yemwe anali ndi zaka 16 zokha, kukhala mkulu wa mabishopu.

Ngati mkulu wa mabishopu akulephera kukondweretsa mfumu ndiye kuti mfumuyo inkatha kumuumiriza kutula pansi udindo wake kapena inkauza sinodi kuti imuchotse paudindowo. Buku lakuti Byzantium limanena kuti: “M’kupita kwa nthaŵi akuluakulu a boma mu ufumu wa Byzantine ngakhalenso mfumu yeniyeniyo anayamba kutenga mbali kwambiri pankhani yosankha mabishopu.”

Mfumu inali kuchititsa misonkhano yokambirana za tchalitchi mkulu wa mabishopu ali pomwepo. Mfumuyo inali kutsogolera zokambirana, kukonza nkhani zokhudza chikhulupiriro ndiponso inkatsutsana ndi mabishopu komanso ena amene akusiyana nayo maganizo ndipo amene akutsutsa kwambiri ankatha kuphedwa. Mfumu inalinso kutsimikizira malamulo amene bungwe la akuluakulu lavomereza ndi kuonetsetsa kuti akutsatiridwa. Anthu otsutsana ndi mfumu anali kuwaimba mlandu wa kuukira boma komanso ankawaona monga adani a tchalitchi ndiponso a Mulungu. Mkulu  wa mabishopu wina wa m’zaka 600 zoyambirira za nyengo yathu ino, ananena kuti: “Palibe chilichonse chimene chiyenera kuchitika m’Tchalitchi chomwe chili chosemphana ndi zofuna ndiponso malamulo a Mfumu.” Mabishopu ankati akakhala m’bwalo la mfumu anali kulolera mosavuta mfundo zowakopa ndi kugwirizana nazo mwamwambo chabe popeza sanali kutsutsa kwambiri kuposa mmene mkulu wa mabishopuwo ankachitira.

Mwachitsanzo, Mkulu wa mabishopu dzina lake Ignatius (c. 799-878 C.E.) atakana kugwirizana ndi nduna yaikulu Bardas, ndunayi inachitapo kanthu. Inanamizira Ignatius kuti anali kukhudzidwa ndi mphekesera yofuna kuukira boma. Chotero, mkulu wa mabishopuyu anamangidwa ndi kuthamangitsidwa m’dzikolo. Monga woloŵa m’malo mwake, ndunayi inasankha munthu wamba dzina lake Photius, yemwe patatha masiku asanu ndi limodzi okha anakwezedwa kuposa ena onse n’kukhala mkulu wa mabishopu. Kodi Photius anali woyenerera kukhala paudindowu? Iye akuti anali munthu “wodzikonda kwambiri, wodzikweza, ndiponso wokonda kwambiri ndale.”

Kukhulupirira Ndale

Kusiyana maganizo pankhani ya ziphunzitso ndi mipatuko nthaŵi zambiri kunkachititsa kuti mfundo za ndale zisamatsutsidwe ndipo zinkakhala zamphamvu kwambiri kwa mfumu kusiyana ndi maganizo ofuna kuyambitsa ziphunzitso zina. Kunena zoona, mfumu inali kulekera dala kukhazikitsa chiphunzitso chinachake ndi kulamula tchalitchi kuti litsatire zofuna zakezo.

Mwachitsanzo, Mfumu Heraclius (575-641 C.E.) inayesetsa kuthetsa mkangano womwe unabuka pankhani ya mmene Kristu analili umene ukanachititsa kuti ufumu wake wosalimbawo ugaŵanike. Pofuna kuonetsa kugonja, mfumuyo inayambitsa chiphunzitso chatsopano chotchedwa Monothelitism. * Kenako, pofuna kuonetsetsa kuti chigawo chakumwera cha ufumu wake chikutsatira chiphunzitsochi, Heraclius anasankha Cyrus wa ku Phasis kukhala mkulu wa mabishopu wa ku Alexandria, yemwe anavomereza chiphunzitsochi. Kuwonjezera pa kusankha Cyrus kukhala mkulu wa mabishopu, mfumuyo inamuikanso kukhala wolamulira wa dziko lonse la Igupto. Cyrus, mwa kuumiriza pogwiritsa ntchito chizunzo chochepa, anatha kuchititsa matchalitchi ambiri ku Igupto kuyamba kutsatira mfundo zake.

Zotsatira Zowawa

Kodi zochitika zimenezi zikanasonyeza motani mawu ndi tanthauzo la pemphero la Yesu lomwe limanena kuti otsatira ake sayenera kukhala “a dziko lapansi”?​—Yohane 17:14-16.

