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Kodi Abambo a Tchalitchi Anachirikiza Choonadi cha Baibulo?

Kodi Abambo a Tchalitchi Anachirikiza Choonadi cha Baibulo?

 Kodi Abambo a Tchalitchi Anachirikiza Choonadi cha Baibulo?

Kaya mumati ndinu Mkristu kapena ayi, iwo angakhale atakhudza mmene mumaonera Mulungu wa Baibulo, Yesu, ndiponso Chikristu. Mmodzi wa iwo ankamutcha Wamkamwa Mwagolide; ndipo wina ankati ndi; Wamkulu. Aŵiriŵa atchedwa “chitsanzo chenicheni cha moyo wa Kristu.” Kodi ameneŵa ndani? Ndiwo anthu akalekale anzeru m’zachipembedzo, olemba mabuku, akatswiri a zachipembedzo, ndi afilosofi. Maganizo a anthu ameneŵa anapanga mbali yaikulu ya “chomwe amati ndi Chikristu” lerolino​—Abambo a Tchalitchi.

“SI KUTI mawu onse a Mulungu ali m’Baibulo,” anatero Demetrios J. Constantelos, katswiri wa maphunziro achipembedzo wa tchalitchi cha Greek Orthodox. “Mzimu Woyera umene umavumbula Mawu a Mulungu sungakhale m’buku.” Kodi magwero enanso odalirika a vumbulutso la Mulungu angakhale ati? M’buku lake lakuti Understanding the Greek Orthodox Church, (Kumvetsa Tchalitchi cha Greek Orthodox) Constantelos anati: “Chikhalidwe Choyera ndi Malemba Opatulika, zimaonedwa kuti n‘zofanana.”

Phata la “Chikhalidwe Choyera” chimenecho limaphatikizapo ziphunzitso ndi mabuku a Abambo a Tchalitchi. Ameneŵa anali akatswiri a zachipembedzo ndi “Akristu” a filosofe a m’zaka za m’ma 100 mpaka 400 C.E. Kodi maganizo awo akukhudza motani “Chikristu” chamakono? Kodi ziphunzitso zawo zinali zogwirizana ndi Baibulo? Kodi n’chiyani chomwe chiyenera kukhala maziko a choonadi chachikristu kwa wotsatira Yesu Kristu?

Chiyambi Chawo

M’kati mwa zaka za m’ma 100 C.E., anthu odzitcha Akristu, anali kuteteza chikhulupiriro chawo kwa Aroma omwe anali kuwazunza ndi kwa anthu owapandukira. Komabe, iyi inali nthaŵi imene kunali ziphunzitso zambirimbiri zachipembedzo. Kutsutsana pankhani yakuti Yesu ali “Mulungu,” komanso za mzimu woyera ndi ntchito zake, kunawagaŵanitsa m’zambiri osati m’ziphunzitso mokha. Mikangano yamphamvu ndi kugaŵikana kosayanjanitsika pa chiphunzitso “chachikristu” zinaloŵerera m’ndale ndi m’chikhalidwe, ndipo nthaŵi zina zinkachititsa zipolowe, kugalukirana, nkhondo yapachiŵeniŵeni, ngakhalenso nkhondo zikuluzikulu. Wolemba mbiri yakale Paul Johnson anati: “Chikristu [Champatuko] chinayamba ndi chisokonezo, mikangano ndi magawano ndipo chinapitirira kukhala choncho. . . . M’zaka za zana loyamba ndi lachiŵiri AD, madera a pakati ndi kum’maŵa m’chigawo  cha Mediterranean kunafala ziphunzitso zachipembedzo zosaŵerengeka zomwe zimayesa kukhazikika. . . . Choncho kuyambira pachiyambi, kunali mitundu yambiri ya Chikristu yomwe sinali yofanana.”

M’nthaŵi imeneyo, anthu olemba mabuku ndi anzeru omwe anaona kuti n’kofunika kufotokoza ziphunzitso “zachikristu” pogwiritsa ntchito filosofi, anachuluka. Pofuna kukhutiritsa achikunja ophunzira olowa kumene “Chikristu,” olemba mabuku achipembedzo amenewo, anadalira kwambiri mabuku Achigiriki ndi Achiyuda akale. Kuyambira ndi Justin Martyr (c. 100-165 C.E.), yemwe analemba m’Chigiriki, anthu odzitcha Akristu, anapita patsogolo kwambiri pa kuphunzira ndi kutsatira filosofi yachikhalidwe cha Agiriki.

