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Chipembedzo Chotchedwa “Abale a ku Poland”—Kodi N’chifukwa Chiyani Ankachizunza?

Chipembedzo Chotchedwa “Abale a ku Poland”—Kodi N’chifukwa Chiyani Ankachizunza?

 Chipembedzo Chotchedwa “Abale a ku Poland”​—Kodi N’chifukwa Chiyani Ankachizunza?

Mu 1638 nyumba yamalamulo ya ku Poland inakhaulitsa kwakukulu gulu laling’ono lachipembedzo lotchedwa “Abale a ku Poland.” Tchalitchi cha gulu limeneli ndiponso makina awo osindikizira mabuku anawawononga. Yunivesite ya Raków anaitseka ndipo aphunzitsi apamenepo anathamangitsidwa m’dzikolo.

Patatha zaka makumi aŵiri, nyumba yamalamuloyo inachita zina zowonjezereka. Inalamula aliyense amene anali m’gululo, limene mwina linali ndi anthu okwana 10,000 kapena kuposa, kuti achoke m’dzikolo. Kodi zinthu zinaipa bwanji chonchi m’dzikoli, pakuti panthaŵiyi linali dziko loonedwa monga lololera kwambiri ku Ulaya konse? Kodi gulu la Abale a ku Poland linachita chiyani kuti liyenere chilango choterechi?

ZINAYAMBA pamene kunachitika kusagwirizana kwakukulu m’Tchalitchi cha Calvinist cha ku Poland. Nkhani yaikulu imene inali kuchititsa mkangano inali yokhudza chiphunzitso cha Utatu. Atsogoleri a kagulu kokonda kufufuza ndi kupeza nzeru zatsopano m’tchalitchi chimenechi anasiya chiphunzitsochi ponena kuti sichinali cha m’malemba. Zimenezi zinapsetsa mtima atsogoleri a tchalitchicho ndipo zinapangitsa kuti kagulu kofufuza nzeru zatsopanoko kapanduke.

Otsatira chipembedzo cha Calvinist anawatcha opandukawo a Arian, * koma otsatira kagulu katsopanoka ankadzitcha kuti Akristu kapena kuti Abale a ku Poland. Amatchedwanso Asonicia, dzina lopatsidwa chifukwa cha Laelius Socinus, Mtaliyana amene anasonkhezeredwa ndi Servetus, yemwenso anali ndi mphwake wotchedwa Faustus Socinus amene anapita ku Poland ndikukakhala wotchuka m’gululi.

Panthaŵi imeneyo munthu wina wapamwamba wa ku Poland, Jan Sienieński anaganiza zopezera tchalitchi latsopanolo malo amene iye ankati ndi “malo abata komanso okhala paokha” kuti likhazikikepo. Pogwiritsa ntchito mwayi wapadera umene anali atapatsidwa ndi mfumu ya ku Poland, Sienieński anakhazikitsa tauni ya Raków, imene pambuyo pake inadzakhala likulu la Chisocinia ku Poland. Sienieński anapatsa nzika za ku Raków maufulu angapo, kuphatikizapo ufulu wa kulambira momasuka.

Anthu aluso lamanja, madokotala, okonza mankhwala, anthu okhala m’matauni, ndiponso anthu olemekezeka osiyanasiyana anakopeka ndi tauni yatsopanoyo. Kuphatikizanso apo, abusa anali piringupiringu kupita kumeneku kuchokera ku Poland, Lithuania, Translyvania, France, ndiponso ngakhale ku England. Komabe, si kuti atsopano onseŵa anali ndi zikhulupiriro za a Sonicia; motero kwa zaka zitatu zotsatira, kuchokera mu 1569 mpaka 1572, mzinda wa Raków unasanduka malo okambiranako nkhani zosatha zonena za chipembedzo. Kodi zotsatira zake zinali zotani?

Nyumba Igaŵanika

Gulu la Chisonicia linagaŵanika, ndipo anthu amene anakakamira ku malingaliro awo apachiyambi anapita kwaokha ndipo amene malingaliro awo anali apakatikati anapitanso kwina. Komabe, ngakhale kuti anali osiyana motere, zikhulupiriro zofanana pakati pawo zinali zosiyana ndi za ena. Anakaniratu chiphunzitso cha Utatu; anakana kubatiza ana ali aang’ono; nthaŵi zambiri sankagwira zida zankhondo ndipo  sankagwira ntchito za boma. * Ndiponso iwo anakana zakuti kuli helo kumene anthu amakazunzidwako. Pochita zonsezi, ananyalanyaza miyambo yotchuka yachipembedzo.

Atsogoleri a chipembedzo cha Calvinist ndiponso Katolika anatsutsa kwambiri gululi, koma chifukwa chakuti panali mkhalidwe wa kulolerana kwa zipembedzo, umene unachirikizidwa ndi mafumu a ku Poland monga Sigismund II Augustus ndi Stephen Báthory, abusa a Chisocinia anapezerapo mwayi wophunzitsira ziphunzitso zawo.

