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Akatswiri Akale a Zamankhwala

Akatswiri Akale a Zamankhwala

ANTHU ambiri amaganiza kuti zinthu zimene madokotala amagwiritsa ntchito masiku ano ndi zaposachedwapa. Koma zinthu zambiri zimene achipatala amachita masiku ano zinayamba kale kwambiri m’madera ena. Mwachitsanzo tiyeni tione mmene zachipatala zinayambira m’mayiko a ku Middle East.

M’chaka cha 805 C.E., CALIPH HARUN AR-RASHID, yemwe anali wolamulira mu ufumu wa Abbasid anatsegula chipatala mu mzinda wa Baghdad. Kuyambira m’zaka za m’ma 800 mpaka 1200, olamulira ena anamanga komanso kukonza zipatala m’madera onse achisilamu, kuyambira ku Spain mpaka ku India.

Zipatalazi zinkathandiza anthu olemera ndi osauka a m’zipembedzo zosiyanasiyana. Madokotala a m’zipatala zimenezi ankathandiza odwala komanso ankafufuza njira zina zochizira anthu ndiponso kuphunzitsa madokotala atsopano. Zipatalazo zinali ndi malo osiyanasiyana monga malo ofufuzira za mankhwala, zamaso, zamafupa, za opaleshoni, za matenda opatsirana komanso matenda okhudzana ndi ubongo. M’mawa uliwonse madokotala limodzi ndi ophunzira awo ankayendera odwala n’kumawalembera mankhwala ndi zakudya zoti azidya. M’chipatalamo munkakhalanso anthu opereka mankhwala. Komanso munali anthu omwe ntchito yawo inali ya zolembalemba. Iwo ankaona mmene ndalama zikuyendera, kakonzedwe ka chakudya ndiponso kuyang’anira zipatalazo ngati mmene zilili masiku ano.

Akatswiri a mbiri yakale amaona kuti zipatala zimenezi ndi “chimodzi mwa zinthu zofunika kwambiri zimene mayiko achisilamu akale anakwanitsa kuchita.” Katswiri wina wa mbiri yakale amenenso ndi wolemba mabuku, dzina lake Howard R. Turner analemba kuti m’mayiko onse achisilamu, “madokotala anakhazikitsa zipatala ndipo anayamba kutsatira njira zochizira anthu zapamwamba. Zimene ankachitazo zathandizanso kuti zachipatala komanso zamankhwala masiku ano zipite patsogolo kwambiri.”

RHAZES, anabadwa cha m’ma 850, mumzinda wa Rayy, womwe masiku ano ndi tawuni yomwe ili mumzinda wa Tehran. Anthu ena amanena kuti Rhazes “anali dokotala waluso kwambiri komanso wodziwa zachipatala m’mayiko onse achisilamu m’zaka za m’ma 500 mpaka 1500.” Kuti madokotala enanso adziwe zambiri, katswiriyu ankalemba njira komanso matenda amene watulukira, zipangizo zimene ankagwiritsa ntchito ndi zotsatirapo za kafukufuku amene ankachita. Komanso ankalimbikitsa madokotala kuti aziphunzira zinthu zatsopano zokhudza ntchito yawo.

Rhazes anachita zinthu zambiri. Mwachitsanzo, zimene ankalemba zinalembedwa m’buku la nambala 23 la Al-Hawi, lomwe ndi limodzi mwa mabuku otchuka kwambiri pa nkhani ya zachipatala. Ena amanena kuti bukuli limafotokoza mmene madokotala anayambira kuchita opaleshoni yamaso. Limafotokozanso za matenda a azimayi komanso mmene angathandizire azimayi oyembekezera. Rhazes analemba mabuku a zachipatala okwana 56 ndipo ena mwa mabukuwa amafotokoza bwino za matenda a nthomba ndi chikuku. Iye ndi amene anatulukiranso kuti munthu akamatentha thupi ndiye kuti thupi lakelo likulimbana ndi matenda enaake.

Komanso Rhazes anali ndi zipatala mumzinda wa Rayy ndi wa Baghdad, komwe ankathandizirako anthu odwala matenda a misala. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti azidziwika kuti ndi katswiri wa matendawa. Kuwonjezera pamenepa Rhazes analembanso mabuku a zasayansi monga a zakuthambo ndi masamu.

