Pitani ku nkhani yake

Pitani ku mitu ya nkhani

Mzinda Wodabwitsa Wopangidwa Ndi Mapepala

Mzinda Wodabwitsa Wopangidwa Ndi Mapepala

 Mzinda Wodabwitsa Wopangidwa Ndi Mapepala

MWINA mungadzifunse kuti, ‘Mzinda wa mapepala?’ Inde, koma mzinda umene tikunenawu ndi wongoyerekezera, si weniweni. Dzina la mzinda wongoyerekezerawu ndi Prague, ndipo unapangidwa potengera mzinda weniweni wa Prague, womwe ndi likulu la dziko la Czech Republic. Mzindawu ukusungidwa kumalo osungira zinthu a Prague Municipal Museum. Munthu amene anapanga mzindawu ndi Antonín Langweil. Iye anagwira ntchito yopanga mzindawu kwa zaka 11, kuyambira mu 1826 mpaka mu 1837, chaka chimene anamwalira. Koma n’chiyani chinachititsa kuti Langweil ayambe ntchito yovutayi?

Langweil anabadwa mu 1791 m’tawuni ya Postoloprty, m’dziko limene panopa limadziwika kuti Czech Republic. Anaphunzira luso losindikiza zithunzi pogwiritsa ntchito miyala ku Art Academy ku Vienna, m’dziko la Austria. Atamaliza maphunziro akewo, anatsegula malo osindikizira zithunzi omwe anali oyamba mumzinda wa Prague. Koma chifukwa chakuti sankadziwa kuyendetsa bizinezi, bizinezi yakeyo inagwa. Mu 1826, iye anapita ku chionetsero cha luso la zopangapanga mumzinda wa Prague, ndipo ali kumeneko anaona mzinda wongoyerekezera wa Paris, womwe ndi likulu la dziko la France. Langweil anachita chidwi kwambiri ndi chithunzichi ndipo anaganiza zopanga mzinda wa Prague wongoyerekezera pogwiritsira ntchito zikatoni ndi timitengo ting’onoting’ono.

Poyamba, Langweil anatha zaka zingapo akuyendera mzindawo kuti audziwe bwino. Iye anayenda mumsewu uliwonse n’kumalemba chilichonse chimene waona komanso pamene pali nyumba, mapaki, zipilala komanso mitengo. Analembanso zigubu zimene anaziona, mawindo osweka, makwerero ali pakhoma komanso mitolo ya nkhuni. Kenako anayamba  kupanga mzinda wongoyerekezerawo. Kuti azitha kupeza ndalama, ankapanganso nyumba zongoyerekezera za nyumba za anthu otchuka n’kumawagulitsa.

Mu 1837, Langweil anayamba kudwala chifuwa cha TB ndipo anamwalira mu June chaka chomwecho. Iye anasiya mkazi ndi ana aakazi asanu. Patatha zaka zitatu, mzinda wake woyerekezera uja unakaikidwa ku malo osungira zinthu a Patriotic Museum omwe masiku ano amadziwika kuti National Museum. Kodi ndani anakauika kumeneko? Mu 1840, mkazi wa Langweil anagulitsa mzindawo kwa Mfumu Ferdinand Yoyamba, yomwe inaupereka kumalo osungira zinthu omwe panopa ndi malo osungira zinthu aakulu m’dziko lonse la Czech Republic. Pokaika mzindawo kumaloko, anaunyamula m’mabokosi 9. Patapita nthawi, mneneri wa kumalo osungira zinthu zakale a mu mzinda wa Prague, komwe mzinda woyerekezerawu ukusungidwa anati: “Mzinda umene Langweil anapanga unkaonetsedwa mwa apo ndi apo m’zaka za m’ma 1800. M’chaka cha 1891, mzinda wongoyerekezerawu unali m’gulu la zinthu zoonetsedwa pa chionetsero china m’dzikoli. Pokonzekera chionetsero chimenechi, mzindawo unafunika kukonzedwa ndipo anawononga ndalama zambiri kuti achite zimenezi . . . Kuyambira m’chaka cha 1905 mzindawu unali m’gulu la zinthu zimene zinaikidwa kuti zizionetsedwa kumalo a boma osungira zinthu zakale.”

