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Cyril ndi Methodius—Otembenuza Baibulo Omwe Anayambitsa Zilembo

Cyril ndi Methodius—Otembenuza Baibulo Omwe Anayambitsa Zilembo

 Cyril ndi Methodius​—Otembenuza Baibulo Omwe Anayambitsa Zilembo

“Mtundu wathu n’ngwobatizidwa koma tilibe mphunzitsi. Sitimva Chigiriki ngakhalenso Chilatini. . . . Sititha kuŵerenga komanso sitidziŵa matanthauzo a zilembo; chotero titumizireni aphunzitsi omwe angatithandize kuzindikira mawu a m’Malemba ndiponso matanthauzo ake.”​—Rostislav, kalonga wa Moravia, mu 862 C.E.

LEROLINO, anthu oposa 435 miliyoni olankhula zinenero za anthu a mtundu wa Asilavo ali ndi Baibulo lotembenuzidwa m’chinenero chawo. * Mwa ameneŵa, anthu 360 miliyoni amagwiritsa ntchito zilembo za Chisililiki. Komatu, zaka mazana 12 zapitazo panalibe chinenero chochita kulemba ngakhalenso zilembo m’zinenero zing’onozing’ono za makolo awo. Amene anathandiza kuthetsa vuto limenelo anali Cyril ndi Methodius, amuna apachibale. Anthu okonda Mawu a Mulungu adzaona kuti kulimba mtima ndiponso khama la amuna aŵiriŵa ndi nkhani yochititsa chidwi m’mbiri ya kusunga ndi kufalitsa Baibulo. Kodi amuna ameneŵa anali ndani, ndipo anakumana ndi zopinga zotani?

“Wafilosofi” ndi Bwanamkubwa

Cyril (827-869 C.E., yemwe poyamba ankatchedwa Constantine) ndi Methodius (825-885 C.E.) anabadwira m’banja lapamwamba kwambiri mu mzinda wa Tesalonika, ku Girisi. Panthaŵiyo, n’kuti Tesalonika uli mzinda wa zinenero ziŵiri; anthu a mu mzindawu ankalankhula Chigiriki ndi chinenero china cha Asilavo. Cyril ndi Methodius ayenera kuti anali ndi mwayi wodziŵa bwino chinenero cha Asilavo a kumwera kwa mzindawo chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa Asilavowo mu mzindawu komanso chifukwa cha mgwirizano waukulu pakati pa nzika za m’Tesalonika ndi anthu am’midzi ya Asilavo yoyandikira mzindawo. Ndipo wina yemwe analemba mbiri ya Methodius amatchulanso kuti mayi wawo anali Msilavo.

Abambo wake atamwalira, Cyril anasamukira ku Kositantinopo, likulu la Ufumu wa Byzantium. Ali kumeneko, iye anaphunzira pa yunivesite yachifumu ndi kugwirizana ndi aphunzitsi abwino kwambiri. Anakhala wosamalira mabuku wamkulu wa nyumba yoŵerengeramo ndi kubwereketsa mabuku ya Hagia Sophia, chinyumba cha tchalitchi chomwe ndi chotchuka kwambiri Kum’maŵa, ndipo kenako anakhala katswiri wa filosofi. Ndipo, chifukwa cha maphunziro ake apamwamba, Cyril anapatsidwa dzina lakuti Wafilosofi.

Panthaŵiyi, Methodius anatsanzira ntchito ya bambo wake, yoyendetsa nkhani za ndale. Anakhala bwanamkubwa m’chigawo cha kumalire kwa ufumu wa Byzantium komwe kunkakhala Asilavo ambiri. Komabe, iye anasiya ntchitoyo n’kupita ku nyumba ya amonke ku Asiyamina. Cyril anapita komweko kukakhala naye limodzi m’chaka cha 855 C.E.

M’chaka cha 860 C.E., mkulu wa mabishopu  ku Kositantinopo anatumiza amuna aŵiriŵa kunja kwa dzikolo. Anawatumiza kwa Akhazara, anthu a kumpoto chakum’maŵa kwa Nyanja Yakuda, omwe ankachita mantha kulowa Chisilamu, Chiyuda, kapena Chikristu. Akupita kumeneko, Cyril anakhala mu Chersonese, ku Crimea kwakanthaŵi. Akatswiri ena a zamaphunziro amakhulupirira kuti kumeneko Cyril anaphunzirako Chihebri ndi Chisamariya ndi kuti anatembenuza galamala ya Chihebri m’chinenero cha Akhazara.

