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Kodi Zinatheka Bwanji Kuti Chiarabu Chikhale Chinenero cha Anthu Ophunzira Kwambiri?

Kodi Zinatheka Bwanji Kuti Chiarabu Chikhale Chinenero cha Anthu Ophunzira Kwambiri?

 Kodi Zinatheka Bwanji Kuti Chiarabu Chikhale Chinenero cha Anthu Ophunzira Kwambiri?

KWA zaka zambiri, chinenero cha Chiarabu chakhala chikugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi anthu ophunzira kwambiri. Kuyambira zaka za m’ma 700 C.E., anthu ambiri ophunzira olankhula Chiarabu ochokera m’mayiko a ku Middle East anamasulira mabuku a sayansi ndi mabuku ena otchuka amene analembedwa m’nthawi ya Ptolemy ndi Aristotle. Iwo anakonzanso mabukuwo mwina ndi mwina. Zimenezi zinathandiza kuti mabuku akale amene analembedwa ndi anthu anzeru kwambiri kalelo asungidwe.

Ankagawana Nzeru

M’zaka za m’ma 600 C.E. ndi 700 C.E. maufumu atsopano anayamba kulamulira ku Middle East. Kunali maufumu awiri, ufumu wa Umayyad ndi ufumu wa Abbasid. Maufumu atsopanowa anali ndi anthu ambiri ophunzira chifukwa mayiko amene ankawalamulira monga Arabia, Egypt, Palestine, Persia, Iraq ndi chigawo cha Asia Minor anali atatengera zinthu zambiri ku dziko la Greece ndi India. Ufumu wa Abbasid unamanga likulu latsopano ku Baghdad ndipo mzinda umenewu m’kupita kwa nthawi unakhala chimake cha maphunziro komwe anthu ankagawana nzeru. Mumzindawu munali anthu ochokera kuti Armenia, China, Greece, India, Israel, Persia, Turkey, kumpoto kwa Africa ndi anthu ena ochokera ku Central Asia. Anthuwa akakhala pamodzi ankagawana nzeru pokambirana zinthu zosiyanasiyana zasayansi komanso zachikhalidwe.

Olamulira a ufumu wa Abbasid ankalimbikitsa anthu anzeru ochokera kulikonse kuti azimasuka kufotokoza maganizo awo n’cholinga choti ufumuwo upite patsogolo. Panakonzedwa zoti mabuku ambiri asonkhanitsidwe n’kuwamasulira m’Chiarabu. Mabukuwa anali okhudza zinthu monga masamu, mankhwala, nyimbo ndi sayansi.

Caliph al-Manṣūr, yemwe analamulira kuyambira m’chaka cha 754 mpaka mu 775 C.E., anatumiza nthumwi ku dziko la Byzantium kuti akapemphe mabuku a masamu olembedwa ndi akatswiri a ku Greece. Caliph al-Ma’mūn (amene analamulira kuyambira m’chaka cha 813 mpaka mu 833 C.E.) anachitanso chimodzimodzi zomwe zinachititsa kuti kwa zaka zoposa 200, pakhale gulu lomasulira mabuku kuchokera ku Chigiriki kupititsa ku Chiarabu. Pofika m’zaka za m’ma 900, mabuku onse a Chigiriki olembedwa ndi akatswiri asayansi ndi akatswiri ena anali atamasuliridwa m’Chiarabu. Koma sikuti ntchito ya akatswiri amenewa inali kumangomasulira mabuku basi. Iwo ankalembanso mabuku awo.

Anabweretsa Nzeru Zawo

Akatswiri ambiri omasulira a Chiarabu ankamasulira molondola kwambiri komanso mwamsanga. Chifukwa cha zimenezi, akatswiri ena a mbiri yakale  amanena kuti omasulirawo ankadziwa kale zimene ankamasulirazo. Ndipo chochititsa chidwi n’chakuti akatswiri ena ankagwiritsa ntchito mabuku amene anthuwa ankamasulira pochita kafukufuku wawo.

Mwachitsanzo, munthu wina yemwe anali katswiri wa sayansi komanso womasulira mabuku, dzina lake Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq (anabadwa mu 808 n’kumwalira mu 873 C.E.) anathandiza kwambiri pa kafukufuku wokhudza maso. Iye anali Mkhristu wochokera ku Syria ndipo buku limene analemba, lomwe anaphatikizapo zithunzi za diso, linakhala buku lofunika kwambiri kwa akatswiri a maso m’mayiko a ku Ulaya ndi ku Middle East. Munthu winanso wa sayansi dzina lake Ibn Sīnā, yemwe ku mayiko a azungu amadziwika ndi dzina lakuti Avicenna (anabadwa mu 980 n’kumwalira mu 1037 C.E.) analemba mabuku ambirimbiri okhudza zinthu zosiyanasiyana. Mabukuwa anali okhudza makhalidwe, kuganiza mwakuya, mankhwala ndi sayansi yokhudza zinthu zimene timaona. Iye analemba buku limene linkadziwika kuti Canon of Medicine. Bukuli analilemba pogwiritsa ntchito mabuku ena a zamankhwala omwe analipo pa nthawiyo kuphatikizapo mabuku olembedwa ndi anthu otchuka a ku Greece monga Galen ndi Aristotle. Bukuli linakhala likugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi akatswiri azachipatala kwa zaka pafupifupi 400.