Ntchito ya Budny Imene Inasintha Zinthu

Baibulo lotembenuzidwa ndi a Calvinist, limene linkagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri panthaŵiyo, silinkakwaniritsa zofuna za oŵerenga ambiri. Baibuloli sanalitembenuze kuchokera ku zinenero za Baibulo zoyambirira, koma kuchokera ku Baibulo lolembedwa mu chilatini lotchedwa Vulgate ndiponso Baibulo lachifalansa cha panthaŵiyo. “Pofuna kukometsera, anasintha ndiponso kulakwitsa malingaliro ena”, likutero buku lina. Analoŵetsamo zinthu zambiri zolakwika. Choncho, anaitana katswiri wina wotchuka wamaphunziro wotchedwa Szymon Budny kuti adzakonze Baibulo lotembenuzidwalo. Iye anaona kuti kunali kosavuta kutembenuza Baibulo latsopano kusiyana ndi kungokonza lakale lomwelo. Budny anayamba kugwira ntchitoyi cha m’ma 1567.

Potembenuzapo, Budny anali kupenda bwino liwu lililonse ndi mawu ofanana nawo mwakuti palibenso munthu wina ku Poland amene anachitapo choncho. Pamene mawu a Chihebri anali kuvuta kutembenuzira m’chinenero cha ku Poland, iye anali kutembenuza liwu lililonse palokha ndipo zimenezi amazilemba m’mawu a m’mphepete. Pamene kunali kofunika, anali kupanga mawu atsopano ndi kuyesa kugwiritsa ntchito mawu osavuta a Chipolishi omwe anali kulankhulidwa tsiku ndi tsiku pa nthaŵiyo. Cholinga chake chinali chakuti oŵerenga awatembenuzire Baibulo lomveka bwino ndiponso lolondola.

Baibulo lathunthu limene Budny anatembenuza linasindikizidwa m’1572. Komabe, amene amasindikiza ntchito yake anamulakwitsira zina zimene anatembenuza kuchokera m’Malemba Achigiriki. Budny sanafooke, ndipo anayamba ntchito yokonza zolakwitsazo, ndipo anamaliza patatha zaka ziŵiri. Budny anatembenuza bwino kwambiri Malemba Achigiriki ndipo matembunizidwewo anaposa a Chipolishi oyamba aja. Kuphatikizanso apo, mmalo ambiri anabwezeretsa dzina la Mulungu lakuti Yehova.

Kumatsiriziro kwa zaka zana la 16 ndiponso zaka makumi atatu zoyambirira m’zaka zana la 17, mzinda wa Raków, umene unali likulu la gululo, unadzakhala likulu la chipembedzo ndiponso maphunziro. Kumeneko, atsogoleri ndiponso olemba a gulu la Abale a ku Poland ankapangako mathirakiti ndiponso mabuku awo.

Ankapititsa Patsogolo Maphunziro

Ntchito yosindikiza mabuku imene gulu la Abale a ku Poland linkachita inayamba kukula pafupifupi m’chaka cha 1600 pamene anaika makina osindikizira ku Raków. Makina osindikizawa, ankasindikiza mapepala olembapo makambirano ndiponso mabuku akuluakulu m’zinenero zosiyanasiyana. Posapita nthaŵi, mzinda wa Raków unaposa mizinda ina yonse ku Ulaya pa nkhani yosindikiza mabuku. Akuti mwina mitundu ya mabuku yokwana 200 inasindikizidwa pa makinawo m’zaka 40 zotsatirapo. Fakitale yopanga mapepala ya gulu la Abale a ku Poland imene inali chapafupi, inkapanga mapepala apamwamba kwambiri opangira mabuku ameneŵa.

Gulu la Abale a ku Poland mosachedwa linaona kufunika kophunzitsa okhulupirira anzawo komanso anthu ena. Kuti zimenezi zitheke, anakhazikitsa Yunivesite ya Raków mu 1602. Anyamata a Abale a ku Poland, ndiponso a Akatolika ndi apolotesitanti, ankaphunzira kumeneko. Ngakhale kuti yunivesiteyo inali yophunzitsa za Mulungu, sankaphunzitsako chipembedzo chokha. Zina zimene ankaphunzitsako ndi monga zinenero zakunja, maphunziro a za makhalidwe, zachuma, mbiri, zamalamulo, nzeru za kuganiza bwino, sayansi, masamu, za mankhwala, ndiponso maseŵera olimbitsa thupi. Yunivesiteyi inali ndi nyumba yaikulu yosungiramo ndi kuŵerengeramo mabuku, imene inkakulirakulira chifukwa cha makina osindikiza mabuku a kumenekowo.

Mkati mwa zaka zana la 17 zinthu zinali kuoneka ngati kuti gulu la Abale a ku Poland lipitirira kuyenda bwino. Koma, zinthu sizinayende choncho.