Pempho Lochokera ku Moravia

Mu 862 C.E., Rostislav, kalonga wa Moravia (lomwe tsopano ndi dera la chakum’maŵa kwa Czechia, chakumadzulo kwa Slovakia, ndiponso chakumadzulo kwa Hungary), anatumiza kwa Mfumu Michael III ya Byzantium pempho lomwe lili m’ndime yoyamba lija, loti atumize aphunzitsi a Malemba. Nzika zolankhula Chisilavo zokhala m’Moravia zinali zitadziŵa kale ziphunzitso za tchalitchi kuchokera kwa amishonale ochokera ku ufumu wa Kum’maŵa Wachifulanki (womwe tsopano ndi Germany ndi Austria). Komabe, Rostislav ankada nkhaŵa ndi momwe mafuko a Germany adzawakhudzira m’zandale komanso m’zatchalitchi. Anali ndi chiyembekezo chakuti kugwirizana ndi Kositantinopo pa zachipembedzo kudzapangitsa dziko lake kukhala loima palokha pankhani zandale ndiponso zachipembedzo.

Mfumuyo inaganiza zotumiza Methodius ndi Cyril ku Moravia. Kumbali ya maphunziro ndi zinenero, amuna aŵiriŵa anali achikwanekwane kuti akatsogolere ntchito yoteroyo. Mwamuna wina wa m’zaka za m’ma 1000 yemwe anali wolemba mbiri ya anthu akutiuza kuti mfumuyo, pamene imawalimbikitsa kupita ku Moravia, inati: “Nonsenu ndinu obadwira ku Tesalonika, ndipo Atesalonika onse amalankhula Chisilavo chokhachokha.”

Zilembo Ndiponso Ntchito Yotembenuza Baibulo Zibadwa

M’miyezi yoti atsala pang’ono kunyamuka, Cyril anakonzekera ntchito imeneyo mwa kulembera Asilavo zilembo. Anthu akhala akunena kuti iye ankamvetsetsa kwambiri katchulidwe ka mawu. Chotero, mogwiritsa ntchito zilembo za Chigiriki ndi Chihebri, Cyril anayesetsa kupeza chilembo cha liwu lililonse la Chisilavo. * Anthu ena ochita kafukufuku amakhulupirira kuti iye anali atatha kale zaka zambiri akukonzekera zilembo zoterozo. Ndipo anthu amakayikirabe ponena za mtundu weniweni wa zilembo zimene Cyril anayambitsa.​—Onani bokosi lakuti “Chisililiki Kapena Chigilagoliti?”

Panthaŵi yomweyo, Cyril anayambitsa ntchito ya msangamsanga yotembenuza Baibulo. Malinga ndi mmene anthu amanenera, anayamba  kutembenuza kuchokera ku Chigiriki kupita m’Chisilavo chiganizo choyambirira cha Uthenga Wabwino wa Yohane, chakuti: “Pachiyambi panali Mawu . . . ” ndipo anagwiritsa ntchito zilembo zatsopanozo. Cyril anapitiriza kutembenuza Mauthenga Abwino anayi, makalata a Paulo, ndiponso buku la Masalmo.

Kodi ankagwira yekha ntchito imeneyi? Mwinamwake Methodius anam’thandiza pa ntchitoyi. Komanso, buku lakuti The Cambridge Medieval History limati: “M’posavuta kuganiza kuti [Cyril] anali ndi anthu ena om’thandiza, amene ayenera kuti anali mbadwa za Chisilavo zomwe zinaphunzira maphunziro a Chigiriki. Ngati titapenda mabuku amene anatembenuzidwa kale kwambiri, . . . tingakhale ndi umboni wokwanira wa mawu a Chisilavo chomveka bwino kwambiri, zimene ziyenera kuti zinachitika chifukwa cha anzake ogwira nawo ntchito omwe anali Asilavo.” Mbali yotsala ya Baibulo inadzamalizidwa ndi Methodius, zomwe tione m’tsogolomu.

“Ngati Makwangwala Olimbana ndi Chimphamba”

Mu 863 C.E., Cyril ndi Methodius anayamba ntchito yawo ku Moravia, komwe analandiridwa ndi manja aŵiri. Ntchito yawo inaphatikizapo kuphunzitsa gulu la anthu a ku Moravia komweko zilembo za Chisilavo zatsopanozo, kuwonjezera pa kutembenuza mawu a m’Baibulo ndiponso mwambo wa mapemphero.

Komabe, sikuti zonse zinali zophweka. Atsogoleri achipembedzo achifulanki ku Moravia anakanitsitsa kugwiritsa ntchito Chisilavo. Ankakhulupirira kuti zinenero zitatu zokha zomwe ndi Chilatini, Chigiriki, ndi Chihebri ndizo zinali zinenero zovomerezeka kuzigwiritsa ntchito polambira. Pokhala ndi chiyembekezo choti akathandizidwa ndi papa pa nkhani yokhudza chinenero chawo chatsopanocho, Cyril ndi Methodius anauyatsa ulendo wopita ku Roma mu 867 C.E.