Zotsatira zake zinaonekera kwambiri m’zolemba za Origen (c. 185-254 C.E.), wolemba mabuku wachigiriki wa ku Alexandria. Mfundo za Origen zotchedwa On First Principles, zinali zoyamba kufotokozedwa bwino poyesetsa kufotokoza ziphunzitso zikuluzikulu za “Chikristu” mogwirizana ndi filosofi yachigiriki. Msonkhano wa ku Nesiya (325 C.E.), wokhala ndi zolinga zoyesa kufotokoza ndi kukhazikitsa chiphunzitso chakuti Kristu ndi “Mulungu,” unali chochitika chapadera chomwe chinapereka mphamvu zatsopano pantchito yolongosola chikhulupiriro “chachikristu.” Msonkhano umenewo unali chiyambi cha nyengo imene misonkhano ya tchalitchi imayesa kufotokoza chiphunzitso mosapita m’mbali.

Alembi ndi Olankhula Mokopa

Eusebius wa ku Kaisareya, yemwe analemba panthaŵi ya Msonkhano woyamba wa ku Nesiya, anagwirizana ndi Mfumu Constantine. Patapita zaka zoposa pang’ono 100 kuchokera pa msonkhano wa ku Nesiya, akatswiri a zachipembedzo, ambiri a iwo olemba m’chigiriki, anagwirizana kukhazikitsa chiphunzitso chodziŵika m’Matchalitchi onse Achikristu, cha Utatu wa Mulungu, pambuyo pokangana mwamphamvu kwa nthaŵi yaitali. Omwe ankatsogolera anali Athanasius, bishopu wamakani wa ku Alexandria, ndi atsogoleri atchalitchi atatu a ku Kapadokiya ku Asia Minor​—Basil Wamkulu, mbale wake Gregory wa ku Nyssa ndi mnzawo Gregory wa ku Nazianzus.

Olemba mabuku ndi alaliki m’nthaŵi imeneyo anali ndi luso lapamwamba zedi lokopa anthu. Olemba m’Chigiriki, anali Gregory wa ku Nazianzus ndi John Chrysostom, (kutanthauza “Wamkamwa Mwagolide”) ndipo m’Chilatini anali Ambrose wa ku Milan komanso Augustine wa ku Hippo. Ameneŵa anali akatswiri pokamba nkhani, akuluakulu pa luso lolemekezeka ndi lotchuka m’nthaŵi yawo. Wolemba mabuku yemwe anakopa anthu ambiri panthaŵiyo anali Augustine. Mfundo zake zachipembedzo zakhudza kwambiri “Chikristu” chamakono. Munthu wophunzira kwambiri panthaŵiyo, Jerome, ndiye kwenikweni anatanthauzira Baibulo la Latin Vulgate kuchokera ku zinenero zoyambirira.

Komabe, pali mafunso ofunika awa: Kodi Abambo a Tchalitchi ameneŵa anatsatira Baibulo mokwanira? Kodi anagwiritsa ntchito Malemba ouziridwa m’ziphunzitso zawo? Kodi mabuku awo n’ngotsogolera anthu kuti adziŵe Mulungu molongosoka?

Ziphunzitso za Mulungu Kapena za Anthu?

Posachedwapa, Wansembe Wamkulu wa Greek Orthodox, Methodius wa ku Pisidia analemba buku lakuti The Hellenic Pedestal of  Christianity ndi cholinga chosonyeza kuti chikhalidwe chachigiriki ndi filosofe yawo ndizo nsanamira ya “Chikristu” chamakono. M’buku limenelo, iye sanazengereze kuvomereza kuti: “Pafupifupi Abambo onse otchuka a Tchalitchi, ankaona mfundo zachigiriki monga zofunika kwambiri. Iwo anazitenga ku chikhalidwe chachigiriki chakale, nazigwiritsa ntchito ngati njira yomvetsera ndi kufotokozera molondola choonadi chachikristu.”

Mwachitsanzo, talingalirani mfundo yakuti Atate, Mwana ndi mzimu woyera akupanga Utatu wa Mulungu. Pambuyo pa Msonkhano wa ku Nesiya, Abambo a Tchalitchi ambiri anayamba kukhulupirira Utatu mwamphamvu. Mabuku awo ndi nkhani zawo zinali kupangitsa chiphunzitso cha Utatu kukhala chofunika kwambiri m’Matchalitchi Achikristu. Koma kodi Utatu umapezeka m’Baibulo? Ayi. Nanga Abambo a Tchalitchi anautenga kuti? Buku lakuti, A Dictionary of Religious Knowledge limati anthu ambiri amati Utatu “ndi chikhulupiriro chomwe chinatengedwa ku zipembedzo zachikunja, n’kuphatikizidwa ku chikhulupiriro chachikristu.” Ndipo buku lakuti The Paganism in Our Christianity limatsimikiza kuti: “Chiyambi chenicheni cha [Utatu ] n’chikunja.” *​—Yohane 3:16; 14:28.

