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Baibulo ndi Buku la Maulosi Olondola Gawo 2

Baibulo ndi Buku la Maulosi Olondola Gawo 2

 Baibulo ndi Buku la Maulosi Olondola Gawo 2

Tulukani mu Babulo!

Nkhani zokwanira 8 zimene zikhale zikutuluka mu Galamukani!, zizifotokoza maulosi osiyanasiyana a m’Baibulo. Nkhanizi zikuthandizani kupeza mayankho a mafunso awa: Kodi maulosi a m’Baibulo analembedwa ndi anthu kapena pali umboni wakuti analembedwa ndi Mulungu? Kuwerenga nkhanizi kukuthandizani kudziwa zoona zenizeni.

MU NKHANI yoyamba ija tinaona maulosi atatu a m’Baibulo onena za mbewu ya Abulahamu. Tinaona umboni wosonyeza kuti Mulungu anakwaniritsa malonjezo amenewa kudzera mwa mtundu wa Isiraeli, omwe anali mbadwa za Abulahamu.

Ufumu wa Babulo ndi umodzi mwa maufumu amene anakhudza kwambiri mbiri ya Baibulo, makamaka m’zaka za m’ma 600 B.C.E. Tiyeni tione maulosi atatu a m’Baibulo onena za ufumu umenewu, kuti tidziwe ngati maulosiwa analoseredwadi ndi Mulungu.

Mneneri Mose anachenjeza mtundu wa Isiraeli kuti: “Mukadzaiwala Yehova Mulungu wanu, n’kutsatira milungu ina, kuitumikira ndiponso kuigwadira, . . . anthu inu mudzatha.” (Deuteronomo 8:19; 11:8, 9) Komabe Aisiraeli anapitiriza  kupandukira Mulungu mobwerezabwereza polambira mafano.—1 Mafumu 14:22-24.

Patapita nthawi, Mulungu sanawalezerenso mtima ndipo analola kuti mtundu wakewu ugonjetsedwe ndi anthu a ku Babulo. Molamulidwa ndi mfumu ya ku Babulo, Nebukadinezara, yemwenso ankadziwika kuti Nebukadirezara, asilikali a ku Babulo anabwera kudzachita nkhondo ndi Aisiraeli ndipo anazungulira mzinda wa Yerusalemu. Kodi zimene asilikali a ku Babulo anachitazi zinali ndi tanthauzo lililonse? Tiyeni tione zimene mneneri Yeremiya analosera zaka 20 zimenezi zisanachitike.—Yeremiya 25:1.

Ulosi woyamba: “Popeza [Aisiraeli] simunamvere mawu anga [a Mulungu], ndikuitana . . . Nebukadirezara mfumu ya Babulo. . . . Ndikuitana anthu amenewa [a Babulo] kuti aukire dziko lino ndi anthu okhala mmenemo. . . . Dziko lonseli lidzakhala bwinja, chinthu chodabwitsa, ndipo mitundu imeneyi idzatumikira mfumu ya ku Babulo zaka 70.”—Yeremiya 25:8-11.

Kukwaniritsidwa kwake: Atazinga mzinda wa Yerusalemu kwa nthawi yaitali, Nebukadinezara anagonjetsa mzindawu mu 607 B.C.E. Iye anagonjetsanso mizinda ina ya Ayuda kuphatikizapo Lakisi ndi Azeka. (Yeremiya 34:6, 7) Ambiri mwa akapolo amene anawagwira anawatumiza ku Babulo ndipo anakhala kumeneko kwa zaka 70.

Zimene mbiri imasonyeza:

● Baibulo limasonyeza kuti Nebukadinezara ndi amene anali mfumu ya Babulo pa nthawi imene mzinda wa Yerusalemu unkawonongedwa. Zimene akatswiri ofufuza zinthu zakale apeza zimagwirizana ndi zimene Baibulo limanena pa nkhaniyi. Mu mzinda wa Florence, ku Italy, amasungako mwala winawake wakale kwambiri. Pamwalawu pali mawu ena omwe amati: “Mu nthawi ya ulamuliro wake Nebukadinezara, mfumu ya Babulo, mbuye wake wa Merodaki, anapanga chimenechi pofuna kuti azimukumbukira.” Nebukadinezara analamulira kuyambira mu 624 B.C.E. mpaka mu 582 B.C.E.