Tchalitchi Ndiponso Boma Ziukira

Zbigniew Ogonowski wa ku sukulu ya maphunziro apamwamba asayansi yotchedwa Polish Academy of Sciences akulongosola kuti: “Pamatsiriziro a zaka makumi atatu zoyambirira za m’zaka zana la 17, mikhalidwe ya a Arian ku Poland inayamba kuloŵa pansi mwamsanga.” Ichi chinali chifukwa cha zinthu zimene atsogoleri a chikatolika ankachita mwachamuna. Atsogoleri achipembedzo ameneŵa anayesetsa  kuchita chilichonse chimene akanatha, kuphatikizapo kunena kapena kulemba zabodza, kuti aipitse gulu la Abale a ku Poland. Kunali kwapafupi kuwavutitsa chonchi pomwe ndale zinasintha ku Poland. Mfumu ya ku Poland yatsopano panthaŵiyo, yotchedwa Sigismund III Vasa, inali mdani wa gulu la Abale a ku Poland. Onse oloŵa m’malo mwake, makamaka John II Casimir Vasa, nawonso anachirikiza zoyesa za Tchalitchi cha Katolika zofuna kuthetsa gulu la Abale a ku Poland.

Zinthu zinafika povuta kwambiri pamene ophunzira ena ochepa a ku Yunivesite ya Raków ananyoza mtanda mwadala. Nkhani imeneyi anainamizira kuti ndiyo yachititsa kuti awononge likulu la Chipembedzo cha Abale a ku Poland. Mwiniwake wa Yunivesite ya Raków anaimbidwa mlandu ku khoti la nyumba ya malamulo ‘wofalitsa zoipa’ pochirikiza Yunivesite ya Raków ndiponso makina ake osindikizira mabuku. Abale a ku Poland anawaimba mlandu wochita zinthu zosokoneza, kuchita misonkhano yachikunja, ndi kutinso anali ndi makhalidwe oipa. Nyumba ya malamulo inalingalira kuti Yunivesite ya Raków itsekedwe ndiponso kuti makina osindikizira komanso tchalitchi ya gulu la Abale a ku Poland ziwonongedwe. Okhulupirira anawalamula kuti achoke m’mtauniyo. Ndipo mapolofesa a pa yunivesiteyo anawathamangitsa m’dzikolo ndi kuwapatsa chilango chakuti adzaphedwa ngati atabwerera. Anthu ena a m’gulu la Abale a ku Poland anathaŵira kumadera ena kosaopsa, monga ku Silesia ndi Slovakia.

Mu 1658 nyumba ya malamulo inalamula kuti gulu la Abale a ku Poland ligulitse katundu wake ndi kuti lituluke m’dzikolo pasanathe zaka zitatu. Koma kenaka, nthaŵiyo inachepetsedwa n’kufika pa zaka ziŵiri. Aliyense wosonyeza kuti adakali ndi zikhulupiriro zawo pakutha pa nthaŵiyi adakaphedwa.

Asocinia ena anakakhala ku Netherlands, kumene anapitiriza ntchito yawo yosindikiza. Ku Transylvania kunali mpingo umene unakhalapo mpaka pachiyambi cha zaka za zana la 18. Pamisonkhano yawo imene inali kuchitidwa katatu pamlungu, anali kuimba masalmo, kumvetsera nkhani, ndiponso kuŵerenga katekisima wolembedwa kaamba kofuna kulongosola ziphunzitso zawo. N’cholinga chofuna kuti mpingo ukhale woyera, okhulupirira anali kudzudzulidwa, kulimbikitsidwa ndiponso, ngati kunali koyenera anali kuchotsedwa.

Abale a ku Poland anali ophunzira a Mawu a Mulungu. Anatulukira choonadi china chamtengo wapatali ndipo sanali kuzengereza koma ankauzanso ena. Komabe, mkupita kwa nthaŵi, anamwazikana mu Ulaya monse ndipo kunali kovuta kuti akhalebe ogwirizana. Mkupita kwa nthaŵi gulu la Abale a ku Poland linazimiririka.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 5 Arius (250-336 C.E.) anali wansembe wa chihelene amene anali kunena kuti Yesu anali wamng’ono pomuyerekeza ndi Atate. Bungwe logamula lotchedwa Nicaea linakana malingaliro ake m’chaka cha 325 C.E.​—Onani Galamukani! yachingelezi ya June 22, 1989, tsamba 27.

^ ndime 9 Onani Galamukani! yachingelezi ya November 22, 1988, tsamba 19, nkhani yakuti, “The Socinians​—Why Did They Reject the Trinity?”

[Chithunzi patsamba 23]

Nyumba imene inali ya mbusa wa Asocinia

[Zithunzi patsamba 23]

Pamwamba: Mzinda wa Raków lerolino; kudzanja lamanjaku mukuona nyumba ya amonke imene inakhazikitsidwa mu 1650 pofuna kuthetseratu “Chiarian;” pamunsipa: Pamalo awa abusa a Chikatolika anazikapo mtanda kuti apute gulu la Abale a ku Poland

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 21]

Title card of Biblia nieświeska by Szymon Budny, 1572