Kapena mungaganizenso za chiphunzitso chakuti moyo sumafa, kukhulupirira kuti mbali ina ya munthu imakhalabe ndi moyo thupi likafa. Apanso, Abambo a Tchalitchi ndiwo anaphatikiza malingaliro ameneŵa ku chipembedzo chomwe sichinkaphunzitsa kuti moyo umapulumuka imfa. Baibulo limasonyeza momveka bwino kuti moyo umafa: “Moyo wochimwawo ndiwo udzafa.” (Ezekieli 18:4) Kodi maziko a chikhulupiriro cha Abambo a Tchalitchi chakuti moyo sumafa anali chiyani? Buku lakuti New Catholic Encyclopedia limati: “Maganizo  achikristu akuti Mulungu analenga moyo wauzimu n’kuuika m’thupi la munthu pom’lenga kuti akhale wamoyo, anadza chifukwa cha kukhazikika kwa filosofi m’Chikristu. Origen wa kum’maŵa ndi St. Augustine wa kumadzulo ndiwo anakhazikitsa chiphunzitso chakuti moyo ndi mzimu ndipo filosofe inawachirikiza. . . . Maziko a [Chiphunzitso cha Augustine] komanso (zolakwika zina) anali Chiphunzitso Chatsopano cha Plato.” Ndipo magazini ya Presbyterian Life imati: Chiphunzitso chakuti moyo sufa, ndiwo maganizo achigiriki omwe anali zinsinsi m’zipembedzo zampatuko za makedzana omwe wafilosofi wotchedwa Plato anadzawatanthauzira.” *

Maziko Enieni a Choonadi Chachikristu

Taona mwachidule chiyambi cha Abambo a Tchalitchi ndi kumene ziphunzitso zawo zinachokera. Koma funso n’lakuti, Kodi Mkristu woona mtima ayenera kukhulupirira ziphunzitso za Abambo a Tchalitchi? Tiyeni tilole Baibulo litiyankhe.

Choyamba, Yesu Kristu analetsa kugwiritsa ntchito dzina laulemu lachipembedzo lakuti ‘Abambo’ pamene anati: “Musatchule wina atate wanu pansi pano, pakuti alipo mmodzi ndiye Atate wanu wa Kumwamba.” (Mateyu 23:9) Kugwiritsa ntchito liwu lakuti “Abambo” monga udindo uliwonse wachipembedzo sikoyenera Akristu ndipo si kwa m’Malemba. Mawu a Mulungu anamalizidwa kulembedwa cha m’ma 98 C.E. ndi mtumwi Yohane. Choncho, Akristu safunikira kudalira munthu wina monga gwero la mavumbulutso ouziridwa. Ndi osamala kuti ‘asapeputse Mawu a Mulungu’ chifukwa cha miyambo ya anthu. Kugwiritsa ntchito miyambo ya anthu m’malo mwa Mawu a Mulungu n’kowononga mwauzimu. Yesu anachenjeza kuti: “Ngati wakhungu am’tsogolera wakhungu, onse aŵiri adzagwa m’mbuna.”​—Mateyu 15:6, 14.

Kodi Mkristu ayenera kufunanso mavumbulutso ena kuposa mawu a Mulungu omwe ali m’Baibulo? Ayi. Buku la Chivumbulutso limatichenjeza kuti tisawonjezere chilichonse pa mawu ouziridwa: “Munthu akawonjeza pa awa, adzamuwonjezera Mulungu miliri yolembedwa m’bukumu.”​—Chivumbulutso 22:18.

Mawu olembedwa a Mulungu, Baibulo, ndiwo Choonadi chachikristu. (Yohane 17:17; 2 Timoteo 3:16; 2 Yohane 1-4) Kulimvetsetsa sikudalira filosofe yadziko. Kwa amene amayesa kugwiritsa ntchito nzeru za anthu pofotokozera mavumbulutso a Mulungu, n’koyenera kubwereza mafunso a mtumwi Paulo awa: “Ali kuti wanzeru? Mlembi ali kuti? Ali kuti wotsutsana wa nthaŵi ya pansi pano? Kodi Mulungu sanaipusitsa nzeru ya dziko lapansi?”​—1 Akorinto 1:20.

Kuwonjezera apo, mpingo wachikristu choona ndiwo “mzati ndi mchirikizo wa choonadi.” (1 Timoteo 3:15) Oyang’anira ake amateteza chiphunzitso chawo mu mpingo kuti chiphunzitso chilichonse choipa chisalowe. (2 Timoteo 2:15-18, 25) Iwo amachotsa ‘aneneri onama, aphunzitsi onama, ndi mipatuko yowononga’ mu mpingo. (2 Petro 2:1) Atamwalira atumwi, Abambo a Tchalitchi analola “kusamala mizimu yosocheretsa ndi maphunziro a ziŵanda” kuzika mizu mu mpingo wachikristu.​—1 Timoteo 4:1.

