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Anthu Akuopa Kwambiri Kutha kwa Dziko

Anthu Akuopa Kwambiri Kutha kwa Dziko

NKHANI yoyamba yafotokoza zinthu zosiyanasiyana zimene anthu amaopa zokhudza kutha kwa dziko. Komabe pali zinthu zina zofunika kuziganizira kwambiri zimene anthu akuda nazo nkhawa. Anthu ambiri akuda nkhawa kuti m’tsogolomu madzi ndi chakudya ziziperewera chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa anthu. Ena akuda nkhawa ndi zimene zidzachitike chifukwa cha mavuto a zachuma padziko lonse. Komanso anthu ena amada nkhawa kuti dziko lidzatha chifukwa cha zinthu ngati zivomezi, miliri kapena nkhondo ya zida zoopsa.

Tiyeni tione zimene anthu ena amaganiza kuti zidzachititsa kuti dziko lithe. Pa zinthu zimenezi, si zonse zimene ndi zingawonongeretu anthu onse koma zikhoza kusintha kwambiri moyo wa anthu. Zina mwa zinthu zimenezi ndi:

 Kuphulika kwa Mapiri

Mu 1991, phiri la Pinatubo, lomwe lili ku Philippines, linaphulika n’kupha anthu 700 ndipo anthu pafupifupi 100,000 anasowa pokhala. Phirilo litaphulika, phulusa lake linapita m’mwamba pamtunda wa makilomita 30, kenako linayamba kutsika n’kukwirira mbewu komanso kuwononga madenga a nyumba. Ndipotu mapiri angati Pinatubo akaphulika amasokoneza nyengo kwa zaka zambiri.

Mapiri amene anaphulika kalekale atati aphulike panopa akhoza kuphulika mwamphamvu kwambiri komanso akhoza kuwononga zinthu kwambiri kuposa nthawi imene anaphulikayo. Akhozanso kusokoneza nyengo padziko lonse zomwe zingachititse kuti mbewu zife, chakudya chisowe komanso kuti anthu ambiri afe ndi njala.

“Nyama ndi zomera zimafa phiri likaphulika, koma likaphulika mwamphamvu kwambiri, nyengo imasintha pa dziko lonse zomwe zimachititsa kuti mitundu ya nyama ndi zomera itsale pang’ono kutheratu.”—“National Geographic.”

Miyala ya M’mlengalenga

M’mawa wa tsiku lina mu 1908, munthu wina anakhala pakhonde pa sitolo ina m’mudzi wa Vanavara, m’dera la Siberia ku Russia. Chinthu china chinaphulika mwamphamvu n’kumugwetsa munthuyo pampando ndipo anamva kutentha kwambiri moti ankaganiza kuti shati yake ikuyaka. Chimene chinachititsa zimenezi ndi chimwala chomwe chinachokera mlengalenga n’kuphulika pa mtunda wa makilomita pafupifupi 60 chisanagwe pansi. Chinali chachikulu mamita 35 m’mimba mwake ndipo chinkalemera makilogalamu pafupifupi 100 miliyoni. Chimwalacho chinaphulika chitangolowa m’pulaneti lathuli chifukwa choti chinkathamanga kwambiri. Chitaphulika chinatulutsa mphamvu yofanana ndi ya mabomba 1,000 amtundu wa bomba loopsa limene linaphulitsidwa ku Hiroshima pa nkhondo yachiwiri ya dziko lonse. Chimwalacho chinawononga dera lalikulu pafupifupi makilomita 2,000 la nkhalango ya ku Siberia. Koma chimwala chachikulu kwambiri kuposa chimenechi chitati chigwe, chikhoza kuwononga zinthu zambiri. Chikhoza kuyambitsa moto, womwe ungachititse kuti nyengo isinthe padziko lonse. Kusintha kwa nyengoku kungachititse kuti padziko lapansi pazizire kwambiri komanso kuti mitundu ya nyama ndi zomera zina itheretu.

“Kuyambira kale, padziko lapansi pakhala pakugwa nyenyezi ndi miyala ya m’mlengalenga ndipo zimenezi zinkachitika pafupipafupi. Tikuyembekezera kuti zimenezi zikhoza kuchitikanso tsiku lina lililonse, kungoti sitikudziwa kuti zichitika liti.”—Anatero Chris Palma, yemwe ndi mphunzitsi wa payunivesite ya Penn State.

 Kusintha kwa Nyengo

Asayansi akukhulupirira kuti kusintha kwa nyengo ndi kumene kukuchititsa kuti madera ena azikhala otentha kwambiri kapena ozizira kwambiri. Kusinthaku kukuchititsanso kuti m’madera ozizira kwambiri padziko lapansi, madzi oundana azisungunuka komanso kuti zamoyo zina, kuphatikizapo za pansi pa nyanja zizifa. Ngakhale kuti akatswiri amanena maganizo osiyanasiyana pankhaniyi, ambiri amakhulupirira kuti nyengo padziko lonse ikusintha chifukwa cha mpweya wa poizoni umene umapezeka m’mlengalenga. Mpweyawu umatulutsidwa ndi magalimoto komanso mafakitale omwe amagwiritsa ntchito zinthu monga malasha ndi mafuta.