Ali panjira, ku Venice, amunaŵa anakumananso ndi kagulu ka atsogoleri achipembedzo kachilatini kokhulupirira zinenero zitatu zokha zolambirira. Mwamuna wina wa m’zaka zapakati pa 500 ndi 1500 A.D., yemwe analemba mbiri ya Cyril ananena kuti mabishopu, ansembe, ndiponso amonke a ku Venice anamuukira “ngati makwangwala olimbana ndi chimphamba.” Malinga ndi nkhaniyo, Cyril anawayankha mwa kugwira mawu 1 Akorinto 14:8, 9: “Pakuti ngati lipenga lipereka mawu osazindikirika, adzadzikonzera ndani kunkhondo? Momwemonso inu ngati mwa lilime simupereka mawu omveka bwino, kudzazindikirika bwanji chimene chilankhulidwa? Pakuti mudzakhala olankhula kumlengalenga.”

Amunaŵa atafika ku Roma, Papa Adrian II anawavomereza kuti agwiritse ntchito Chisilavo. Pambuyo pa miyezi ingapo adakali ku Roma komweko, Cyril anadwala mwakayakaya. Atadwala kwa miyezi yosakwana iŵiri, iye anamwalira ali ndi zaka 42.

Papa Adrian II analimbikitsa Methodius kuti abwerere kukagwira ntchito ku Moravia ndi madera ozungulira mzinda wa Nitra, komwe tsopano ndi ku Slovakia. Pofuna kukhala wamphamvu m’deralo, papa anapatsa Methodius makalata ovomereza kugwiritsa ntchito Chisilavo ndi kum’sankha kukhala bishopu wamkulu. Komabe, mu 870 C.E., bishopu wachifulanki, Hermanrich, mothandizidwa ndi Kalonga Svatopluk wa ku Nitra, anamanga Methodius. Anam’tsekera m’ndende kwa zaka ziŵiri ndi theka m’nyumba ya amonke kumwera chakum’maŵa kwa dziko la Germany. Pambuyo pake, yemwe analoŵa m’malo mwa Adrian II, Papa John VIII, analamula kuti Methodius amasulidwe, anam’bwezeretsa m’dera lake, ndi kulonjeza kuti am’thandiza kuti Chisilavo chizigwiritsidwa ntchito polambira.

Komabe, atsogoleri achipembedzo achifulanki anapitirizabe kum’tsutsa. Methodius anadzitchinjiriza bwino kwambiri pa chidzudzulo choti n’ngwampatuko, ndipo pambuyo pake analandira chikalata chochokera kwa Papa John VIII chosonyeza kuti akuvomereza kuti Chisilavo chizigwiritsidwa ntchito m’tchalitchi. Monga momwe papa wamakono, Yohane Paulo II, wavomerezera, Methodius anathera moyo wake “mliyenda, m’kusala kudya, m’mavuto, m’nkhanza ndi m’chizunzo, . . . ngakhalenso m’nyengo yomwe anthu ankaponyedwa m’ndende mwankhanza.” Chodabwitsa n’chakuti zimenezi zinkachitidwa ndi mabishopu ndiponso akalonga omwe ankagwirizana ndi Roma.

Atembenuza Baibulo Lonse

Ngakhale kuti ankatsutsidwa mopitirira muyeso, Methodius, mothandizidwa ndi akatswiri olemba mawu mwachidule, anamaliza kutembenuza mbali yotsala ya Baibulo m’Chisilavo. Malinga ndi mmene anthu amanenera, iye anamaliza ntchito yaikuluyi  m’miyezi isanu ndi itatu yokha. Koma sanatembenuze mabuku osavomerezedwa a Amakabeo.

Lerolino n’kovuta kudziŵa bwinobwino ntchito yotembenuza ya Cyril ndi Methodius kuti inali yabwino motani. Lerolino pali makope ochepa okha olembedwa pamanja amene anatembenuzidwa poyambirirapo. Mwa kupenda makope ochepa amenewo, akatswiri a zinenero amazindikira kuti mabukuwo anatembenuzidwa molondola ndiponso momveka bwino. Buku lakuti Our Slavic Bible (Baibulo Lathu la Chisilavo) limati amuna aŵiriŵa “anayambitsa mawu ambiri atsopano . . . Ndipo anachita zimenezi mwadongosolo lodabwitsa kwambiri [ndipo] anaika m’Chisilavo mawu okhala ndi matanthauzo abwino koposa.”