AVICENNA, analinso katswiri wa zachipatala ndipo ankakhala ku Bukhara komwe masiku ano ndi ku Uzbekistan. Iye anakhala mmodzi wa akatswiri pa nkhani monga zachipatala, zamasamu komanso zakuthambo m’zaka zapakati pa 980 ndi 1037 C.E. Avicenna analemba buku lomwe linkafotokoza zonse zokhudza zachipatala pa nthawi imeneyo.—The Canon of Medicine.

Mwachitsanzo, Avicenna analemba m’buku lake kuti chifuwa cha TB ndi chopatsirana ndiponso kuti anthu akhoza kutenga matenda kuchokera m’madzi ndi m’dothi. Analembanso kuti munthu akhoza kudwala chifukwa cha nkhawa, komanso  kuti munthu amakhala ndi minyewa imene imachititsa kuti azimva kuwawa akavulala. Bukuli linafotokozanso mmene mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mankhwala yokwana 760 inapangidwira, zimene anapangira komanso mmene mankhwalawo amagwirira ntchito. Linafotokozanso malangizo amene madokotala ayenera kutsatira poyesa mankhwala atsopano. Bukuli analimasulira m’Chilatini ndipo lakhala likugwiritsidwa ntchito m’masukulu ophunzitsa zachipatala ku Ulaya kwa zaka zambiri.

ALBUCASIS ndi wodziwikanso bwino kwambiri pa nkhani ya zamankhwala. Albucasis anakhalapo m’zaka za m’ma 900 ndipo kwawo kunali ku Andalusia, dera lomwe lili m’dziko la Spain. Iye analemba mabuku 30 onena zachipatala, kuphatikizapo buku la masamba 300 lonena za malangizo ochitira opaleshoni. Mwachitsanzo ananenamo za ulusi wosokera pochita opaleshoni womwe amaupanga kuchokera ku matumbo a nkhosa. Anafotokozanso za njira yochotsera miyala ya m’chikhodzodzo pogwiritsa ntchito kachipangizo kena. Bukuli limafotokozanso za opaleshoni ya chithokomiro komanso za opaleshoni yopala maso.

Albucasis ankagwiritsa ntchito njira zimene madokotala a masiku ano amagwiritsa ntchito pothandiza azimayi amene akuvutika kubereka komanso kuthandiza anthu amene mafupa awo apaphewa asemphana. Iye ndi amene anayambitsanso zogwiritsa ntchito thonje pochita opaleshoni komanso kuika chikhakha munthu amene mafupa ake athyoka. Albucasis anafotokoza njira zobwezeretsera dzino loguluka, kupanga mano ochita kuikirira, kukonza  mano otsakatira komanso kuchotsa zoipa zomatirira m’mano.

Buku limene Albucasis analemba linali loyamba kutchula za zipangizo zochitira opaleshoni. Linali ndi zithunzi 200 za zipangizozi komanso linafotokoza nthawi ndi mmene angazigwiritsire ntchito. M’kupita kwa nthawi, akatswiri ena akhala akukonza ndi kusintha kapangidwe ka zipangizo zimenezi.

Luso la Zachipatala Linafalikira Kumayiko a Azungu

M’zaka za m’ma 1000 ndi 1100, akatswiri ena anayamba kumasulira mabuku a Chiarabu kupititsa m’Chilatini. Ntchito imeneyi inkachitikira mumzinda wa Toledo ku Spain, ndi m’mizinda ya Monte Cassino ndi Salerno, ku Italy. Kenako madokotala ankaphunzira mabuku amenewa mu mayunivesite onse a m’mayiko omwe ankalankhula Chilatini ku Ulaya. Munthu wina wolemba mabuku a sayansi, dzina lake Ehsan Masood, ananena kuti luso la zachipatala la anthu a ku Middle East “linafalikira kwambiri ku Ulaya m’zaka zotsatira, kuposa luso lililonse limene Asilamu analitulukira.”

Choncho tinganene kuti zimene akatswiri akale monga Rhazes, Avicenna, Albucasis ndi akatswiri ena anatulukira, zathandiza kuti luso la zachipatala lipite patsogolo kwambiri masiku ano.