Zotsatira za mpatuko umenewu n’zoonekera bwino m’Matchalitchi Achikristu lerolino. Zikhulupiriro zawo ndi ntchito zawo, n’zosiyana kwambiri ndi choonadi cha m’Baibulo.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 15 Nkhani yatsatanetsatane ya chiphunzitso cha Utatu, mungaipeze m’bulosha lakuti Kodi Muyenera Kukhulupirira Utatu?, lofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova.

^ ndime 16 Kuti mudziŵe zambiri zimene Baibulo limanena pankhani ya moyo, onani masamba 151-157 ndi 294-299 m’buku la Kukambitsirana za m’Malemba, lofalitsidwa ndi Mboni za Yehova.

 [Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 18]

ABAMBO A KU KAPADOKIYA

Wolemba mbiri wotchedwa Kallistos yemwe ndi mgulupa anati: “Tchalitchi cha Orthodox . . . chimapereka ulemu waukulu kwa olemba mabuku a m’zaka za m’ma 300, makamaka omwe chimawatcha ‘Atsogoleri Akuluakulu” atatu, Gregory wa ku Nazianzus, Basil Wamkulu, ndi John Chrysostom.” Kodi ziphunzitso za Abambo a Tchalitchi ameneŵa zinali zochokera m’Malemba ouziridwa? Pokambapo za Basil Wamkulu, buku lakuti The Fathers of the Greek Church limati: “Zolemba zake zimasonyeza kuti anali kukonda Plato, Homer, olemba ena mbiri, ndi anthu olankhula mokopa kwa moyo wake wonse ndipo ankatsanzira ameneŵa. . . . Basil anakhalabe ‘m’Giriki.’” N’chimodzimodzinso ndi Gregory wa ku Nazianzus. “Iye ankaganiza kuti Tchalitchi chingakhale chopambana ndi chapamwamba mwa kutsatira kwathunthu miyambo yakale yachigiriki.”

Za atatuŵa, Pulofesa Panagiotis K. Christou analemba kuti: “Ngakhale kuti nthaŵi zina anali kuchenjeza anthu za ‘kukonda nzeru ndi chinyengo chopanda pake,’ [Akolose 2:8] kuti akhale mogwirizana ndi lamulo la Chipangano Chatsopano, panthaŵi yomweyo iwo anali kuphunzira filosofe mwachidwi ndi mfundo zina zogwirizana nayo. Anavomerezanso anthu ena kuiphunzira.” N’zoonekeratu kuti aphunzitsi a tchalitchi otereŵa anaganiza kuti Baibulo silokwanira kuchirikiza malingaliro awo. Kodi kufunafuna kwawo maumboni ena owachirikiza kunatanthauza kuti ziphunzitso zawo si zinali za m’Baibulo? Mtumwi Paulo anachenjeza Akristu achihebri kuti: “Musatengedwe ndi maphunzitso a mitundumitundu, ndi achilendo.”​—Ahebri 13:9.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Archivo Iconografico, S.A./​CORBIS

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 20]

CYRIL WA KU ALEXANDRIA BAMBO WA TCHALITCHI WOIPA

Mmodzi wa Abambo a Tchalitchi oipa kwambiri anali Cyril wa ku Alexandria (c. 375-444 C.E.). Wolemba mbiri yakale ya Tchalitchi Hans von Campenhausen anati, “chifukwa chakuti anali wolemekezeka ndi waudindo waukulu, anali womva zake zokha, wachiwawa, ndiponso kathyali. Sankavomereza chilichonse pokhapokha ngati chili chom’thandiza kuwonjezera mphamvu ndi udindo wake . . . Nkhanza ndi njira zake zachinyengo sizinam’bwezere m’mbuyo.” Pamene anali bishopu wa Alexandria, Cyril anagwiritsa ntchito ziphuphu, nkhani zabodza, ndi miseche kuchotsetsa pampando bishopu wa Kositantinopo. Zikuoneka kuti ndiye ali ndi mlandu wakupha mwankhanza wafilosofi wodziŵika bwino wotchedwa Hypatia mu 415 C.E. Pokambapo za mabuku a zachipembedzo a Cyril, Campenhausen anati: “Ndiye anayambitsa kukhazikitsa zikhulupiriro mosagwirizana ndi Baibulo, koma mogwirizana ndi mabuku ndi zonena za anthu ena otchuka.”

[Chithunzi patsamba 19]

Jerome

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Garo Nalbandian