Akatswiri ena amakhulupirira kuti mpweya woipawu ukapita m’mlengalenga, umakhala ngati bulangete limene limachititsa kuti mpweya wotentha womwe uli padziko lapansi usamatuluke. Zimenezi zimachititsa kuti padziko lapansi pazitentha kwambiri. Komanso nyengo padziko lonse ikusintha chifukwa chakuti mitengo yomwe imayeretsa mpweya oipa ikudulidwa mwachisawawa.

“Asayansi ambiri amakhulupirira kuti, ngati anthu sapeza njira yochepetsera mpweya umene umachititsa kuti dziko lizitentha, ndiye kuti dziko lapansi lipitirizabe kutentha zomwe zichititse kuti nyengo izisinthasintha. Zingachititsenso kuti madzi azisefukira.”—Buku la “A Mind for Tomorrow: Facts, Values, and the Future.”

Miliri

M’zaka za m’ma 1300, anthu opitirira hafu ya anthu onse ku Ulaya anafa ndi matenda enaake amene anayamba ndi makoswe. Matendawa anapha anthu ochuluka chonchi m’zaka ziwiri zokha. Kenako m’zaka za pakati pa 1918 ndi 1920, anthu pafupifupi 50 miliyoni anafa ndi chimfine choopsa cha ku Spain. Matendawa sanafalikire kwambiri madera ena chifukwa nthawi imeneyo anthu sankayenda m’madera ataliatali. Koma masiku ano, mliri ngati umenewu utati ugwe, ukhoza kufalikira mofulumira chifukwa anthu achulukana komanso akumayenda m’madera akutali mosavuta.

Mliri ngati umenewu ukhoza kungoyamba wokha. Komabe anthu amada nkhawa kuti anthu ena akhoza kukonza tizilombo toyambitsa miliri yoopsa. Mwachitsanzo, akatswiri a zida zofalitsa tizilombo toyambitsa matenda amanena kuti patakhala kagulu ka anthu omwe amadziwa za matenda osiyanasiyana, akhoza kugula zinthu pa Intaneti n’kupanga tizilombo timene tingayambitse komanso kufalitsa matenda oopsa kwambiri.

“N’zoona kuti matenda ena amayamba okha, komabe anthu ena omwe ali ndi maganizo oipa akhoza kutenga tizilombo toyambitsa matenda oyamba okhawo n’kutisintha kuti tisamamve mankhwala, zomwe zingachititse kuti payambike mliri woopsa.”—The Bipartisan WMD Terrorism Research Center.

 Nyama ndi Zomera Zina Zikhoza Kutheratu

Anthufe timadalira kwambiri njuchi chifukwa zimatipatsa uchi komanso zimathandiza kuti mbewu monga maapozi, mphesa, soya ndi thonje zibereke. Koma pa zaka 5 zapitazi, njuchi zambiri zimene alimi a ku United States amaweta, zakhala zikufa chaka chilichonse komanso kusamuka kapena kusowa mosadziwika bwino.

Timadaliranso tizomera tam’madzi tomwe nsomba zimadya. Popanda tizomerati ndiye kuti nsomba zikhoza kufa ndi njala. Komanso patakhala kuti palibe nyongolotsi, bwenzi dothi lathu lili lopanda chonde, zomwe zingachititse kuti anthu asamakolole mbewu zambiri. Patakhala kuti tizinthu ting’onoting’ono timeneti palibe kukhoza kukhala njala yaikulu zomwe zingachititse kuti anthu ayambe kuchita zachiwawa. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya nyama ikutha chifukwa cha kusintha kwa nyengo, kuchulukana kwa anthu komanso chifukwa chakuti anthu akuwononga zachilengedwe ndi malo amene nyamazo zimakhala. Zimenezi zikuchititsa kuti mitundu yambiri ya nyama izitha kwambiri kuposa mmene ikanathera zikanakhala kuti anthu sakuwononga zachilengedwe.

“Chaka chilichonse mitundu ya nyama ndi zomera pakati pa 18,000 ndi 55,000 imatheratu. Anthu ndi amene amachititsa zimenezi.”—United Nations Development Program.

Nkhondo ya Zida Zoopsa

Zomwe zinachitika mu August 1945, pa nkhondo yachiwiri ya padziko lonse, zimasonyeza kuti bomba limodzi la nyukiliya likhoza kufafaniziratu mzinda wonse. Bomba la nyukiliya limakhala lamphamvu kwambiri moti limawononga ndi kupheratu chamoyo chilichonse chifukwa cha moto komanso mpweya wotentha. Poizoni amene bomba limeneli limatulutsa amawononga madzi ndi zakudya. Ngati nkhondo ya zida zoopsa itayambika, m’mlengalenga mukhoza kudzaza fumbi lokhalokha lomwe lingatchinge dzuwa. Zimenezi zingachititse kuti padziko lonse pazizizira kwambiri. Ndiye kuti mbewu ndi zomera zina zikhoza kufa, zomwe zingachititse kuti anthu ndi nyama afe ndi njala. Akuti pali mayiko 9 amene akhoza kuphulitsa mabomba amtundu umenewu. Komanso pali mayiko ena amene akupanga zida zoopsa ndipo zigawenga zimalakalaka zitapeza zida zimenezi kuti ziphe anthu ambiri.

“Anthu ambiri akuda nkhawa kuti zida zimenezi zikhoza kuwononga komanso kusintha kwambiri zinthu padzikoli. . . . Pali mabomba a nyukiliya pafupifupi 25,000 padziko lonse  . . Moti posachedwapa zigawenga zikhoza kupeza mabomba amenewa.”—Union of Concerned Scientists.