Pitani ku nkhani yake

Pitani ku mitu ya nkhani

 TIONE ZAKALE

Alhazen

Alhazen

MWINA simunamvepo za Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham. Kumayiko a ku Europe, dzina lake loyamba amalitchula m’Chilatini kuti Alhazen. Koma m’Chiarabu dzinali ndi al-Hasan. N’kutheka kuti zinthu zomwe munthuyu anapanga zimakukhudzani ndithu mwa njira inayake. Ambiri amanena kuti Alhazen ndi “munthu wofunika kwambiri pa mbiri ya nkhani zasayansi.”

Alhazen anabadwa cha m’ma 965 C.E. mumzinda wa Basra, ku Iraq. Iye ankakonda kwambiri kufufuza za zinthu monga maso, zinthu zakuthambo, mmene zinthu zinapangidwira, zokhudza mankhwala, masamu, nyimbo komanso ndakatulo. Ndiye kodi zinthu zomwe ankachitazi zimatikhudza bwanji?

DAMU LA MTSINJE WA NAILO

Mbiri ya Alhazen inali yodziwika kwa zaka zambiri. Zina mwa zimene anthu ankamukumbukira nazo zinali zokhudza mapulani ake ofuna kumanga damu pofuna kusintha kayendedwe ka madzi a mumtsinje wa Nailo. Damulo linamangidwa mu 1902 ku Aswân patadutsa zaka 1,000.

Mbiriyo imanenanso kuti Alhazen anali ndi mapulani omanga damu pofuna kuchepetsa chilala komanso kusefukira kwa madzi m’dziko la Iguputo. Caliph al-Hakim yemwe anali wolamulira wa mumzinda wa Cairo atamva za mapulaniwo, anamuitanitsa kuti akamange damulo. Koma Alhazen ataona mtsinjewo, anaona kuti ntchitoyo sangaikwanitse. Poopa kuphedwa ndi mtsogoleriyo yemwe anali wankhanza kwambiri, anangonamizira kuchita misala. Alhazen anakhalabe choncho mpaka pamene Caliph anamwalira mu 1021 patatha zaka 11. Pa zaka zonsezi, anamusunga pamalo enaake osungirapo anthu a misala ndipo zimenezi zinamupatsa mwayi wofufuza komanso kuphunzira zinthu zina.

KULEMBA BUKU

Pamene ankamutulutsa anali atalemba buku la mavoliyumu 7 lotchedwa Book of Optics. Anthu amaona kuti bukuli ndi “limodzi la mabuku ofunika kwambiri pa mbiri ya sayansi.” M’bukuli analembamo zomwe anafufuza pa nkhani ya kuwala komanso zimene zimachitika kuti kuwala kuzitulutsa mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Analembamonso zimene zimachititsa kuti kuwala kukafika pagalasi loyang’anira, kuzipindika n’kuonekera pamalo ena. Komanso zimene zimachititsa kuti kuwala kuzipindika kukadutsa pa zinthu zingapo. Anaphunziranso mmene diso linapangidwira ndi zimene zimachitika kuti lione chinthu.

 Pofika zaka za m’ma 1200, buku la Alhazen linali litamasuliridwa kuchoka mu Chiarabu kupita mu Chilatini. Patapita nthawi, akatswiri a ku Europe ankagwiritsa ntchito bukuli ngati poyambira akafuna kufufuza zinthu zina. Zomwe Alhazen analemba zokhudza maso, zinathandiza akatswiri a ku Europe omwe ankapanga magalasi a maso kuyamba kupanga zipangizo zoonera tinthu ting’onoting’ono komanso zounikira zinthu zomwe zili patali.

KACHIPINDA KOJAMBULIRAMO ZITHUNZI

Alhazen anatulukira mfundo inayake yomwe inakhala ngati poyambira kuti anthu ayambe kupanga makamera. Alhazen anapanga kachipinda kenakake kam’dima ndipo anaboola kaboo kakang’ono kwambiri pakhoma. Chithunzi cha zinthu zomwe zinali kunja, chinkaonekera pakhoma la mkati mwa kachipindako. Chithunzichi chinkaoneka chifukwa cha kuwala komwe kunkalowa kudzera pakabooko, koma chinkaoneka chozondoka.

Makamera anayamba kupangidwa potengera kachipinda komwe Alhazen anapanga

Pofika m’zaka za m’ma 1800, anatulukira njira yoti chithunzi chikaoneka chizitha kusungika. Pamenepa ndi pomwe panayambira makamera. Maso athu komanso makamera omwe alipo masiku ano, zimagwira ntchito mofanana ndi mmene zinkakhalira ndi kachipinda kam’dima kaja. *

NJIRA YOFUNIKA KWAMBIRI POFUFUZA ZA SAYANSI

Chochititsa chidwi ndi Alhazen, chinali choti ankafufuza kwambiri mmene zinthu zachilengedwe zinapangidwira. Zimenezi zinali zachilendo kwa anthu ambiri. Alhazen anali mmodzi wa anthu oyamba kuchita kafukufuku wofuna kutsimikiza ngati nkhani zina zasayansi zinalidi zoona. Akaona kuti sakukhutira ndi zinazake sankachita mantha kufunsa.

Asayansi a masiku ano amayendera mfundo yakuti: “Chilichonse chizikhala ndi umboni wake.” Ambiri amanena kuti Alhazen ndi amene “anayambitsa kuti asayansi aziyendera mfundo imeneyi.” Choncho tingati Alhazen anasiya mfundo yofunika kwambiri yomwe anthu amamukumbukira nayo.

^ ndime 13 Poyamba anthu a ku Europe sankamvetsa kuti diso limagwira ntchito mofanana ndi kachipinda kam’dima kaja. Anthuwa anayamba kuzimvetsa bwino cha m’ma 1600, katswiri wina dzina lake Johannes Kepler atafotokoza zimene zimachitika.