Akatswiri ofufuza achiarabu ankatsatira zimene asayansi amachita akafuna kutsimikizira mfundo inayake. Mwachitsanzo, iwo ankayeserera zinthu zingapo pogwiritsa ntchito njira zosiyanasiyana. Zimenezi zinawathandiza kuti awerengetsenso bwinobwino kukula kwa dziko lapansi ndi kukonzanso zimene Ptolemy analemba zokhudza malo osiyanasiyana pa dziko lapansi. Katswiri wina wa mbiri yakale dzina lake Paul Lunde anati: “Iwo ankafufuza ngakhale zimene Aristotle analemba kuti atsimikizire ngati zinali zoona.”

Kupita patsogolo kwa maphunziro kunaonekeranso m’zinthu zosiyanasiyana zimene anapanga monga madamu, ngalande komanso makina oyendera madzi, ndipo zina mwa zinthu zimenezi zidakalipobe. Iwo analembanso mabuku atsopano a zaulimi amene anathandiza kuti alimi azidziwa mbewu zimene zingalole m’madera awo zimene zinachititsa kuti azikolola mbewu zochuluka.

M’chaka cha 805 C.E., m’tsogoleri wina  dzina lake Caliph Hārūn ar-Rashīd anatsegula chipatala chomwe chinali choyamba mu ufumu wake. Pasanapite nthawi yaitali, mzinda uliwonse umene unali m’manja mwake unali ndi chipatala.

Kunakhazikitsidwa Malo Atsopano Ophunzirira

Mizinda yambiri yachiarabu inali ndi malaibulale komanso malo apadera ophunzirira. Ku Baghdad, Caliph al-Ma’mūn anakhazikitsa malo omasulirira mabuku komanso ochitira kafukufuku otchedwa Bait al-Hikma, kutanthauza “Pachimake cha Nzeru.” Ena mwa anthu amene ankagwira ntchito pamenepa anali anthu ophunzira kwambiri. Laibulale yaikulu inali mumzinda wa Cairo. Akuti laibulale imeneyi inali ndi mabuku oposa 1 miliyoni. Ndiponso mumzinda wa Córdoba ku Spain, womwe unali likulu la ufumu wa Umayyad, unali ndi malaibulale okwana 70. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti ana a sukulu komanso anthu ena ophunzira ochokera m’mayiko osiyanasiyana azipita mumzindawu kukaphunzira. Kwa zaka zoposa 200, mzinda wa Córdoba unali chimake cha maphunziro.

Kenako akatswiri a masamu a ku Greece anakumana ndi akatswiri a masamu a ku India ku Persia. Kumeneko akatswiriwa anatulukira njira inayake yolembera manambala. Pogwiritsa ntchito njira imeneyi, nambala imakhala yaikulu kapena yaing’ono potengera malo amene ili. Mwachitsanzo, nambala ya 1 ikhoza kuimira 1, 10 kapena 100 malinga ndi pamene ili. Lunde analemba kuti njira imeneyi “inathandiza kuti kuwerengetsa kukhale kosavuta komanso atulukire njira zinanso zowerengetsera.” Akatswiri a maphunziro achiarabu anatulukiranso njira zina zokhudza masamu ndikuyenda panyanja.

Pa nthawi yomwe mayiko achiarabu ankalimbikitsa kwambiri sayansi ndi masamu, mayiko ena analibe chidwi cholimbikitsa maphunziro. Komabe ku Ulaya, makamaka m’madera momwe munkakhala ansembe, anthu anayesetsa kusunga mabuku amene analembedwa ndi akatswiri ena m’mbuyomo. Koma zimene zinkachitika m’madera amenewa zinali zochepa kwambiri poyerekeza ndi zimene zinkachitika kumayiko achiarabu. Zinthu zinayamba kusintha m’zaka za m’ma 900 C.E. pamene mabuku amene analembedwa ndi anthu ophunzira achiarabu anayamba kupezeka kumayiko a azungu. Zimenezi zinachititsa kuti m’kupita kwa nthawi ntchito za sayansi zipite patsogolo ku Ulaya.

Tikaganizira mbiri yakale, timaona kuti palibe dziko lililonse kapena fuko la anthu limene tinganene kuti ndi limene linachititsa kuti maphunziro a sayansi ndi maphunziro ena apite patsogolo kufika m’mene zilili masiku ano. M’mayiko ena panopa muli anthu ophunzira kwambiri chifukwa chakuti anthu ena m’mbuyomu ankalimbikitsa maphunziro komanso anafufuza zinthu zimene anthu ena kalelo analemba kuti atsimikizire ngati zinali zolondola.

[Mapu patsamba 26]

(Onani m’magazini yeniyeni kuti mumvetse izi)

▪Dera lolamulidwa ndi ufumu wa Umayyad

□Dera lolamulidwa ndi ufumu wa Abbasid

SPAIN

Córdoba

Rome

BYZANTIUM

Constantinople

Mtsinje wa Oxus

Baghdad

Jerusalem

Cairo

PERSIA

ARABIA

[Chithunzi patsamba 27]

Chithunzi cha diso chimene Hunayn ibn Ishaq anajambula

[Chithunzi patsamba 27]

Tsamba limodzi la buku limene Avicenna analemba lotchedwa “Canon of Medicine”

[Chithunzi patsamba 28]

Akatswiri a maphunziro atakumana ku laibulale ya ku Basra, m’chaka cha 1237 C.E.

[Mawu a Chithunzi]

© Scala/White Images/Art Resource, NY

[Mawu a Chithunzi patsamba 27]

Eye diagram: © SSPL/Science Museum/Art Resource, NY; Canon of Medicine: © The Art Gallery Collection/Alamy