Akatswiri a Mbiri Yakale Amachita Chidwi ndi Mzindawu

Mzinda wongoyerekezera umene Langweil anapanga ndi wotchuka kwambiri m’mayiko ena. Ndi wautali mamita 5.76 m’litali ndi 3.24 m’lifupi. Unatchingidwa ndi chibokosi chokhala ndi galasi pamwamba ndipo umaoneka wowala chifukwa cha timagetsi timene anatiika kunsi kwa chibokosicho. Munthu ukamaona mzindawu umaona ngati ndi weniweni moti umachita kukumbukira kuti ndi wongoyerekezera chabe. Kunena zoona, inali ntchito yaikulu kuti Langweil apange nyumba zoposa 2,000 zofanana ndendende ndi nyumba za mumzindawo.

Mwachitsanzo, nyumba zimene Langweil analemba pokonzekera kupanga mzindawu anazipatsa manambala. Anapanga magetsi a mumsewu, ngalande zodutsa madzi komanso miyala yopangira misewu. Ndipo iye anapanganso matchalitchi ofanana ndendende ndi matchalitchi amene anali mumzindawo. Matchalitchi a mumzinda woyerekezerawo amaonetsa ngakhale mawindo othimbirira komanso osweka omwe anali m’matchalitchi enieniwo. Mzindawu umasonyezanso nyumba zimene zinachoka pulasitala n’kungotsala njerwa. Iye anasonyezanso mtsinje wa Vltava, womwe unadutsa mumzinda wa Prague.

Anthu akapita kumalo osungira zinthu zakale amachita chidwi kwambiri ndi mzinda woyerekezera umene Langweil anapanga. Koma kuwonjezera pamenepa, mzindawu umakopa chidwi cha anthu aluso la zopangapanga komanso akatswiri a mbiri yakale amene amafuna kudziwa mmene mzinda wa Prague wasinthira. Komabe mbali zina za mzindawu zimaoneka mosiyana ndi mmene mzindawu weniweniwo ulili panopa. Zili choncho chifukwa chakuti mzindawu wakhala ukukonzedwa komanso nyumba zatsopano zakhala zikumangidwa. Mbali ina imene imaoneka yosiyana kwambiri ndi kumene kumakhala Ayuda komanso mbali ina ya Prague yotchedwa Old Town. Chifukwa cha kupita patsogolo kwa zinthu masiku ano, anthu amatha kugwiritsa ntchito kompyuta kuti aone mmene mzinda woyerekeza wa Prague unalili mu 1837.

Mu April 1837, Langweil, yemwe pa nthawiyo ankadwala kwambiri, anapempha kuti mzinda wongoyerekezerawo uikidwe kumalo osungira zinthu amene poyamba ankatchedwa kuti Patriotic Museum, koma akuluakulu a kumalowo anakana. Iye ayenera kuti anakhumudwa kwambiri ndi zimenezi. Koma taganizirani ngati Langweil akanakhala ndi moyo panopa ndipo wapita kumalo osungira zinthu zakalewa kapena kuona pakompyuta mzinda umene anapanga. Mosakayikira bwenzi akusangalala kwambiri podziwa kuti ntchito yake sinapite pachabe.

[Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Antonín Langweil

[Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Mzinda wongoyerekezera wa Prague umene Langweil anapanga

[Chithunzi patsamba 10, 11]

Mmene mzinda wongoyerekezawu umaonekera ukamauonera pafupi

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 10]

Page 10, Langweil: S laskavým svolením Národního muzea v Praze; pages 10 and 11, model photos: S laskavým svolením Muzea hlavního mesta Prahy