● Buku lina lofotokoza zochitika za m’Baibulo limanena kuti zinthu zakale zimene akatswiri ofufuza apeza ku Lachish zimatsimikizira kuti, “nkhondo yomalizira kuchitika mumzinda [wa Lakisi] inali yoopsa ndiponso moto umene unatentha mzindawo unali woopsa kwambiri moti miyala imene anamangira mzindawo inanyenyeka n’kusanduka dothi.” –The Bible and Archaeology.

Ulosi wachiwiri: “Zaka 70 zikadzakwanira muli ku Babulo [ine Yehova] ndidzakucheukirani anthu inu [Ayuda amene anali ku ukapolo], ndipo ndidzakwaniritsa lonjezo langa lokubwezeretsani kumalo ano [m’dziko la Ayuda].”—Yeremiya 29:10.

 Kukwaniritsidwa kwake: Ayuda atakhala ku ukapolo zaka 70, kuyambira mu 607 B.C.E. mpaka mu 537 B.C.E., Mfumu Koresi ya ku Perisiya inalamula kuti amasulidwe ndiponso kuti abwerere ku Yerusalemu n’cholinga choti akamangenso kachisi.—Ezara 1:2-4.

Zimene mbiri imasonyeza:

● Kodi Aisiraeli anakhaladi mu ukapolo ku Babulo zaka 70 ngati mmene Baibulo linaloserera? Katswiri wina wa zinthu zakale wa ku Israel, dzina lake Ephraim Stern, ananena kuti: “Umboni ukusonyeza kuti kuyambira mu 604 B.C.E. mpaka mu 538 B.C.E., ku Isiraeli sikunkakhala anthu. Pa nthawi imeneyi, matawuni onse amene asilikali a ku Babulo anawononga anali asanamangidwenso.” Nthawi imene katswiriyu akufotokoza kuti ku Isiraeli kunalibe anthu ikugwirizana ndi nthawi imene Baibulo limanena kuti Aisiraeli anakhala mu ukapolo ku Babulo kuyambira mu 607 B.C.E., mpaka mu 537 B.C.E.—2 Mbiri 36:20, 21.

● Anthu amitundu yosiyanasiyana omwe ankakhala ku Mesopotamiya ankalemba zinthu pogwiritsa ntchito miyala ya dongo. Pali mwala wina womwe unalembedwa cha m’ma 539 B.C.E., chaka chomwenso Mfumu Koresi ya ku Perisiya inagonjetsa ufumu wa Babulo. Pamwalawu pali mawu akuti: “Ine Koresi, . . . Mfumu ya Babulo.” Pamwala umenewu Koresi anapitiriza kuti: “Ndinabwezanso ku mizinda yopatulika [imene anaitchula asananene mawu amenewa], yomwe ili kutsidya lina la mtsinje wa Tigirisi, mafano ndi akachisi omwe akhala osagwiritsidwa ntchito kwa nthawi yaitali. . . . (Komanso) ndinasonkhanitsa anthu onse (amene ankakhala m’mizindayo) ndipo ndinawalamula kuti abwerere kumizinda yawo.”

Mawu amene ali pamwalawu akugwirizana ndi ulosi wa m’Baibulo wonena kuti Ayuda amene anali ku ukapolo adzabwerera kwawo ndipo ulosi umenewu unanenedwa zaka 200 zimenezi zisanachitike.

Ulosi wachitatu: “Babulo, amene ndi chokongoletsera maufumu, chinthu chokongola ndi chonyadira cha Akasidi, adzakhala ngati pamene Mulungu anagonjetsa Sodomu ndi Gomora. M’Babulo simudzakhalanso anthu.”—Yesaya 13:19, 20.