Choloŵa Chokhalitsa

Methodius atamwalira mu 885 C.E., ophunzira ake anathamangitsidwa m’Moravia ndi otsutsa achifulanki. Anathaŵira ku Bohemia, chakumwera kwa mayiko a Poland, ndi Bulgaria. Chotero ntchito yomwe ankagwira Cyril ndi Methodius inapitirizidwa ndiponso inafalikira. Chisilavo, chimene amuna aŵiriŵa anachipatsa zilembo zoyenerera, chinakula ndi kufalikira, ndipo kenako n’kukhala chinenero chapachokha. Lerolino, zinenero zodziŵika bwino za Asilavo zilipo 13 ndipo pali malilime enanso ambirimbiri.

Komanso, ntchito ya Cyril ndi Methodius yotembenuza Baibulo yomwe inaphatikizapo kukhala olimba mtima, yakhala yaphindu potembenuza Malemba osiyanasiyana omwe alipo m’zinenero za Asilavo lerolino. Anthu miyandamiyanda olankhula zinenero zimenezi amapindula mwa kukhala ndi Mawu a Mulungu m’chinenero chawo. Mosasamala kanthu za chitsutso choopsa, mawu aŵa akwaniritsidwa: “Mawu a Mulungu wathu adzakhala nthaŵi zachikhalire.”​—Yesaya 40:8.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 3 Zinenero za Asilavo zimalankhulidwa Kum’maŵa ndi Pakati pa Ulaya ndipo zikuphatikiza Chirasha, Chiyukireni, Chisebu, Chipolishi, Chitcheki, Chibugariya, ndiponso zinenero zina zofanana nazo.

^ ndime 13 Dzina lakuti “Chisilavo,” limene lagwiritsidwa ntchito m’nkhani ino, likusonyeza chinenero cha Asilavo chomwe Cyril ndi Methodius ankalankhula pa ntchito yawo ndiponso chomwe anagwiritsa ntchito m’zolemba zawo. Ena lerolino amagwiritsa ntchito mawu akuti “Chisilavo Chakale” kapena “Chisilavo Chakale cha Tchalitchi.” Akatswiri a zinenero amavomereza kuti m’zaka za zana la chisanu ndi chinayi C.E., panali zinenero zambiri zomwe Asilavo ankalankhula.

[Bokosi patsamba 29]

Chisililiki Kapena Chigilagoliti?

Kalembedwe ka zilembo zomwe Cyril anayambitsa kabutsa mkangano waukulu, chifukwa chakuti akatswiri a zinenero sadziŵa kwenikweni kuti zinali zilembo zotani. Zilembo zotchedwa Chisililiki n’zofanana kwambiri ndi zilembo za Chigiriki, ndipo zili ndi zilembo pafupifupi khumi ndi ziŵiri zowonjezera zoimira katchulidwe ka mawu a Chisilavo omwe sapezeka m’Chigiriki. Komabe, zina mwa zolemba pamanja zoyambirira kwambiri za Chisilavo zimagwiritsa ntchito zilembo za mtundu winawina, zotchedwa Chigilagoliti, ndipo akatswiri ambiri a zamaphunziro amakhulupirira kuti ndi zilembo zimene Cyril anayambitsa. Zilembo zochepa za Chigilagoliti zimaoneka kuti zinachokera ku kalembedwe ka Chigiriki kapena Chihebri. Zilembo zina mwinamwake zinachokera ku katchulidwe ka mawu m’zaka za pakati pa 500 ndi 1500 A.D., koma zambiri zomwe ndi maphatikizo a mawu osiyanasiyana n’zosachokera ku zilembo za zinenero zina. Zikuoneka kuti zilembo za Chigilagoliti n’zodziŵika bwino kwambiri ndiponso zosachokera ku zilembo za zinenero zina. Komabe, zinenero zamakono za Chirasha, Chiyukireni, Chisebu, Chibugariya ndi Chimakedoniya, kuwonjezera pa zinenero zina 22, zomwe zina mwa izo si za Chisilavo zinachokera ku Chisililiki.

[Zilembo za Chisililiki ndi Zilembo za Chigilagolitiki]

[Mapu patsamba 31]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

Nyanja ya Baltic

(Poland)

Bohemia (Czechia)

Moravia (Kum’maŵa kwa Czechia, Kumadzulo kwa Slovakia, Kumadzulo kwa Hungary)

Nitra

UFUMU WAKUM’MAŴA WACHIFULANKI (Germany ndi Austria)

ITALIYA

Venice

Roma

Nyanja ya Mediterranean

BULGARIA

GIRISI

Tesalonika

(Crimea)

Nyanja Yakuda

Bituniya

Kositantinopo (Istanbul)

[Chithunzi patsamba 31]

Baibulo la Chisilavo la zilembo za Chisililiki mu 1581

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

Baibulo: Narodna in univerzitetna knjiznica-Slovenija-Ljubljana