Pitani ku nkhani yake

Pitani ku mitu ya nkhani

Nkhanu Zam’nyanja Ndiwo Zokoma Kwambiri

Nkhanu Zam’nyanja Ndiwo Zokoma Kwambiri

Nkhanu Zam’nyanja Ndiwo Zokoma Kwambiri

Anthu ena omwe ali ndi njala kwambiri akudya mulesitanti ina ku New York City. Chakudya chake ndi nkhanu zam’nyanja ndipo anthuwa akuphwanya nkhanuzo ndi mipeni komanso mafoloko. Ngakhale kuti nkhanuzo zikuoneka zoopsa, anthuwa sakuchita nazo mantha moti akusangalala kwambiri kudya ndiwo yokoma imeneyi.

M’ZAKA za m’ma 1700, nkhanu zinkakhala mbwee mphepete mwanyanja chakumpoto kwa dziko la United States. Anthu ankazigwira n’kukazithira m’munda ngati manyowa pomwe asodzi ankazigwiritsa ntchito ngati nyambo zophera nsomba. Zinalinso ngati chakudya cha akaidi. Nkhanu sizinkasowa moti nthawi ina anthu ena ogwira ntchito m’dera limenelo anakwiya kwambiri chifukwa mabwana awo ankangowapatsa nkhanu. Chifukwa cha zimenezi iwo anasumira mabwanawo ndipo khoti linalamula kuti anthuwo asamapatsidwe nkhanu koposa katatu pa mlungu.

Koma kwa anthu amene ankakhala m’mizinda yakutali, nkhanu inali chakudya chosowa kwambiri. Zinali choncho chifukwa chakuti zinkafika ku mizinda yakutali zitaola. Nkhanu sizichedwa kuola ngakhale zitaviikidwa mumchere kapena kuziumitsa. Koma pofika m’zaka za m’ma 1800, makampani anayamba kuika nkhanu m’zitini ndipo zimenezi zinathandiza kuti anthu ambiri azitha kupeza chakudya chokomachi. Komanso chifukwa chakuti kunali sitima zapamtunda zomwe zinkayenda m’madera akutali m’dziko la United States, zinali zosavuta kutumiza nkhanu zamoyo m’madera amenewa. Ngakhale zinali choncho, kutumiza nkhanu zamoyo m’madera akutali kunkafunika ndalama zambiri, zimene zinkachititsa kuti nkhanu zizidyedwa ndi anthu olemera okhaokha.

Masiku ano, asodzi a m’madera osiyanasiyana padziko lonse amagwira nkhanu zamitundu yosiyanasiyana. Ku America, nkhanu zimapezeka m’nyanja ya Atlantic, kuyambira ku Newfoundland kukafika ku North Carolina. Nkhanu zambiri, zamoyo ndi zophikaphika zomwe, zimene zimatumizidwa kumayiko ena zimachokera m’dera la Maine, lomwe lili kumpoto chakum’mawa kwa dziko la United States. Potumiza nkhanuzi kumayiko ena, ndege imodzi imatha kunyamula nkhanu zolemera makilogalamu 36,287.

Nthawi zambiri makampani amapanga zakudya zambirimbiri zimene amazitumiza ku mayiko ena, zomwe zimachititsa kuti azipeza ndalama zambiri. Koma mosiyana ndi makampani amenewa, asodzi a nkhanu sapeza ndalama zambiri chifukwa amagwira nkhanu zochepa. Komanso asodziwa saweta nkhanuzi koma amakazipha mu nyanja. Mwachitsanzo ku America amakazipha ku nyanja ya Atlantic.

Kodi Amazigwira Bwanji?

Kodi asodzi amagwira bwanji nkhanu? Kuti tipeze yankho la funso limeneli, mtolankhani wa Galamukani! anacheza ndi Jack, yemwe ndi msodzi wa ku Bar Harbor, m’dera la Maine. Anthu a m’banja la Jack anayamba kalekale kwambiri kugwira nkhanu m’dera limeneli. Jack anayamba ntchito yogwira nkhanu ali ndi zaka 17. Nayenso mkazi wa Jack, dzina lake Annette amagwira ntchito yopha nkhanu. Iye ananena kuti: “Nditakwatiwa ndi Jack, anayamba kundiphunzitsa kupha nkhanu. Kwa zaka ziwiri tinkagwiritsa ntchito boti lake koma kenako ndinagula langa.”