Kukwaniritsidwa kwake: Zinthu zinasintha mwadzidzidzi kwambiri moti ufumu wa Babulo, womwe unali wamphamvu kwambiri padziko lonse, unagonjetsedwa ndi asilikali a Mediya ndi Perisiya mu 539 B.C.E. * Pang’ono ndi pang’ono mzinda wa Babulo unayamba kuchepa mphamvu ndipo pamapeto pake unasanduka bwinja moti ‘sunkakhalidwanso ndi anthu.’—Yeremiya 51:37.

Zimene mbiri imasonyeza:

● Mzinda wa Babulo utawonongedwa, sunapezekenso moti katswiri wina, dzina lake Tom Boiy ananena kuti: “Ngakhale akatswiri a mbiri yakale komanso anthu oona malo a m’zaka za m’ma 1500 mpaka 1700,” omwe ankadziwa zambiri za mzindawu, analephera kuloza “malo enieni amene panali mzindawu.”

● M’chaka cha 1919, munthu wina dzina lake H. R. Hall, amene amayang’anira zinthu zakale za Aiguputo ndi Asuri kumalo osungira zinthu zakale m’dziko la Britain, anafotokoza kuti masiku ano “mzinda wa Babulo unangotsala milu ya makoma a mzindawu amene anagwetsedwa . . . unangotsala dothi lokhalokha.”

Kodi kukwaniritsidwa kwa maulosi amenewa kukutithandiza kumvetsa mfundo yaikulu iti? Yakuti nthawi zonse zimene Baibulo limalosera zimakhala zolondola. Zimene Babulo linalosera zokhudza Yuda ndi Babulo zinakwaniritsidwa ndendende.

Mzinda wa Yerusalemu unawonongedwa chifukwa chakuti anthu ake sanamvere machenjezo a Mulungu oti asiye makhalidwe oipa. Patatha zaka 70 ali mu ukapolo ku Babulo, Aisiraeli analoledwa kubwerera kwawo ku Yerusalemu. Mzinda wa Babulo unawonongedwa mogwirizana ndi zimene Baibulo linanena ndipo mpaka pano sikukhala anthu. Komabe amenewa ndi ena mwa maulosi ambirimbiri amene amapezeka m’Baibulo.

Magazini yotsatira idzafotokoza maulosi onena za zochitika za m’nthawi ya atumwi. Kukwaniritsidwa kwa maulosi amenewo kumatithandizanso kukhulupirira kuti Baibulo ndi lolondola.

[Mawu a M’munsi]

^ ndime 20 Kudakali zaka 200 zimenezi zisanachitike, Yesaya anali ataneneratu kuti ufumu wa Mediya ndi umene udzatsogolere pa nkhondo yogonjetsa Babulo.—Werengani Yesaya 13:17-19; 21:2.

[Tchati pamasamba 12, 13]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

MBIRI YA UFUMU WA BABULO

c. 732 B.C.E.: Yesaya alosera za kuwonongedwa kwa Babulo

(B.C.E.)

647 Yeremiya asankhidwa kuti akhale mneneri

632 Ufumu wa Babulo ugonjetsa ufumu wa Asuri

625 Nebukadinezara ayamba kulamulira

617 Danieli ndi Ezekieli atengedwa kupita ku Babulo

607 Nebukadinezara awononga Ayuda anakhala mzinda wa Yerusalemu mu ukapolo ku Babulo zaka 70

582 Kutha kwa ulamuliro wa Nebukadinezara

539 Amedi ndi Aperisiya agonjetsa ufumu wa Babulo

537 Ayuda omwe anali ku ukapolo aloledwa kubwerera ku Yerusalemu

[Chithunzi patsamba 12]

Zimene makalata a ku Lachish amanena zimagwirizana ndi zimene Yeremiya ananena zofotokoza mmene asilikali a ku Babulo adzagonjetsere Ayuda

[Chithunzi patsamba 13]

Mpukutu wadongo womwe umanena zimene Koresi anachita polola kuti akapolo abwerere kwawo

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 13]

Page 12, Lachish Letter: Photograph taken by courtesy of the British Museum; page 13, Cyrus Cylinder: © The Trustees of the British Museum