Atsogoleri omwe ankadzitcha kuti ndi Akristu m’nthaŵi ya ufumu wa Byzantine ndiponso pambuyo pake, anakumana ndi zotsatira zowawa kwambiri chifukwa choloŵerera m’nkhani za ndale ndiponso m’nkhondo za dziko. Kodi nkhani yachidule yamakedzana imeneyi ikutiuza chiyani? Kodi atsogoleri a Tchalitchi cha Byzantine anapeza chiyanjo cha Mulungu ndi Yesu Kristu?​—Yakobo 4:4.

Chikristu choona sichinapindule ndi atsogoleri achipembedzo odzikonda ameneŵa ndiponso kukonda ndale kwawo kosaloledwa. Kusakaniza chipembedzo ndi ndale kodetsa kumeneku kwasokoneza ziphunzitso za chipembedzo zomwe Yesu anaphunzitsa. Titengerepotu phunziro pa zochitika zakale zimenezi ndi kupitirizabe ‘kusakhala a dziko lapansi.’

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 21 Chiphunzitso cha Monothelitism chimanena kuti ngakhale kuti Kristu ali ngati Mulungu ndiponso munthu, iye ali ndi chifuno chimodzi chokha.

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 10]

“ANKACHITA NGATI MULUNGU AKUYENDA MLENGALENGA”

Zomwe anachita mkulu wa mabishopu, Michael Cerularius (c. 1000-1059), ndi chitsanzo cha zimene ankachita mkulu wa tchalitchi pankhani za Boma ndi pa zofuna zake. Cerularius atakhala mkulu wa mabishopu, anali n’cholinga chofuna kutchuka kwambiri. Iye akuti anali munthu wodzikweza, wodzitukumula, ndiponso waliuma​—“ankachita ngati mulungu akuyenda mlengalenga.”

Chifukwa chofuna kutchuka, Cerularius analimbikitsa mpatuko ndi papa ku Roma mu 1054, ndipo anakakamiza mfumu kuvomereza mpatukowo. Atasangalala ndi kupambana kwake, Cerularius anakonza zoti Michael VI akhale mfumu ndipo iye anamuthandiza kulimbikitsa ulamuliro wake. Patapita chaka chimodzi, Cerularius anaumiriza mfumuyo kuchoka paudindo wake ndi kulonga Isaac Comnenus (c. 1005-1061) kukhala mfumu.

Mkangano pakati pa mkulu wa mabishopu ndi mfumu unakula kwambiri. Cerularius chifukwa chotsimikiza kuti anthu anali kum’tsatira anawopseza, ndipo anayambitsa ziwawa. Wolemba mbiri wina wa m’nthaŵi imeneyo anati: “Iye ananeneratu za kutha kwa ufumuwo ndi mawu onyoza akuti, ‘ndinakukwezani, wopusa inu; koma ndidzakukanthani.’” Komabe, Isaac Comnenus analamula kuti iye amangidwe, kuikidwa m’ndende ndiponso kuthamangitsidwa kupita ku chilumba cha Imbros.

Zitsanzo ngati zimenezi zimasonyeza mavuto amene mkulu wa mabishopu wa ku Kositantinopo anali kuyambitsa ndiponso mmene ankatsutsira mfumu molimba mtima. Mfumu nthaŵi zambiri inali kulimbana ndi anthu ngati ameneŵa amene anali akatswiri pa ndale, omwe ankatha kunyoza mfumu ndiponso asilikali.

[Mapu/​Chithunzi patsamba 9]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Madera Omwe Ufumu wa Byzantine Unafalikira

Ravenna

Roma

MAKEDONIYA

Kositantinopo

Nyanja Yakuda

Nicaea

Efeso

Antiokeya

Yerusalemu

Alexandria

Nyanja ya Mediterranean

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Mapu: Mountain High Maps® Copyright © 1997 Digital Wisdom, Inc.

[Zithunzi pamasamba 10, 11]

Comnenus

Romanus III (kumanzere)

Michael IV

Mfumukazi Zoe

Romanus I (kumanzere)

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Comnenus, Romanus III, ndi Michael IV: Mwachilolezo cha Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.; Mfumukazi Zoe: Hagia Sophia; Romanus I: Chithunzi mwachilolezo cha Harlan J. Berk, Ltd.

[Chithunzi patsamba 12]

Photius

[Chithunzi patsamba 12]

Heraclius ndi mwana

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Heraclius ndi mwana: Chithunzi mwachilolezo cha Harlan J. Berk, Ltd.; zonjambulanjamula zonse pa masamba 8-12: Zachokera m’buku lakuti L’Art Byzantin III Ravenne Et Pompose