Komano kodi Jack ndi Annette amapha bwanji nkhanu? Annette anapitiriza kufotokoza kuti: “Timatenga nyambo, yomwe nthawi zambiri imakhala nsomba, n’kuiika mu ukonde. Tikatero timaika ukondewo m’mono.” Asodzi amamangirira mono uliwonse kuchinthu china choyandama. Annette anafotokoza kuti: “Msodzi aliyense amapenta chinthu choyandamacho ndi penti imene akufuna. Amachita zimenezi kuti chisiyane ndi cha anzake.”

Akaponya mono, umamira mpaka pansi pa nyanja ndipo chinthu choyandamacho chimathandiza msodzi aliyense kudziwa pamene pali mono wake. Annette anapitiriza kufotokoza kuti: “Tikaponya mono m’madzi timausiya kwa masiku angapo. Kenako timapita n’kukauvuula ndipo ngati takola nkhanu, timazitulutsa n’kuziyeza.” Asodzi ena okhulupirika ngati Jack ndi Annette, amati akagwira nkhanu zing’onozing’ono, amazibwezera m’madzi kuti zikule. Nthawi zina akagwira nkhanu zazikazi, amazibwezeranso m’madzi kuti zichulukane.

Akatha kusodza, amatenga nkhanu zamoyozo n’kupita nazo kudoko lapafupi kuti akagulitse. Asodzi ena amakhala m’magulu pogulitsa, koma ambiri amagulitsa okha kwa anthu abizinezi. Monga mmene tafotokozera poyamba, anthu saweta nkhanu. Jack ananena kuti: “Asodzi ena amaloredwa kuweta nkhanu zazikazi zomwe zili ndi mazira. Nkhanuzo zikaswa, amaweta anawo kwa nthawi yochepa, kenako amakawabwezera m’nyanja. Zimenezi zimathandiza kuti nkhanu zizichulukana.”

Usodzi wa nkhanu umathandiza asodzi kupeza zinthu zofunika pa moyo wawo. Ena amatha kulemera ndi usodzi wa nkhanu ngakhale kuti zimenezi ndi zovuta kwambiri. Koma mutati mufunse asodziwa ubwino wina wantchito imeneyi, iwo amanena kuti amasangalala chifukwa amagwira ntchito yodzilamulira okha. Amasangalalanso kupitiriza ntchito imene inayamba kalekale ndi azigogo awo komanso chifukwa chokhala ndi kugwira ntchito m’mbali mwanyanja. Koma chimene chimawasangalatsa kwambiri ndi choti amadziwa kuti nkhanu zimene agwira zikadyedwa ndi anthu osiyanasiyana padziko lonse.

[Bokosi/​Chithunzi patsamba 12]

KUOPSA KWA NTCHITO YOSODZA NKHANU

Usodzi wa nkhanu ungaoneke ngati wosaopsa. Koma bungwe lina loona za chitetezo cha anthu ogwira ntchito linanena kuti usodzi wa nkhanu ndi woopsa. Kuyambira mu 1993 mpaka mu 1997, asodzi 14 pa 100,000 alionse, a m’dera la Maine, omwe anali ndi chilolezo cha boma chopha nkhanu, anafa pomwe ankasodza. Chiwerengero chimenechi ndi chachikulu kwambiri kuposa chiwerengero cha anthu amene amafa pogwira ntchito zina.”—National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

Malinga ndi zimene bungweli linanena, asilikali ena olondera panyanja a dziko la America anachita kafukufuku ndipo anapeza kuti, “nthawi zambiri asodzi a nkhanu akaponya mono m’madzi, amakodwa ndi zingwe zimene amangirira ku mono. Zingwezo zimawakokera m’madzi moti amatha kumira ngati sanathe kudzimasula.” Kuyambira m’chaka cha 1999 mpaka mu 2000, anthu ena anachita kafukufuku pa asodzi 103. Iwo anapeza kuti asodzi atatu pa asodzi anayi alionse anakodwapo ndi zingwe ngakhale kuti ena sanagwere m’madzi. Koma masiku ano boma limalimbikitsa asodzi kuti azisamala kuti asakodwe komanso kuti azikhala ndi zida zimene zingawathandize kudulira zingwe ngati atakodwa n’kugwera m’madzi.

[Zithunzi patsamba 11]

1. Jack akuvuula mono wa nkhanu

2. Annette ndi Jack akutulutsa nkhanu m’mono

3. Akagwira nkhanu iliyonse amaiyeza